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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Effect Of Topical Application Of Anesthetic Agent On Pain Perception Among Patients And Degree Of Difficulty Among Healthcare Providers During Intravenous Cannulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ms. Jingam Karlo, Dr. M.J. Kumari, Ms. H.T. Lalthanthuami


Problem: Intravenous cannulation is one of the key procedures that is performed for patients; however, it causes pain and discomfort. Studies have shown feasibility and efficiency of various anesthetic and analgesic agents to reduce pain but it is still not implemented in daily practice. The current study aims to assess the effect of topical application of an anesthetic agent on the pain perception of patients and degree of difficulty for healthcare professionals. Approach: 120 patients who require intravenous cannulation at an emergency department of a tertiary care center were enrolled usinga consecutive sampling technique for therandomized controlled trial. The intervention group received an application of 2% lignocaine gelfive minutes before the procedure, while,control group received a placebo (ECG gel). After the procedure, the pain score from patients anddegree of difficulty score from the health care professionals were assessed. Inferential analyses were done using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal Wallis test. Findings: There was a significant difference in pain perception between both groups. Participants in the intervention group mostly experienced mild pain or no pain (56.7% and 20% respectively), however, participants in control group mostly experienced moderate pain (56.7%) and severe pain (28.3%). However, there is no significant difference in the degree of difficulty experienced by healthcare professionals for both groups., Conclusion:The use of a topical anesthetic agent like 2% lignocaine gel before intravenous cannulation is recommended to reduce additional pain experienced by patients during the course of their treatment

Yoga on Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Practice Fields of the Training of Relaxation of Yoga: A Systematic Review

Dr.Ritu Parna Mohanty (PT)1, Dr.Priyadarshini Mishra (PT)2


A static, non-progressive lesion in the brain is the underlying cause of cerebral palsy, a pediatric neurological disorder affecting children. Children with this disease will continue to experience its effects throughout their lives.  A multi-centric team strategy is necessary. The majority of cases of causal events happen during the first two years of a child's life. Due to weak muscles, poor coordination, and overly tense muscles, a kid with CP struggles to carry out their daily activities. The most common cause of cerebral palsy in children is stress, which has negative effects on their environment, development, growth, and the people around them. The purpose of this research is to provide some preliminary evidence that yoga, particularly the relaxation techniques used in yoga, can help alleviate some of the tension that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience.


The Need for Legislation on Live-in Relationships in the Present Scenario in India

Sandeep Kumar Sharma1 & Dr. Narendra Bahadur Singh2


Live-in relationships have become increasingly prevalent in India, challenging traditional notions of marriage and family. However, the absence of specific legislation addressing the rights and protections of individuals in such relationships has led to legal uncertainties and vulnerabilities. This research paper examines the pressing need for legislation on live-in relationships in the present scenario in India. It explores the evolving social dynamics, legal lacunae, and practical considerations necessitating legislative intervention to ensure fairness, equality, and justice for individuals in live-in relationships.


Assistive Technology Devices, Daily Living Activities and Developmental Levels of Students with Physical Disabilities in Biology in Oyo State, Nigeria

Dorcas Omolara Oyawole1 (Ph.D), Olatunbosun Emmanuel Ogunseemi2 (Ph.D), Lawal Babatunde Yusuf3 & Kareem Saliu Adeyemi4


This study was designed to investigate the Assistive Technology Device, Daily Living Activities and Developmental Level of the Student with Physically Impaired Student in biology class in selected special school in Oyo state. This study made use of structured questionnaire in gathering the opinion of the participants in the sampled schools. Total numbers of 30 students were selected from three different schools in this study; the instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which was administered personally by the researchers. The method used for data analysis is Chi Square to examine the findings. It was recommended that, government should provide adequate funding to improve availability and affordability of assistive technology for children with disabilities, curriculum developers should enable students with disabilities access to all conventional policies, systems and services (for example, health facilities, schools, transportation and playgrounds) through assistive technology and accessibility measures as required, Government and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) should include access to assistive technology in the education policy and programmers among others.


Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on Occupational Stress and Sleep Quality of Corporate Workers - A Pilot Study

Ms. Parichiti Saha & Ms. Disha Rakshit


Background: Occupational stress is the work-related stress caused due to excessive physical and psychological strain in workplaces resulting from increased demand and workload on the employees that cause deterioration of physical health as well as cognitive faculties leading to psychosomatic disorders, anxiety, depression, frustration and poor sleep quality. Through recent studies, it has been found that several yogic techniques such as Asanas, pranayamas, chantings and meditations have been beneficial in reducing the stress mechanism caused due to Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activation and inducing good sleep by restoring the natural circadian rhythm.Objective: To investigate the effect of Bhramari pranayama on occupational stress and sleep quality based on Workplace Stress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Methodology: Eleven participants working in corporate sectors were recruited for the study using a convenience sampling technique. The research design was single group pre and post-study. Their age ranged between 20 to 40 years, belonging to both male and female genders. At the baseline, data was collected, followed by the post data after 15 days of practice of Bhramari pranayama for 30 minutes daily, using the Workplace stress scale and Perceived stress scale to measure Occupational stress and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for assessing the sleep quality.    Results: This study shows that after 15 days of practice of Bhramari pranayama, there was a reduction in stress level observed based on the Workplace stress scale (with a p-value of 0.004) and Perceived stress scale (p-value = 0.002). A significant improvement is observed in the sleep quality noted with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion: The present study has shown that Bhramari pranayama was found to be effective in reducing the Occupational stress of Corporate workers with an improvement in their sleep quality index after practising for 15 days. Moreover, further research on clinical implications is suggested based on these preliminary results.


Evaluating the Soundness of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia: Rating and Ranking the Performance by Using CAMEL Framework

Parneet Kaur & Kebrysfaw Getahun


This research tries to critically evaluate the soundness of Ethiopian commercial banks by using CAMEL framework, the most compressive method suggested by bank supervisory institutions. Audited Financial report from 2012-2023 and Guidelines from the central bank of Ethiopia and the Basel committee were used to determine and rate banks based on the five important parameters of the framework. Accordingly,17 commercial banks which are established before 2013 were rated and compared by using each parameter separately and by applying composite rating. The industry average rating of 1 in capital adequacy ratio shows that Ethiopian commercial banks are sound in having strong capital foundation which can enables them to withstand any shocks and fluctuations in the economy. The result also reveals that they possess quality asset which is an indication of strong loan administration practice. The industry average of 3 in management efficiency, earning quality and liquidity performance of the banks is an indication of the need for improvement and moderate supervisory intervention in these parameters.  Apart form 7 banks, the average composite rating of the remaining banks shows satisfactory level of performances during these sample periods.   


Emerging Need to Study Acoustic and Biomarkers (EEG) in Predicting Substance Use Relapse: A Brief Report

Nandita Chaube* & Azizuddin Khan**


The current study aims to highlight specific voice parameters which could be seen more prominently in the cases of substance use relapse as compared to the non-relapse cases. The current study tries to present the possibilities of relapse in the cases of substance use based on voice samples. As literature suggests a strong correlation of neural markers in substance use, current study also considers EEG excerpt as a biomarker to postulate, strengthened and substantiate findings. The major aim of the study is to explore accuracy of Layered Voice Analysis (LVA) as an objective tool in predicting its clinical utility.


A Cross Cultural Exploration of Marriage, Dowry/Lobola and Related Societal Attitudes

Nandita Chaube* & Ntombizodwa Octavia MbaliNtuli**


This study delves into the meaning of marriage within the Indian and South African context, examining the cultural, legal, and social dimensions. It aims to elucidate the intricacies of dowry practices in India, despite the controversies and tragedies associated with it. Additionally, the research explore the concept of lobola, prevalent in Southern Africa, which refers to the bride’s price and it’s significance in marriage customs as well as societal attitude towards dowry.


Revolutionizing Optometric Care: The Paradigm Shift towards Telemedicine in Ocular Health Management

Steffy Johnson Moptom


Rapid technological advancements in digital imaging, telecommunications, and data analytics have fueled advances in teleoptometry. Thanks to these developments, teleoptometry platforms can do remote eye exams, diagnose eye diseases, renew prescriptions, and even provide vision therapy sessions in an efficient and effective manner. Furthermore, automated screening for a variety of eye disorders has been made possible by the fusion of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms, which has improved diagnostic accuracy.Teleoptometry has potential advantages, but there are a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can be widely used and accepted. A major worry is the absence of legal frameworks controlling teleoptometry procedures, which creates ambiguity about liability, licensing, and payment matters. Furthermore, patient confidentiality and adherence to healthcare laws depend on the privacy and security of patient data on teleoptometry platforms. In addition, inequalities in digital literacy and technology access may prevent some groups from fully utilizing teleoptometry services, especially the elderly or those from low-income backgrounds.In conclusion, by removing barriers related to geography, increasing accessibility, and improving patient outcomes, teleoptometry has the potential to completely transform the way that eye care services are delivered. However, in order to fully realize the promise of teleoptometry and guarantee its inclusion into mainstream eye care practice, it is imperative to address technological, ethical, and legal hurdles. Policymakers, medical professionals, IT companies, and patient advocacy organizations must work together to overcome these obstacles and capitalize on teleoptometry's revolutionary potential to improve eye health globally. This provides an overview of teleoptometry, highlighting its advancements, applications, and challenges in delivering remote eye care services.



Emerging Role of E-leadership: A PLS-SEM Analysis

Sanchari Sinha


Purpose: Globalization, Industry 4.0 and COVID 19 pandemic has led to a change in the business environment thereby inculcating a shift towards smart or remote mode of working. The application of technology has led to the concept of E-leadership. The purpose of this paper is to study the factors influencing the role of E-leaders and their impact on organization performance. The findings provide organizations to be future ready with technological advancement and help gain competitive market advantage.Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative approach was used in this study. Data was gathered by a survey instrument and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to investigate the model which was applied to 482 responses. The model explained 41.4 percent variation of major constructs in relation to organization performance with the implementation of E-leadership.  Findings: Organization culture is the most influential factor followed by Collaboration and Digitalization towards the role of E-leaders. Mutual respect received the highest loadings among organization culture, common goals align with employee expectations among collaboration, facilitate processes that encourage employees to transition to technology roles among digitalization and develop a clear action plan for change initiatives among the E-leadership construct. The results reflect the role of E-leadership on organization performance. Research limitations/ implications: The model proposed in this study is not confined geographically and thus could be explored in different demographic settings. Practical implications: The study will guide organizations to identify the factors that strongly influence the role of E-leaders and as a consequence provide deep insights while formulating their strategy pertaining to the implementation of E-leadership. 

Impact of Green Banking Strategy on Paper Based Instruments in Banking

1Ms. Smitha S & 2Dr. Ramesh Chandrahasa


Green Banking is the need of hour and its importance lies from the fact that the world is moving towards digitalization. Asdigitalization is taking its pace, paper based instruments are being used very less. Due to less use of paper based instruments in banking sector, banks have initiated using Green Banking Strategy. One of the green banking strategies is utility of electronic mode of doing transactions. This will help in making the banking transactions at ease. Utility of electronic mode in banking will help in reducing the burden of manufacturing paper to a greater extent. This extent would help in reducing the deforestation and would boost the strategy of green banking. Green banking would help in recovering the environmental problems to an extent. In this regard, utility of electronic transactions would help in strategizing the Green Banking. After the initiation of Green Banking strategy whether the impact has been created or not has to be checked. This paper deals with study on what was the impact of green banking strategy on paper based instruments where green banking strategy means less utility of paper based instruments and more utility of electronic mode of banking operations.


Screening for Amblyopia in Children Attending the Tertiary Care Hospital in Uttarakhand

Dr. Vatsala Vats, Dr. Divija Arora, Dr. Parijat Bhramaresh Sharma


Topic - Screening for amblyopia in children attending the tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand, Background: Amblyopia needs timely intervention to preserve, and improve the presenting vision. The present study seeks to determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its distribution among children visiting a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand. Material and Method: The study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital on children below twenty years of age. All children visiting the eye department were assessed for vision, and those found with difference of two or more lines between two eyes, or with vision less than 6/9 in either eye was screened out.  These children were further evaluated to rule out any organic or pathological causes for decreased vision. Subjects with amblyopia were then classified into different categories as per their ocular parameters. Results: Out of 4280 cases screened, there were 138 cases of amblyopia. Females had more Amblyopia than male and the difference was statistically insignificant. The relation between Anisometropic, High Ametropic, Meridional Amblyopia were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: This study is useful in comprehending the current visual status of children. It would also help in improvising screening programs and promote awareness.


Bio-Based Synthesis of Salvadora Persica Stem Extracts Silver Nanoparticles and Investigation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity

Deepak Sharma1, Mandheer Kaur 1*,Renuka Sharma, Harjodh Singh1, Chaitnyajit Singh1 , Palki Sahib Kaur1


This study presents a novel and green approach for the synthesis and stabilisation of silver nanoparticles (M_AgNPs) using a water-based stem extract of Salvadora persica. As evidenced by the development of a brownish-yellow colour, the biosynthesis of green synthesised M_AgNPs was further investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and ATR analysis (attenuated total reflectance). M_AgNPs were discovered to be spherical and 52 ±2 nm in size after SEM and DLS investigation. Zeta potential of -31mV supported M_AgNPs' stability. Additionally, they showed inhibitory zones against S. aureus and E. coli of 12.5 mm and 13.5 mm, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the MIC of M_AgNPs for S. aureus (MTCC 25923) and E. coli (MTCC 25922) were 6.0 g/ml and 6.7 g/ml, respectively. This indicates that the plant mediated M_AgNPs depict positive response for antibacterial activity. Therefore, these may be developed as novel medicines for the treatment of bacterial infections, particularly those that are multi-drug resistant.


Online Teaching and Effective Practices in Digital Era in India: A Comprehensive Analysis

Dr. Delliswararao Konduru


The Greek philosopher Plato said that, “Education helps in the comprehensive development of every individual. It gives knowledge to take the decisions for the fulfilment of their responsibilities”. Education is helps to acquire the knowledge and helps to cultural transmission, it is essential for human’s inclusive and sustainable development.  The United Nations Organisation’s-(UNOs) Sustainable Development Goal-(SDGs) number four; is explaining that, the "quality education" is necessary to every individual on earth. But; due to the various factors, it is not reached to the all the people across the world. The emergence of online teaching has revolutionized education worldwide, including India. With the rapid advancement of technology and increased internet accessibility, online teaching has become an integral part of the Indian education system. The online education and teaching is bridging the geographical and economical barriers, in developing countries like India. Here some of the challenges are escalated with the online teaching and education, like mental stress and technological glitches. However, the present study is used a Secondary Data Resources, and it is analysis as a Methodology, the data was collected from the different sources, including government, non-governmental reports and scholarly articles. Primary Objective of the paper is, to understanding the online education and it is theoretical concepts. Second aim of the present paper is, to talk about the weakness and strategies of the online education in India. Final objective of the study is, to talk about the effective measures for better online education in India.


An Empirical Study on the Function of Leadership in Fostering Organizational Sustainability

Anwesha Mukherjee


Every organization needs effective leadership in order to survive in the global marketplace.  The speed at which change is occurring in our lives today highlights the significance of developing new leadership abilities that combine pragmatism and a broad perspective. In order to address these changes in the labor market, employment relations, and society at large, sustainable HRM has been implemented recently. Viewed as a continuation of strategic HRM, sustainable HRM offers a fresh perspective on people management with an emphasis on long-term resource development, renewal, and rejuvenation. Viewed as a continuation of strategic HRM, sustainable HRM offers a fresh perspective on people management with an emphasis on long-term resource development, renewal, and rejuvenation. In contrast to mainstream HRM, the characteristics of sustainable HRM are less evident. In contrast to mainstream HRM, the characteristics of sustainable HRM are less evident.  There is a greater motivation for firms to report on their sustainability actions in response to the growing public awareness of the significance of organizational contributions to sustainable development. Alongside this, there have also been the emergence of "sustainable HRM," which incorporates a growing corpus of scholarly and practitioner work linking HRM and corporate sustainability A new era in the history of leadership—known as "sustainable leadership"—is brought about by this entirely new idea of leadership. Every organization is gradually being forced to adopt sustainable practices, which pushes managers to broaden their perspectives and develop into sustainable leaders. A new and expanded understanding of the role of leaders in addressing sustainable challenges through the creation of an inclusive, collaborative, and reflective leadership process that leads to sustainable competitiveness is made possible in large part by sustainability education. In addition to concentrating on their bottom line, today's businesses also retain a sustainable competitive advantage by managing their internal resources in addition to external economic, environmental, and social variables. It is seen as an all-encompassing collection of guidelines and initiatives that are incorporated into supply chains, business operations, and decision-making procedures across the board to give the organization a long-term, competitive advantage. In order to understand the concept of sustainable competitive advantage, this paper focuses on the empirical explanations found in the literature on leadership. Specifically, it discusses how leadership practices can effectively create a sustainable culture within an organization and how this can lead to change within and around Indian IT organizations based in Kolkata.


"Mystery of Premature Greying of Hairs: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Ayurvedic Perspective''

Dr. Sameer Joshi


Background: Premature greying of hair is a phenomenon more and more found amongst more youthful people, posing now not simplest beauty concerns but also ability implications for typical fitness and properly-being. The present day way of life, characterized via pressure, bad dietary behavior, and environmental factors, is assumed to contribute significantly to this fashion. Understanding the etiology and figuring out preventive techniques for premature greying is important in addressing this rising difficulty. Ayurveda, the historic Indian machine of medication, gives a holistic attitude on health and sickness, supplying precious insights into the underlying causes of premature greying and capacity interventions. Objective: This systematic review targets to discover Ayurvedic views on premature greying of hair, investigating the causative factors and preventive measures endorsed by this traditional system of drugs.  Methods: A systematic search of classical Ayurvedic texts, which includes Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and present day research literature, became performed. The seek method centered on figuring out studies that elucidated the connection between way of life elements, dietary habits, intellectual nicely-being, and environmental affects, and untimely greying of hair. Key Findings: Ayurveda attributes premature greying of hair to disturbances in lifestyle practices, intellectual strain, and imbalances within the Doshas (organic humors). According to Ayurvedic standards, preventive measures for untimely greying consist of nutritional adjustments, stress management strategies, and using natural remedies to balance the Doshas and promote usual health. Implications: Integrating Ayurvedic ideas into contemporary healthcare practices may additionally provide holistic methods to mitigate untimely greying of hair and sell overall well-being. By addressing the root causes of untimely greying and adopting preventive measures recommended by Ayurveda, people can probably delay the onset of untimely greying and preserve healthy hair and energy.


Effect of Microfinance Banks on Small Businesses Growth in Nigeria

1Yusuf Wasiu A.,E. O. 1Oyegoke, B. A.2Adewumi, T. 1Moronfolu, T. D. 1Adisa & A. D. 1Nuhu


Small businesses in Nigeria confront a significant challenge in accessing necessary funds, hindering their potential for growth and development. Recognizing this hurdle, the financing of small businesses by Microfinance Banks has emerged as a pivotal component of the government's economic policies. These institutions focus on deposit mobilization within their areas of operation, extending microcredits or overdrafts to customers who lack access to conventional banking services.Small Business Growth is the dependent variable, while microfinance deposits, microfinance institution size, and microfinance loans constitute the independent variables. Utilizing monthly secondary time series data from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin spanning from 2006 - 2021, the study employed the Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) Technique. The Unit Root test indicated the suitability of employing the ARDL estimation technique given the stationarity nature of the variables.Findings revealed a significant but negative impact of microfinance banks on the short-term expansion of small businesses, yet a positive and noticeable effect over the long term. Furthermore, the study indicated that the size of microfinance institutions holds minimal influence on the long-term success of small businesses. Interestingly, microfinance loans exhibited a negative and significant effect on short-term growth but demonstrated a positive and significant impact in the long term.Based on the outcomes, policymakers and microfinance institutions should focus on effective deposit mobilization and establish sustainable long-term financing models for small businesses. Prioritizing microfinance service quality over institution size is advised. Government policies should encourage high-quality financial services, emphasizing timely and affordable credit, savings, insurance, and other relevant products. Finally, fostering responsible lending practices is crucial, requiring robust screening, monitoring mechanisms, suitable interest rates, repayment terms, and financial education for borrowers to ensure effective utilization of loans without burdening small businesses.


Impact of Official Development Assistance on the Quality of Economic Sectors in Nigeria

*1Oladipo, Olajide. S., Ukeje Marie C., Yusuf Wasiu. A.


Official statistics reveals that large swings have remained a consistent trend in official development Assistance in Nigeria but its influence on economic development is yet to be fully investigated. The study adopted an ex post facto research design, with the data covering all the sectors of the economy and spanning 2000-2020; a period of 21 years. A dynamic Panel ARDL estimation technique is preferred for the analysis given by Pesaran and Shin (2003). The Hausman test indicated preference to Pool Mean Group (PMG) estimator to determine possible homogenous effect. The findings revealed that development assistance improves the overall economic growth by 0.014 percent and 0.076 percent in the long-run and short-run respectively. However, in the health sector, there is an indication of 0.276 percent increase in economic growth as result of official development assistance while the educational sector experienced 0.71percent all things being equal. It is therefore recommended that the health and educational ministries should be transparent enough to boost confidence of donors.


Selfsustained Treadmill

Pushpa Gothwal1*, Ajay Kumar2


This paper discussed the concept of self-sustained treadmill using physical activity of humans. During the step-by-step walking on treadmill calories burned and using this concept can power up the treadmill.  It also incorporated the power optimization using installation of PZT tiles on treadmill and prototype model also incorporated in the study. The deployment of PZT-based tiles is crucial, coupled with the use of available renewable energy sources. According to this viewpoint, the purpose of this study is to determine the power optimization (PO) using tile deployment in treadmills. This power can be utilized to power up the treadmill and other equipment of the gym.  In accordance with the frequency of movement among the various places of gym and equipment more energy can be generated to power up the gym equipment. In the study Linear regression (LR) machine learning techniques employed for power optimization of treadmill. These techniques are used to optimize tile power in relation to sensor quantity and subject weight. The data was acquired using the gym. Two alternative statistical criteria (MSE and accuracy) are discussed in the paper to assess the efficacy of these algorithms. Model accuracy was expected to range from 0.93 to 0.9946 by the MSE of models. In conclusion, the present paper is reporting that the LR algorithm can be used for the tile deployment on a suitable place of gym. The tile deployment was also anticipated by the LR algorithm, and as a result, the tile could be placed on the treadmill because the frequency of movement is more as compared to other places.


Appraisal for Permutation of Bonwill-Hawley Arch Form for the Current Trends

Dr. Priti Shukla, Dr. Gyan P. Singh, Dr. Naveen M


In the mid-1960s, Dr. George Newman introduced the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Either in banding or bonding, the arch wire is configured to a specific arch form.Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate differences (if any) between the Bonwill-Hawley arch form for banding and bonding. Methodology: The difference between the two arch lengths was calculated to observe any changes from the ideal Bonwill-Hawley arch form for banding. Results: A difference of one millimetre was obtained between the two arch lengths. Conclusion: The Bonwill-Hawley arch form for bonding should have an addition of one millimetre to the total mesiodistal width of the four incisors and two-thirds of the mesiodistal width of the canine rather than the extra 3mm as proposed during banding of teeth.


Empirical Investigation into the Value Relevance of Financial Statements: A Study on Selected S&P BSE Energy Listed Companies

Rahul Pal1 & Anshika Mishra2


When it comes for accounting information to be helpful in decision-making, it is critical that it be relevant to the process and have a significant link with stock prices or returns. The present study examines the path of the accounting information derived by companies included in the S&P BSE Energy Index sample between FY-2017 and FY-2021 in terms of its aggregate, single, and incremental value relevance. According to the findings, accounting information can be valuable for firms listed on the BSE. The overall value and significance of accounting information as measured by book value per share and earnings per share The study's results indicated that in the S&P BSE Energy Index sample, earnings per share and book value per share independently had a significant impact on stock prices; the value relevance of accounting information significantly affects share prices, specifically the market price; and there exists a strong correlation between the value relevance of accounting information and book value. However, the significance of EPS and BVPS in terms of aggregate value has decreased significantly.


Advances in Skin Lesion Classification and Nodule Detection: A Review of Deep Learning and Machine Learning Models

*Mrs. Azmath Mubeen1, Prof.Uma N.Dulhare2


Recent advancements in computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning have stimulated anintensifiedconcern for developing effective approaches for the early detection and treatment of dermatological illnesses involving skin lesions. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art techniques for detecting, segmenting, and classifying skin lesions, which are crucial for timely intervention and improved patient outcomes. By examining into the challenges associated with physical inspection, the review underscores the importance of leveraging automated methods for skin lesion analysis in healthcare settings.The primary objective of this review is to accurately identify and classify various types of skin lesions, utilizing a range of image formats such as dermoscopic and macroscopic images. By critically examining recent research articles focused on skin lesion classification, the survey puts light on the several methods employed in various publications, with a particular importance on the role of deep learning techniques. Deep learning, a subset of machine learning, has emerged as a powerful tool in this domain due to its proficiency to automatically learn hierarchical representations from data, leading to improved implementation in complicated tasks such as image classification.This survey highlights the benefits and drawbacks of different machine learning and deep learning approaches for skin lesion classification. By integrating and assessing the latest research findings, it aims to provide visions into the current state of the subject and identify areas for further improvement. The integration of machine learning and deep learning techniques in dermatology holds immense capability for enhancing diagnostic accuracy, facilitating early detection, and ultimately improving patient care. Therefore, this survey acts as a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and healthcare professionals seeking to use cutting-edge technologies for skin lesion analysis and diagnosis.


Optometry and Eye Protection: A Review of Current Practices and Recommendations for Enhanced Safety Measures

Steffy Johnson Moptom


Across all industries, ensuring occupational safety is a top issue. This thorough analysis looks at how safety procedures are currently implemented in a variety of professions and makes suggestions for improving security protocols to shield employees from possible risks. The first part of the study summarizes the body of research on occupational safety, including studies that look into the frequency of occupational illnesses, injuries, and fatalities in a variety of industries. In addition to physical, chemical, biological, and ergonomic risks, it lists common risk factors and hazards that are present in various vocations. The study assesses how well current safety measures mitigate workplace risks by using insights from occupational health and safety rules and standards. It evaluates how engineering controls, administrative controls, training programs, and personal protective equipment (PPE) are used in various professional situations.The study also examines organizational and interpersonal factors that may affect safety performance, as well as difficulties in adhering to and enforcing safety standards. It emphasizes how crucial it is to develop a culture of safety and take preventative action in order to advance the health and wellbeing of employees.The evaluation offers a set of recommendations for improving safety measures in all occupations, based on an amalgamation of evidence-based treatments and best practices. These suggestions cover methods to strengthen risk assessment and hazard identification, to improve safety program design and implementation, and to promote cooperation between workers, employers, and government agencies.In its conclusion, this research emphasizes how important it is to place a high priority on workplace safety as a pillar of ethical and sustainable business operations. Organizations may improve productivity, morale, and general well-being by establishing strong safety measures and taking a proactive approach to risk management. This will make work environments safer and healthier for all employees.


Effect of Hand-Held Percussion Massage vs Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Young Adults -Randomised Clinical Trial

Dr. Anil Muragod, Ms. Javiriya Mainuddin


Background: Flexibility is regarded as a necessary component of normal biomechanical function. Tight hamstrings put an individual into risk of recurrent injury. The prevalence of hamstring tightness is very high in college going students among the age group of 18-25years. Hamstring tightness is not only a cause of limited range of motion, but it can also lead to a variety of other musculoskeletal issues. One of the most common complaints associated with hamstring tightness is hamstring strain. Objectives: To compare the effect of hand-held percussive massage versus instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization(IASTM) on hamstring muscle flexibility in young adults. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted on 100 subjects aged between 19-29 years of all genders, in which the subjects were divided in two groups namely, group-A and group-B which received treatment with hand-held percussive massage and IASTM respectively. The outcome measures i.e., Sit and reach test, active knee extension test and passive knee extension test were performed prior and post 1st session and post 6 sessions of intervention. Results: This study resulted that both the groups showed improvement, but active knee extension was found to be significant in parameters of outcome measures in accordance with the group-B who received treatment with IASTM compared to another group. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the interventions given to group A and B using hand-held percussive massage and IASTM respectively, both were found equally effective. Whereas, group-B was more effective than group-A in term of active knee extension test and passive knee extension test.


Motivation of Female Students to Equal Gender Ratio in the Study of Automobile Trade in Nigerian Technical Colleges

Ohwojero Chamberlain Joseph (Ph.D)


The motivation of girls in the study of automobile trade in the technical colleges in Nigeria is challenging. The population of boys are more than the number of girls. To improve the population of girls in the study of automobile trade in the technical colleges they have to be motivated; by granting them scholarship and changing their teaching methods, by adopting 3D  animation for students to see, feel and touch what they are being taught, to make them understand and comprehend what they are taught in the classroom. One research question was raised to guide the study and one hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. All the students studying automobile trade in the two different technical colleges were used in the study from the two different states Edo and Delta. The instrument used was questioner, it was administered to the students and data was collected. The data was analysed using T-test for the research question and analysis of covariance was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significant to know the difference. Five findings were made by the researcher and four recommendations were given. Conclusions were made and suggestions were given.


Characterization Studies on Photo Ponductance, Dielectric Studies and Homo Lumo Analysis of Synthezed of 4 Nitrophenol Single Crystal

S. Ayyappan & Gokila A


A comprehensive characterization of single-crystal 4-nitrophenol (4NP) was conducted using a multi-technique approach. The crystal's structure and crystallinity were confirmed through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to assess the vibration modes of functional groups. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy provided insights into the crystal's optical properties. Thermal stability was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric and photoconductance tests were conducted to assess electrical properties. Second harmonic efficiency, found to be 7.81 times greater than standard KDP, was measured to understand nonlinear optical behavior. Photoluminescence studies were performed to explore light emission properties. Additionally, investigations into HOMO-LUMO energy levels and first hyperpolarizability were conducted to further characterize the crystal's electronic structure and nonlinear optical potential of the 4-nitrophenol samples.


Lip Reading Using Connectionist Temporal Classification

Mala B M; Meghana K; Adhira M Nair; Sparsha B; Lekhana M


Lip-reading is the responsibility of decoding text from the movement of a speaker’s mouth. Lip-reading system takes video without audio as an input of a speaker speaking some word or phrase and provides the anticipated word or phrase as output. This is exceedingly beneficial for hearing impaired individuals to understand the movement of the mouth of a speaker who do not know sign language in the physical world with a lot of noise pollution. Conventional methods have concentrated mostly on bulk preprocessing. Regardless of showing immense potential, application of deep learning algorithms has been minimal in this field. Here we expose a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model to anticipate words from video without the audio. Lip-reading system also uses an attention-based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) along with Convolution neural network (CNN). The trained lip-reading model is evaluated based on the accuracy to anticipate words. Moreover, we examine challenges and limitations associated with deep learning-based lip reading, including data scarcity, variations in lighting conditions, speaker-dependent variability, and occlusions. To address these limitations and improve system performance, we propose the adoption of ensemble learning techniques in future iterations. This research contributes to the advancement of lip-reading technology, particularly beneficial for hearing-impaired individuals navigating noisy environments where sign language is impractical. By harnessing deep learning methods, we aim to enhance accuracy and efficiency, thereby improving accessibility and communication for diverse populations.


Abisinwin or Mareje?: Reducing Stigmatisation of Postpartum Disorder among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria.

Olusegun Olakunle OLANIYI, Ph.D Prof. Abimbola Omotayo ADESOJI , Timothy Alabi, Ph.D, Mr. Iyanu-Oluwa A. AYODELE


Although the opinion by many is that there is nothing in a name, hence, the popular saying or rhetorical question “what’s in a name? However, it is generally known and agreed that names are important as they not only show the identity of a person, object or thing but also define the characteristics that will be exhibited by such person or object hence, a major determinant of the perception of such person or thing. Name therefore defines a person or object. Postpartum depression among the Europeans has undergone various names transformation or change over the years. However, among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria, the name has remained the same since the disorder became known among them. Recently, some have opined that this name is derogatory for an ailment that affects an important segment of the human population, the female folks. Using the causal theory of names theory, this article attempts a reconstruction of the name abisinwin through examination of the impacts of the name on the patient both during and after the ailment and how it tends to stigmatise a person. In doing this, the study made use of both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary sources included oral interviews and archival materials while the secondary sources include books, journal articles and the internet. The article argues for a reconsideration of the name abisinwin given to Postpartum depression among the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria with a view to reducing the stigmatisation it causes among the affected people.


Ole of Cyclocryotherapy for Painful Blind Eye at Tertiary Care Hospital in Uttrakhand

Dr. Manisha Gupta, Dr. Priyanka Gupta, Dr. Vatsala Vats, Dr. Rajyeshwar Singh


Introduction:-Aim of the study was to overview the cost-effectiveness of cyclocryotherapy in patients of painful blind eye of glaucoma OPD patients. Materials and methods: -Twenty patients of painful blind eye from glaucoma clinic, who underwent cyclocryotherapy, were included in the study. Were corded the demographic & clinical details. Patient underwent complete ocular examination including visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP) , anterior segment examination on slit lamp & fundus examination (ifocular media is clear). Paired sample t-test was used to compare pre and post cyclo IOP at 3months. Results :- The mean age of 20 patients was 57.2± 14.5 years; male: female ratio was 0.8:1.Patient were mainly from rural areas (70%). The mean pre treatment IOP in all patients was 41.35±10.76 mmHg and 18.22±6.49 mmHg at 3 month follow-up. Thus, there was significant reduction in IOP post cyclocryotherapy (p<0.001). Conclusion :-In the current era of drastic innovations, cyclocryotherapy still stands the test of time in context to palliative care for patients of painful blind eye in our glaucoma clinics.


Effect of Leadership Styles on Employee Performance in Bayelsa Specialist Hospital, Yenagoa, Nigeria

Stanley Nwannebuife Ajalie, Ph.D, Abel Ehizojie Oigbochie, Ph.D, Awe Emmanuel Omoniyi, Ph.D


This study examined the effect of leadership styles on employee performance of Bayelsa Specialist Hospital in Yenagoa, Bayelsa,Nigeria. Leadership is a fundamental part of any organisation and is extremelyinfluential in determining the cost-effectiveness, development, growth, stability and imminent success of an organisationparticularly when dealing with employees whose performance levels can to a great extent be affected positively or negatively by the style of leadership an organization employs.This study utilized a descriptive research design. A sample size of 276 employees of the Bayelsa specialist hospital were chosen at random using practical sampling methods. The instrument used for data collection in this study was a structured questionnaire. Data was analysed using multiple regression analysis via the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Findings from the study revealed that Leadership styles have a significant effect on employee performance at (R=.986, R2=.972 at p=0.000). The statistical findings show that the independent variable (leadership styles) measured using transformational and transactional leadership styles accounts for 97.2% of variations in the dependent variable (employee performance) which was measured using efficiency.The study recommends that appropiate leadership training programs should be provided to enhance leadership skills and promote effective leadership styles within the hospital. This would help foster a positive work environment that encourages open communication, teamwork and employee engagement. Hence, an organisation in a bid to attain success in sustaining a competitive advantage over its competitors as well as boost employee morale and performance levels must be cautious of the kind of leadership style it applies to adequately motivate its workforce


A Research Review and Perspective towards Plant Leaf Disease Detection using Image Processing Techniques

Amrita Arjun Kindalkar, Dr. J.Venkata Krishna


Plant Leaf Disease (PLD) detection is helpful for several fields like Agriculture Institute and Biological Research. The country’s economic growth depends on the productivity of the agricultural field. Recently developed models based on deep learning give more accurate and precise results over the detection and classification of PLD while evolving through image processing approaches. Many image processing are used for the identification and classification of PLD. The quality of agricultural products is mainly affected by several factors like fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Thesefactors severely destroy the entire growth of the plant. Hence, some outperformed models are needed to detect and identify the severity level of plant diseases yet, the identification requires more time and has astruggle to identify theappropriate type of disease based on its symptoms. Therefore, several automatic detection and classification models are developedto avoid the time complexity. Computerized image processing approaches are utilized for crop protection, which analyzes the color information of leaves from the collected images. Hence, image processing techniques play an important role in the identification and classification of PLD. It gives more advantages by lowering the task of illustrating crops on large farms and detecting the leaf diseases at theinitial stage itself based on the symptoms of the plant leaves. While implementing a new model, there is a need to study various machine and deep learning-based structures for PLD detection approaches. This research work provides an overview of variousheuristic approaches, machine learning, and deep learning models for the detection and classification of PLD. This research work also covers the various constraints like PLD detection tools, performance measures, datasets used, and chronological review. Finally, the research work explores the research findings and also the research gaps with future scope.


An Exploration of the Impact of Financial Risk on the Financial Performance of Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (2015-2023)

John Agbana, Assoc. Prof. Umar Abbas Ibrahim, Faiza Maitala (Ph. D., FBDFM)


This study's findings underscore the crucial need for continued assessment of the financial performances of the quoted Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. The importance of this assessment is heightened by the factors that endanger the financial situation of the DMBs, which is where the need for continued improvement exists. The study explores the impact of financial risk on the performance of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria, using nine (9) years of data between 2015 and 2023 retrieved from the published annual reports of thirteen (13) DMBs. The analysis includes descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of correlation and panel regression. The result indicates that CRSK (-0.431133) and LIQSK (0.086019) have a negatively weak correlation and a positively weak correlation with ROA. Also, CRSK (-0.226855) and LIQSK (0.320620) have a negatively weak correlation and a positively weak correlation with EPS. Consequently, BSIZE has ROA (0.052601), EPS (0.166463), CRSK (-0.072838) and LIQSK (0.083215), which means that it has an extremely weak correlation with ROA, CRSK and LIQSK while it has an extremely weak correlation with CRSK. The panel regression model indicates an R Square of .2642, .2133 and .2509, which represents about 26%, 21% and 25% impact of the variables CRSK, LIQSK and BSIZE on ROA for pooled effect model, fixed effect model and random effect model respectively. At the same time, the rest are covered by the error terms, as the other factors have not been considered in this study. This study concluded that credit and liquid risk have largely minimised significant impact on the performance of quoted deposit money banks in Nigeria, with several other factors being defined as the triggers of change in the DMB's performances overtime in Nigeria, which includes but not limited to board diversity, risk management insufficiency incidences of high non-performing loans, poor corporate governance, lax credit administration and failure to meet prudential ratios of liquidity, solvency status and capital ratio which the bank administrator have been able to tackle head-on. It recommended that commercial banks in Nigeria implement effective risk management methods to achieve long-term and improved profitability via interest revenue from loans and advances. Banks need sufficient and precise information from internal and external sources to evaluate the credit risks associated with a loan request.



Analysis of the Development of Palm Oil Plantations in the Province of Kalimantan Timur-Indonesia

Zuhdi Yahya


This study examines how these needs are managed in oil palm plantations in Province of East Kalimantan. Oil palm plantation is a land development in East Kalimantan that aims toreduce the region's dependence on natural resources while expanding socioeconomicdevelopment. This study used descriptive analytical methods based on primary data obtained from a literature review and focus group discussion. We found that palm oil plantation are serious challenge for ecological development project. Because 44% of the land used for farms is still forest. At the same times, there may be an opportunity yo prevent deforestation and explore ways to improve palm oil. But because 87% of the land should be planted. The development of oil palm plantations is supported by limited goverment regulaion despite the fact that there are many problems with their use in the region.


Research Hub: Unveiling Connections and Recommendations

Mrs. Ch. Sudha, Bejawada Bhavya, Janapana Sai Kumar Reddy, Rachapalli Siva Prakash Reddy,


In the transcendent area of academic exploration, staying up with the latest and most recent enhancements presents a great test. To deal with this issue, we propose an undeniable-level investigation paper recommender system planned to streamline the most widely recognized approach to tracking down huge composition. Using refined Natural Language Processing (NLP) strategies, our system exact investigates the hypothetical text of insightful articles to uncover basic affiliations and give exact ideas. Our way of thinking starts by joining together and handling message-based data, using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) vectors to address every investigation paper. By registering cosine likeness between these vectors, we discover the importance between papers, framing the reason for our suggestion motor. Exceptionally custom-made thoughts are conveyed in view of client inclinations, improving the client experience and availability. To work with consistent, actual peculiarity, we have fostered an easy-to-understand Web application utilizing Flask. This connection point permits clients to look for papers by name or ID, giving an organized once-over of results close to relevant subtleties like titles, creators, and digests. In addition, clients can outwardly investigate groups of related papers, working with dimensionality decrease strategies like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE). Additionally, our structure consolidates K-Means clustering and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for theme demonstrating, empowering clients to dig further into effective groups and find key phrase related to each gathering. In short, our exploration community offers researchers, understudies, and scholastics a strong asset to explore the immense span of academic writing, working with productive disclosure, coordinated effort, and information circulation across different scholarly spaces.


Social Work Intervention in Resilience of Entrepreneurial Activity in Manipur, India

Dr. Laishram Jeena Devi


Social Work serves to enhance desirable social change, social justice and a common goal whereas the promotion of entrepreneurship is universally recognized to cope with social challenges – unemployment, poverty and related consequences. Manipur is a heterogenous society, having 33 officially recognized communities with their own ethnicity, language, culture and socio-political viewpoint. It is geographically looked into hilly and valley regions. The state has recently undergone a violent ethnic conflict between its two main communities – Meiteis and Kukis since May 3, 2023. Yet, it is not settled. Due to it, the state suffers in numerous ways – distressing the state's normalcy, transportation, day-to-day activities, internet connectivity and various economic activities. Since most of the existing entrepreneurs in the state were micro-based, the conflict distressed them badly in sustaining their businesses. Thus, scientifically investigating the impacts of the crisis on entrepreneurship and scrutinizing the role of SW in their rehabilitation was vital. The study was done with a qualitative approach and an interview method is used by constructing a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were done in the month of September 2023. It found that most entrepreneurial or business units were socially and economically interrupted by protracted lockdowns, market closures, curfews, restricted transportation, extended internet shutdowns and violence. Not only business activities, the entrepreneurs lost most of their existing business networks and connections for several months. However, a few entrepreneurs tried to cope with the situation by discovering new stakeholders, business connections and the environment in the locality with their available resources. At the same time, many business units were prone to distress of permanent closure. As a part of the rehabilitation process, Social Work could intervene in mobilizing a unified and collaborative platform with several stakeholders. Familiarizing them with relevant financial literacy, available safety net and expansion of marketing platforms were among indispensable steps apart from common skill development and vocational training programs.


A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance Among College Teachers in Kolkata

Dr. Binay Krishna Halder


Job performance is considered the ultimate criterion in human resource management (Organ & Paine, 1999). The purpose of present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance among the teachers in select Govt. aided colleges in Kolkata, West Bengal. The stratified random sampling under probability sampling technique is used in selecting 180 teachers. The standardized structured questionnaire named “Emotional Intelligence Scale” was developed by Dr. N. K. Chadha and Dr. Dalip Singh (2001) and “Job Performance Scale” developed by Kirkman and Rosen (1999) was administered. Mean, SD, correlation and regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses formulated in the study. The study concludes that emotional intelligence has a significant impact on job performance of teachers. The result reveals that there is a significant and positive relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) which consists three dimensions:  sensitivity, maturity, competency and job performance (JP). Result also exhibits that emotional intelligence influence the teachers to motivate their work. Therefore, organisation should develop training programs for improving emotional competencies of the teachers.


Igwebuike Integrative Anthropology

Ikechukwu Anthony Kanu, PhD


African scholars have responded variously to the question of who a person is in African ontology.Some scholars have spoken of the African personality in terms of Africa’s geo-numerical identity, some others have spoken of Africa in terms of her civilization and colour-based identities. These perspectives notwithstanding, this piece focused on the relational-based identity of the African personality. While several papers have discussed the relational-based identity of the African personality, the present work distinguishes itself by its specific understanding of the African living person as a dialectically relational organism, with a coherent pluralism or a composite of complex elements within the same self. For the purpose of achieving the aim and objectives of this paper, the Igwebuike theoretical framework will be patronized. This complementary framework will guide the development of this piece. The hermeneutic and analytical methods of inquiry will also be employed during the course of the development of the paper.


Photography Denoising Algorithm with the Assistance of AI

Dr. R. Naveenkumar & Sanel. S,


Modern digital cameras are susceptible to producing noisy images in low light conditions due to sensor limitations. This noise manifests as randomly colored pixels that appear as grain, degrading overall image quality. Traditional denoising algorithms have limitations in differentiating actual image detail from noise. Recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning offer potential new approaches for more intelligently identifying and reducing image noise while preserving real details and edges. In this paper, we propose a novel AI-assisted denoising algorithm that leverages a convolutional neural network (CNN) to differentiate noisy pixels from those containing actual image signal. The trained model classifies each pixel as either signal or noise. Pixels identified as noise are smoothed by averaging the color values of neighboring signal pixels, while pixels classified as true signal are left unaltered to maintain sharpness. We evaluate our algorithm on a dataset of noisy raw images from various camera sensors under low light conditions. Both objective quality metrics like Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and subjective human ratings demonstrate that our AI-based denoiser outperforms leading traditional denoising methods, especially in terms of preserving real image details and edges while smoothing away noise. Our solution has applications in computational photography, image processing pipelines, and may help overcome hardware limitations of small camera sensors in portable devices like smartphones.


Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Rural Tertiary Health Care Center North India

Nishant Sharma, Brijesh Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Deepti Joshi, Meenu Babber


Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) poses a significant challenge in the area of neonatal care, characterized by an aberrant retinal vasculature, often culminating in irreversible vision loss in childhood. Methodology: This prospective observational study was conducted at UPUMS Saifaiafter obtaining ethical clearance in the UPUMS, Saifai, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study spanned one year and enrolled a total of 250 neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between March 2023 and March 2024. Results: Of the 20 infants weighing less than 1000 grams, 11 developed stage 1 or 2 ROP, highlighting a significant risk for ROP among extremely low-birth-weight infants. Among the 79 infants weighing between 1000 and 1500 grams, 26 developed ROP, with stage 2 being the most common, suggesting that infants in this weight category have a moderate risk of ROP development, with many progressing to advanced stages. Out of the 98 infants weighing between 1500 and 2000 grams, 14 developed ROP, with the majority of cases being stage 1 or 2, indicating that even among infants with slightly higher birth weights, there is still a notable risk of ROP development. Interestingly, out of the 53 infants weighing more than 2000 grams, only 5 developed ROP, all of which were limited to stages 1 or 2, suggesting that infants in this category have the lowest risk of developing ROP due to their higher birth weights. We examined a total of 250 infants across all weight categories, and 56 of them developed ROP. Stage 1 and 2 ROP were most common, indicating that the condition is more prevalent in its milder forms. Conclusion: Lower birth weight is associated with a higher probability of ROP occurrence, emphasizing the significance of monitoring and managing ROP in extremely low-birth-weight infants.  Categories: Pediatrics, Ophthalmology

Determination of Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde in Drinking Water Pet Bottles

Ajai Adarsan K., Jabendra R., Geethakarthi A


               In recent years, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has become the primary packaging material for many food goods, particularly carbonated beverages, and bottled water, as well as chemical industry packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, insecticides, solvents, and so on. PET provides excellent strength and permeability capabilities for packaging beverages, as well as excellent chemical resistance and transparency. During the thermoforming of PET containers, acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) are produced. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET container after cooling and may migrate into the water after filling and storing. The primary goal of this paper is to investigate the amounts of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde residues in polyethylene terephthalate bottled water and their implications for consumer health. The migration of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) from PET bottles into mineral carbonated water was determined in this study using a UV double-beam spectrophotometer method. A default test is also performed to check the pH of the water to determine whether the water is acidic or basic solution, a TDS of water test is performed to determine the total concentration of dissolved substances in drinking water, and an electrical conductivity test is performed to determine how well the water.


Unravelling the Enzymatic Mechanisms Underlying Phthalate Exposure: Implications for Human and Animal Health Risk Assessment

Sanjib Kumar Mohanty, Yashaswi Nayak


Phthalates, ubiquitous in the environment due to their extensive use in consumer products, pose significant health risks to both humans and animals. Exposure to phthalates occurs through various routes, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Once absorbed, phthalates undergo biotransformation in the body, primarily through hydrolysis and oxidation pathways, leading to the formation of metabolites with varying toxicological properties. Metabolism plays a crucial role in modulating the bioavailability and toxicity of phthalates, influencing their distribution, accumulation, and elimination kinetics within biological systems. Phthalates exert their adverse effects through multiple mechanisms, including endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, inflammation, and epigenetic modifications. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), phthalates interfere with hormone signaling pathways, disrupting normal physiological processes such as reproductive function, development, and metabolism. Furthermore, phthalate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to tissue damage and promote the onset and progression of various diseases. Risk assessment of phthalate exposure involves evaluating the potential hazards associated with specific phthalate compounds, considering factors such as potency, exposure levels, and susceptibility of the exposed population. Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insights into the health effects of phthalates in humans, while experimental animal models have elucidated underlying mechanisms and dose-response relationships. The objectives of my study are to comprehensively review the current literature on phthalates, focusing on their sources, exposure pathways, health effects, and regulatory measures. By synthesizing existing research findings, the review aims to provide a thorough understanding of the potential risks posed by phthalates to human health and the environment.


Impact of Varied Organic Manures and Biofertilizers on the Economic Feasibility of Fenugreek Cultivation

Shubhi Agrawal, Khuraijam Panthoi Chanu, Vaibhav Bopche and Abha Sharma


Organic manures and biofertilizers can improve the health of agricultural systems by positively impacting soil structure and microbial populations. The research focused on fenugreek, a member of the Fabaceae family known for its culinary and medicinal properties. During the Rabi season 2023-24, a study was conducted at the Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture's research farm at Amity University Noida (Uttar Pradesh) to investigate the effects of various organic manures and biofertilizers on fenugreek yield. The experiment was designed in a randomized block pattern with six treatments replicated three times. A study was conducted to compare the outcomes of new approaches to standard methods and assess their economic viability in the field. The results showed that treatments that included biofertilizer’s and organic manures yielded higher net returns and benefit-cost ratios than treatments that only employed organic manures. The numeric calculations indicated that using organic manure combinations was economically viable, with T4 (vermicompost + Azotobacter) providing the greatest net return of 119,389 rupees. These findings demonstrate the potential of organic inputs in sustainable fenugreek cultivation, providing farmers and stakeholders with valuable information to support environmentally friendly agricultural practices.

Determinants of Solar Technology Use as an Electricity Source: The Case of Households in Off Grid Areas of Ethiopia: A Country Level Analysis

Wondimu Tesfaye and Jemal Abbafita (PhD)


Access to electricity through solar technology is of utmost importance in Ethiopia, a country where more than half of the households lack access to electricity. The objective of this research is to pinpoint the key factors influencing the uptake of solar technology devices on a national level in Ethiopia. The study relies on data from 907 households in Ethiopia that are not connected to the main grid (off-grid) using the World Bank's Global Survey data on energy access. The households are selected from all regions of Ethiopia using a proportionate random sampling method. The study employed the two-step Heckman sample selection model to examine the sequence in which households have access to an electrical source prior to utilizing solar technology equipment. The location of households (rural), educational level (high school graduate), ownership and size of agricultural land (P<0.01), and market visit (P<0.1) all have a significant impact on the adoption of solar technology. Similarly, market visit and location have a significant impact on electricity access (P<0.05), while saving in banks has a significant impact on both electricity access and solar technology adoption (P<0.01). In order to accelerate the achievement of universal access to electricity in Ethiopia, it is important to target rural households with specific socio-economic conditions, coupled with utilizing off-grid alternatives like certified solar technology devices. Additional research is needed to assess the adoption of solar technology, particularly in areas already connected to the main grid, and to formulate comprehensive and inclusive policies involving multiple stakeholders.


Investigation of Flow Field Inside a Mixed Compression Rectangular Air Intake for Different Cowl Shape at Different Back Pressures at Mach 2.0 and 2.2.

S K Vutukuru , R K Mishra, S K Yadav , Gopinath B and Rajesh T R


The flow field around and inside of air intake has been a topic of intensive research because of the complex physics of the intake and also the drag over the intake was realized to contribute significantly to the overall drag of the flying vehicle. The main purpose of the air intake in most of the flying vehicles is to supply controlled amount of air to the combustion chamber for good engine performance. In the present work three different cowl shapes were consid- ered for a mixed compression rectangular intake designed at Mach 2.2 (clean cowl) and compared with two other cowl shapes V-Notched [90o] and pointed cowl along with different back pressures and their pressure recovery at the intake exist section. The cowl shape showed significance change in the pressure distribution over the ramp surface and also change of cowl shape helped overcome the phenomenon of intake “unstart” condition.


Effect of Asset Growth on Financial Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria

Nneoma Geraldine Mmuogbo, Lucky Onmonya, Kolawole Ebire


The optimization of investment in assets in order to achieve a satisfactory return on asset and return on equity is a major problem being suspected by the researcher in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria. This study is to examine the effect of asset growth and financial performance of manufacturing firms in Nigeria.Thirty-two (32) manufacturing firms were selected from Nigeria Exchange Group (NGX), and secondary data was collected from the firms for a ten-year period (2013 – 2022). The data were analyzed using Descriptive analysis and robust PanelRegression analysis for correcting multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity. Non-current assets growth, current assets growth, net assets growth, and total asset growth were used as proxies for asset growth (independent variables), while return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) were used as proxies for financial performance (dependent variable). The result shows that the non-current assets growth rate and current asset growth have a significant negative effect on the ROA of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. However, the outcome is insignificant when financial performance is proxied as ROE. Findings also show that total asset growth has an insignificant effect on ROA and ROE. On the other hand, findings revealed that while net asset growth is insignificant to ROA, the outcome is significant and negative to ROE.The study concludes that increasing non-current, current assets, and net current asset growth can strain financial resources, leading to diminished performance in manufacturing firms. Based on this, the study recommends that Manufacturing firms should strive for a balanced approach to non-current asset growth, considering both short-term financial implications and long-term strategic objectives.


Exploring the Impact of Yoga in the Training of Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun Shooting Players

Md Anwar Basha. (PhD Scholar) , Dr. R.Satish Varma. (Associate Professor)


This paper aims to discover alternate practices that are necessary for addressing physiological, psychological, and sociological elements that impact the performance of a shooting player during various competitions, in addition to their regular training program. This study also examines the potential advantages and effects that the practice of yoga may have on performance in the sport of shooting. A survey is conducted and the responses are analyzed using statistical methods. The results were compared and conclusions were drawn.


Optimizing Inventory Model for a Time Varying Degradation and Linear Holding Cost with Split Demand Under Non-Decreasing Shortages

T.Vanjikkodi and V. Pankajam


This study presents a mathematical model for analyzing inventory systems with time-dependent deteriorating items and holding costs vary linearly over time. The model accommodates expected shortages with a backlog rate that evolves. Demand is characterized by two distinct functions: a time-dependent quadratic function during periods without shortages and a time-dependent linear function during periods with shortages. Computational Algorithm is formulated to obtain the minimal total cost, and the convexity of the full cost function is established. Additionally provide a numerical example to demonstrate the application of the model. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of optimal inventory policies is conducted, and the impact of decision variable variations are graphically represented using MATLAB. This comprehensive framework contributes to a deeper understanding of inventory management under fluctuating demand conditions.


Dose Dependent Effect of Probiotic Supplemented Herbal Wine from Tinospora Cordifolia in Metabolic Syndrome: An Experimental Study

Shweta Kamboj, Siloni Patial, Geeta Shukla, Mandheer Kaur


Metabolic syndrome a lifestyle disease which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and chronic inflammation in metabolic tissue, diet and gut microbiota play a prodigious role in its initiation and progression. Bio-interventions employing probiotic and wine offer an alternate nutritional approach towards attenuating the progression of metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of low, moderate and high dose of probiotic supplemented herbal wine in an experimental metabolic syndrome. It was observed that though the administration of low, moderate and high dose of probiotic supplemented herbal wine for 12 weeks to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high fat diet ameliorated the anthropometric parameters but low to moderate dose showed maximum reduction in weight gain, abdominal circumference, BMI, Lee’s index, and visceral fat deposition compared with high fat diet fed animals. Additionally, both low and moderate dose of probiotic supplemented herbal wine exhibited improved glucose tolerance, liver biomarkers and restored the histoarchitechture of liver, colon and adipose tissue compared with high fat diet fed animals. The study highlights the prophylactic potential of probiotic supplemented herbal wine in experimental metabolic syndrome model and revealed that amongst all three doses of probiotic supplemented herbal wine low and moderate dose were found be effective and more promising than high dose in improving metabolic dysfunctions and may be employed as functional foods but needs further validation.


Assessment of Anti Depressant Activity of Anisochilus Petraeus Leaves in Swiss Albino Mice

R. Suresh, S. Gowri Narayani, R.Sivasakthi.


Introduction: One of the main causes of morbidity and mortality is depression. Over 350 million people worldwide, across all age groups, suffer from depression. It contributes significantly to the burden of diseases worldwide.  Aim: This study was designed to evaluate for anti-depressant activity of the indigenous medicinal plant Anisochilus petraeus. Result: A stronger inhibition comparable to the standard was observed with an APEM higher dose of 500 mg/kg of the test medication. The conventional model had the highest locomotion rate (85.6%), which was followed by 74% for APEM 400 mg/kg, 24.9 % for APEM, and 14.30% for /kg in the FST model. Greater locomotion was observed at the 400 mg/kg test drug dose, which was comparable to the control and standard. Conclusion: According to the study's findings, oral APDM can effectively provide observed antidepressant-like effects.


Diuretic Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Matricaria Chamomilla and its Phytochemical Studies

R.Suresh, Saheedha.P, R.Sivasakthi


Introduction: Diuretics can alleviate a number of pathological conditions, including elevated blood pressure, decreased fluid retention, edema, swollen ankles, and discomfort. Information regarding the characteristics and applications of medicinal plants is highly sought after due to the global trend toward the usage of natural plant treatments. Aim:For the aforementioned reasons, the present investigation’s objective is to assess the diuretic efficiency of the hydroalcoholic extract ofMticaria Chamomilla. Methodology: Five grams of the dried plant were roughly ground up and extracted using ethanol and water. After filtering, each aqueous extract was put to use. Histopathology and Diuretic activity are studied for the hydro-ethanolic extract of Matricaria chamomilla leaves. Result: When compared to zero days, the aforementioned particulars—likecreatinine, urea, and glucose—don’t alter during the seven-day treatment. Comparing the 15th day to the zero days, smaller biochemical alterations were seen. Urine volume increased in response to the Matricaria chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract as well. At 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, the increment was 18% (p < 0.01) and 41% (P < 0.001), accordingly, in contrast with thegroup under control. Conclusion: By using ion-selective channel blocking to measure the ions and electrolytes evacuated by the animals, this current investigation will be very helpful in determining the diuretic effect of the Matricaria chamomilla leaf extract.


A Comprehensive Review on: Nutraceuticals Approaches of Momordicacharantia L. Fruits for Neurodegenerative Disease

Sanjib Kumar Mohanty, Yashaswi Nayak


The Momordicacharantia  is a tropical plant, also known as bitter gourd or bitter melon, is a crucial herbal remedy with a wide range of medicinal properties. People in Indian subcontinent and China consider, M.charantiaas key components to treats variety of elements such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis etc. These diseases are described by degeneration or loss of selective neuron populations in a progressive manner. The two main characteristic of neurodegenerative illness are oxidative stress and inflammation, which have been studying using the variety of medicinal herbs and their derivatives.  However, very few authors have reported the protective effects of M. charantia against neurodegenerative diseases.  This short review focus on the neuroprotective effects of M. charantia. Based on their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the present study emphasizes to further explore the protective effects of M. charantia against neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases.


The Effects of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Currency Substitution in Nigeria

Paul Obiora James Okino, Chinwe Regina Okoyeuzu, Ph.D


Currency substitution still remains a phenomena in many economies. It is the choice of local residents to desire foreign currency deposits above their national legal tenders. This is possible where the national currency fails to perform optimally to a great extent the traditional functions of medium of exchange, units of account and store of value. The increase in the choice by the local economic agents is attributed to suspected underlying economic factors arising from macroeconomic imbalances. The study set out to examine the effects of selected macroeconomic variables on currency substitution in Nigeria with the recognition of structural breaks within the study period of 1994 – 2022 (29 years). The researchers adopted the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to execute the study interest with the addition of the pre and post estimation techniques to fine tune the distributional properties. The study found that inflation rate and official exchange rate volatility had inverse relationship with the currency substitution behaviour in the country within the reviewed period. Domestic interest rate and public external debt exerted positive but non-significant influence on currency substitution in the country. Personal (Diaspora) remittances exerted positive and significant influence on the behaviours of foreign currency deposits. Among others, the study recommended strong need for government to establish the Naira Monetary Unit or Currency Board in the economy to arm exchange rate management. Also, rebuild the trust and confidence in the political system and create an economy that works, in order to address the Jappa Syndrome.


Assessment of Severity and Treatment Using Occlusal and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) Indices in Haldia Population- A Short Study

1. Dr Jaydeep Samanta 2. Dr Ravindra Rekhade 3. Dr Vivek Agarwal 4. Dr Debapratim Jana 5. Dr. Pooja Hampannavar Maity


Background:-Both qualitative and quantitative methods of recording malocclusions are important for epidemiologists and for planning the provision of orthodontic treatment for a definite population. Several quantitative systems have been used to measure the severity of treatment need etc with the help of indices. Occlusal index (OI) and index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) are advantageous as they are simple and accurate for measuring malocclusion for a given population. Aim:- To assess the objective and subjective levels of severity and orthodontic treatment need in Haldia population using Occlusal and IOTN indices. Materials and method:- A total of 200 patients, more than thirteen years of age, from the out-patient department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopaedics, Haldia Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Haldia were included in the present study for orthodontic treatment. All the subjects were made to sit on a dental chair and frontofacial intraoral photographs were taken with relaxed perioral musculature, and impressions were made with alginate impression material. Ocllusal index (OI) and index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) were applied to assess the findings.  Results:-OI classification showed Good occlusions 7.5%, No treatments 17.5%, Minor treatment 45.0%, Definite treatment 27.0% and Worst occlusions 3.0%. IOTN-DHC index showed the findings to be None of 8.2%, Little treatment 22.9%, Moderate 47.5, Great treatment 56.55% and Very great 27.0%.  The Aesthetic Component (AC) with gender with requirements based on AC score showed Little or No treatment in 30.0 % cases, Moderate and Border line treatment in 63.5% and Treatment required was for 11.0%. cases. Spearman’s rho Correlations with OI, DHC and AC showed high association at 5% level of significance. Cohen’s Kappa statistic for Inter rater agreement reliability and highly statistically significance at 5 % level. Conclusion:- The study recognized a dependable baseline information in terms of frequency, distribution and severity of malocclusion to answer the treatment requirements within the local population.


Antimicrobial Resistance Trend Pattern in the Population of West Bengal

Shayeri Das, Sangita Agarwal, Anirbandeep Bose, Dibya Das


The world has been struck with a deadly pandemic and is now witnessing severe climate changes. Constant environmental changes are leading to various viral/bacterial infections which have increased the consumption of antibiotics. The rise in usage of antibiotics has increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic and post-COVID era. Generally, the most prescribed antibiotics fall under the range of broad spectrum as these work on a wide range of disease-causing bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative). There has been a rise in the accessibility and affordability of antibiotics among the population. The most important reason for this is the over-the-counter buying of antibiotics followed by frequent usage of antibiotics. It is also often observed that patients are not finishing the entire course of antibiotics. Frequent consumption of antibiotics along with not completing the entire course of the antibiotics not only poses a severe threat to the healthy microbiome of the human intestine but also a resistance pattern against the antibiotics. The study aims to understand the antibiotic resistance pattern in the post-COVID scenario on the gut microbiome of the West Bengal population.


Effect of Project Cost Factors on the Financial Performance of Selected Construction Companies in North Central Nigeria

Abani Joseph Alu & Dr. Frank Alaba Ogedengbe


The overarching need for the project costs to be controlled to a tolerable, minimum and acceptable level cannot waver as it has attendant consequences on the outcomes of construction projects. This study investigates the impact of Project Cost Control (PCC), evaluate the impact of Cost Variance Analysis (CVA) and assess the impact of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) on the Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) of selected construction companies in North Central Nigeria. 102 semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to the construction professionals in the considered construction firms in North-Central Nigeria of which all were properly filled and returned representing a response rate of 100 percent. The analytical method employed includes descriptive of mean and frequency while the inferential statistics of multi variate linear regression analysis was equally adopted. The results show that there is a significance level for the relationship between PCC and return on asset and return on equity which are 0.021 and 0.032 respectively. For the CVA, multivariate regression analysis has shown that the CVA is statistically significant in relation to the return on asset (0.024) and return on equity (0.037) of the selected construction companies in North Central Nigeria. For EVA, the multivariate regression indicates that earned value analysis is statistically significant in relation to return on asset (0.042) and return on equity (0.013). This study thus, concluded that there has been a significant impact of project cost control, cost variance analysis and earned value analysis on the construction project performances of the selected construction organizations in the North-Central region of Nigeria. This study recommended the need for the construction organizations to ascertain the factors contributing to the cost changes. These factors encompass unexpected occurrences, alterations in the project's extent, inaccurate predictions, or insufficient preparation of which identifying their fundamental causes assists the organizations in formulating a strategic plan to effectively tackle them.


Project Finance Factors and Financial Performance of Selected Construction Companies in North-Central Nigeria: An Impact Assessement

Alu Joseph Abani & Dr. Frank Alaba Ogedengbe


The importance of construction organizations growth to the economic development of any nation remains integral as it constitutes majorly to the developmental stride of any nation. This study investigates the impact of financial factors of Cost Valuation Reconciliation (CVR) and Schedule Management (SMG) on the ROA and ROE of selected construction companies in North Central Nigeria. This study administered 102 semi-structured question to the requisite construction professionals in the considered construction organizations of which the same amount was properly filled and returned resulting into a 100 percent response rate. The applied methodologies entail descriptive statistics and inferential statistic of multivariate regression model. The result shows that that cost valuation reconciliation is not statistically significant with return on asset at 0.922 and return on equity at 0.744 while it was also found that the level of significance revealed that schedule management is not statistically significant with return on asset at 0.410 and return on equity at 0.454. This study recommended that contractors should prioritize directing their project monitoring and control efforts towards enhancing the overall results of their projects as incorporating the important personnel into the planning and control processes from the beginning and maintaining their involvement consistently will enhance the efficacy and precision of planning which affects the outcome of the project.

A Deep Analysis Study on Leverage Convolutional Neural Networks Method for Pneumonia Detection System using Machine Learning

Shrestha Majumder, Dr R.Naveenkumar


The use of data mining and machine learning has become essential for the detection and prevention of various diseases. For children under five, interstitial lung diseases like pneumonia are the main cause of death. Children under five every year are affected by each day for various reasons. This includes around the maximum number ofnewborn babies. Almost all the maximum deaths are preventable. According to a UNICEF report, there are more than 1,400 instances of pneumonia per 100,000 children worldwide or one case for every 71 children annually. The majority of the affected kids were less than two. The healing process for children with pneumonia can be accelerated with prompt diagnosis. To effectively identify pneumonic lungs from chest X-rays, we have applied convolutional neural network models in this study for a better result. Medical professionals can use these models to treat pneumonia in the actual world. The first, second, third and fourth model consists of two convolutional layers. The first model achieves an accuracy of 89.74%, the second one reaches an accuracy of 85.26%. Furthermore, recall and F1 scores are calculated from the confusion matrix of each model for better evaluation.


“Use of Discriminant Function Analysis for Forecasting Crop Rice Yield in District Jaunpur, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India”

Piyush Kumar Singh1* Ramesh Pratap2 Singh , Vishva Deepak Chaturvedi3 & Prabhas Kumar Shukla2


 This research aims to demonstrate how discriminant function analysis may be used to create a rice production forecasting model for Jaunpur (India). Discriminant function analysis is a method of creating a linear/quadratic function that best discriminates different populations and so provides a qualitative evaluation of the likely yield. Time series data from 18 years (2000-2019) have been divided into three categories: congenial, normal, and adverse, based on yield distribution. Taking these three groups as three populations, discriminant function analysis has been carried out. The regressors in the model were discriminant scores obtained from this. The use of weekly weather data has been proposed in a variety of ways. The models were used to forecast yields for the three years following 2015-16: 2015-17: 2017-18. (which were not included in model development). About two months before harvest, the method offered a reliable yield prediction.


The Classification of the Levels of the Jurists Devised by IBN Kamal Pasha: A Review

Mohammad Rabiul Alam


The basic laws of Islamic Sharia are contained in the Qur'an and Sunnah. If there is no detailed information in those two sources, mujtahid (jurists) will research by using their intelligence to solve any problem. Ijtihad  is a term of  the Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the Qur'an and Sunnah. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid (imitation). A person who applies ijtihad is called a mujtahid. To become a mujtahid, one needs to be qualified to derive legal rulings from the primary sources: the Quran, the Sunna, and other sources of Islamic jurisprudence. Moreover, not all mujtahids are of the same level; rather, there are several categories or ranks of mujtahids. It is necessary to know about the ranks. Knowing the level of the mujtahid makes it easier to prefer one interpretation over another.There are several lists of hierarchies of mujtahids. The list written by Ibn Kamal Pasha (d. 1534) is quite famous among them. It is followed throughout the Hanafi madhhab (school of thought); but according to us, we have different observations about the hierarchy of this list. It contains various inconsistencies. Despite this, Islamic jurists have been following it for four hundred years. As a result, it has a negative impact on the Islamic society, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Because of this stratification, some Hanafi scholars believe that the scope of ijhitad is closed. Now there is no opportunity for ijtihad on any matter. This article reviews Ibn Kamal Pasha's classification using qualitative methods. According to us, this hierarchy is not only the hierarchy of mujtahids; rather, the hierarchy of mujtahids, jurists and general scholars. Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad are the mujtahid of the first level.


Competency Mapping in Indian Steel Industry

Kandregula Pavani


One of the most important sectors of the Indian industrial landscape, the steel industry, depends on having skilled and productive workers in order to compete internationally. In this industry, competency mapping is critical to improving role effectiveness and organizational success. This strategy method closes common skill gaps and identifies the essential competences required for different activities, optimizing worker skills. The study looks at how top Indian steel companies now operate, assesses the effects on output and worker growth, and makes recommendations for best practices. The results, which make use of secondary data, highlight how important systematic competence mapping is for promoting organizational performance in the steel sector. As a strategic approach to human resources, competency mapping determines the fundamental abilities, know-how, and conduct required for various positions within an organization.


Common Requirement Elicitation Approaches used by Some Software Development Teams in Afghanistan

Ijaz Ahmad Shinwari1, Naseer Ahmad Shinwari2, Salim Ahmadzai3, Zarmash Gardiwal4


Requirement elicitation is a serious phase in the requirement development process. Identification of accurate stakeholders plays an important role in requirement elicitation processas it discovers the needs of stakeholders. Besides the quality of the requirements depends on the elicitation mean that has been chosen to elicit requirements. Different means are proposed in the literature to elicit software requirements however depending on the situation and stakeholders there are different challenges which could make it difficult to implement certain means of requirement elicitation. In this paper we have we studied the common requirement elicitation approaches that are being used by the software development teams in Afghanistan. We have attempted to explore that how rigid the process of requirement elicitation is applied within the development teams. To propose the best methods of requirement elicitation in the context of Afghanistan we have studied what common challenges exist while eliciting software requirements.


Chat GPT: The AI Revolution in Higher Education

Gagandeep Kaur


The incorporation of artificial intelligence AI into education has heralded a transformative era in the way students learn and faculties teach. Among the burgeoning array of Ai tools, Chat GPT stands out as a versatile and powerful resource. Developed by open AI, Chat GPT is an AI-driven conversational model that generates human-like responses.In this new tech-driven world when nothing is constant and the dynamics change every second, the pandemic kind of forced-bridged digital learning platforms, with the introduction of Chat GPT can provide you with 300 million different solutions.Chat GPT has created tremendous speculation among stakeholders in academia, not the least of whom researchers and teaching staff. Chat GPT is a Natural Language Processing (NLP) model developed by open AI that uses a large dataset to generate text responses to student queries, feedback, and prompts. It can simulate conversations with students to provide feedback, answer questions, and provide support. It has the potential to aid students in staying engaged with the course material and feeling more connected to their learning experience.This research draws on the Constructivism Learning Theory to uncover the key drivers pushing higher education. Students to use Chat GPT for academic purposes, and the multifaced consequences it brings to the academic environment, by integrating the perspectives of key stakeholders: students, faculty, and education experts and leaders. This research reveals that higher education institutions should establish clear guidelines as a part of higher education, policy, supplemented with training sessions for students and their faculty, about the responsible use of Chat GPT for academic purposes to mitigate any ethical concerns.“Chat GPT has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach language, communication, and information processing.”                                                

Logic Implications from Pyrene-DAMN Schiff base via Anion interaction and Solvent Tuning

Bashir Ahmed1, 2, Purvee Bhardwaj1 Erum Gull Naz3, Wasseem Akbar*2,3 & Masood Ayoub Kaloo*2


A pyrene-DAMN based molecular scaffold has been explored for its ion recognition characterisitcs under various solvent conditions. In DMSO, selective, prompt and naked eyete sensing of F- and CN- was obaserved by modulation of its intramolecular charge transfer characterisitcs. Anion-stimulated fluorescence “turn on” behaviour was proposed to occur through photoinduced electron transfer phenomenon. The dual-ion sensing mode, solvent-tuned recognition along with its distinct reversible binding has been explored for various Boolean operations at molecular level. A number of simple and advanced logic functions in the form of YES (identity), NOT, OR, NOR, AND, NAND, INH and IMP have been achieved.


In-Silico Studies of Momordicacharantia L. Extract as a Potential Treatment Against Alzheimer’s Disease Targeting Amyloid Beta Protein (3NYL)

Sanjib Kumar Mohanty1, Yashaswi Nayak2, Lopamudra Sahoo3


One of Medicinal plant, Momordicacharantiabelonging to Cucurbitaceae family contains various essential phytocompounds which shows antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-neuronal properties. Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. And also reducing the ability to carry out the simplest tasks.In an insightful In-silico analysis and potential therapeutic efficacy of Momordicacharantia phytochemicals against amyloid beta (Aβ) protein, a key player in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, in silico molecular docking analysis of report phytocomponents present in M. charantia fruit was studied against Amyloid beta protein of Alzheimer’s disease.. The result revealed 38 phytochemicals constituents of Momordicacharantia derived from several literature of Review. Out of these 38 phytocompounds, Laurifolin , gamma Isomorphine, Armepavine, 3-Epi-Schelhammericine and Flabelline were ranked the highest with binding scores ranging from −10.0 kcal/mol to −9.4 kcal/mol compared with the standard, Cholamide, with a binding score of −7.7 kcal/mol. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that Laurifolin , gamma Isomorphine, Armepavine, 3-Epi-Schelhammericine and Flabelline act against  Alzheimer's disease  inhibiting the Amyloid Beta Protein and therefore can be further developed into potent drugs for Alzheimer's disease  treatment.

Knowledge Assessment of Undergraduate Dental Students Using Conventional Method of Teaching and Mind Mapping Method of Teaching

1Dr. Mahesh K P, 2Dr. Karthikeya Patil, 3Dr. Meera T


Assessment of teaching method is important to find the outcome. As a result, we used conventional and mind mapping to analyze BDS students' learning ability. Students were assessment based on Pre-evaluation and Post-evaluation tests. The findings were evaluated after the students were given the topic. Student evaluation was based on conventional learning method and the mind mapping method. The obtained results were subjected to statistical evaluation which showed that mind mapping methodology was more effective, more inventive and successful than the conventional method in terms of learning and retaining information.

Airway Management in Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid Patient with Tracheal Stenosis

1M Gagan, 2Shreyas BM


Thyroid tumors causing airway compression, stenosis, tracheal deviation among common causes of difficult airway and intubation in anaesthesia management. Difficult airway and intubation among goiter patients is 5.3%3. Cancerous goiter is major predicting factor for difficult endotracheal intubation. Therefore airway management in these patients during preoperative and intraoperative period is challenging. Here we report a case of successful awake fiberoptic bronchoscopy assisted airway assessment and endotracheal intubation in patient undergoing total thyroidectomy of papillary carcinoma thyroid causing severe subcricoid tracheal stenosis. A 60year old female with papillary carcinoma thyroid was posted for total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. Neck CT detected thyroid malignancy causing sub cricoid stenosis for length of 9.5 mm with maximum anteroposterior diameter at stenotic level of 3.2mm. The patient received general anaesthesiathrough endotracheal tube during surgery. Tumor resection and a permanent tracheostomy was done at end of surgery. Later patient was successfully weaned form mechanical ventilation and shifted to postoperative care unit. This case report provides evidence of importance and usefulness of fiberoptic bronchoscopy assisted airway assessment and endotracheal intubation in managing anticipated difficult airway in thyroid tumors causing tracheal stenosis, tracheal deviation, intraluminal infiltrating thyroid tumor. 

Comparative Evaluation of Lateral Displacement Produced by 3 Gingival Retraction Methods- An in Vivo Study

Dr. Shrinidhi Poonja, Dr. Avinash Mehendale, Dr. Deeksha Shetty & Dr.Ananya Babbar


Purpose: The gingival displacement agents make it easier for the flow of the impression material into the gingival sulcus, thereby registering the prepared subgingival finish line and an area apical to it, providing the marginal integrity.  Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 3 different gingival retraction methods like retraction cords soaked in 25% aluminium chloride gel, retraction cord soaked in 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and 15% aluminium chloride cordless retraction paste in the lateral displacement of gingival tissues. Methods:66 teeth from both male and female participants needing full coverage restoration were selected for the study. They were divided into 3 groups i.e. group1: Retraction cords soaked in 25% Aluminium Chloride gel, group2: Retraction cord soaked in 0.05%W/V Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride, group3: 15% aluminium chloride Cordless retraction paste. Impressions were made before and after the retraction procedure. Die was prepared using Accu Trac precision die system and 3mm blocks were obtained out of it. These blocks were evaluated for lateral displacement under the stereomicroscope 20× using image analyser.  Results: The median displacement values of the 3 groups of were compared and it was found that Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride had the highest displacement values followed by Aluminium Chloride gel while 3M ESPE Cordless Retraction paste had the least displacement values. A post hoc analysis was done using Mann Whitney U test. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference in displacement values between Aluminium Chloride v/s Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride (P=0.019) and between Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride and Cordless Retraction paste (P = 0.011). Conclusion: The amount of lateral gingival displacement produced by 0.05%W/V oxymetazoline hydrochloride >25% aluminium chloride gel > 15% aluminium chloride retraction paste. 

Antibacterial, Antifungal Activity and Gas Chromatography Massspectrometry of Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke (Cs-Ls)

Mageshwaran B1, Bhuvaneshwari Gunasekar2*, Jamith Basha3 & Catherine Thamayendi4


According to World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence rate of superficial fungal infection and bacterial infection in worldwide has been found to be 20-25%. However, the increase in antibiotic resistant strains together with the lack of and high cost of new generation antibiotics increased woundrelated morbidity and mortality. So far, Herbal medicines are being used by about 80% of the world population mostly in the developing countries for primary health care. These medicines have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Traditionally used coconut shell liquid smoke a natural resources has been used as antibacterial and antifungal agent. The aim of this project is to analysis the  antibacterial, antifungal activity and gas chromatography massspectrometry of CS-LS Extract .In this study identification of the organism wea carried using convential method and species were confirmed by biochemical test,most of the orhanism were comes under Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal organism Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus species were done by conventional method. Antibacterial susceptibility was performed by Agar well diffusion method and Its components were identified by Phytochemical analysis using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the identification of active compound. CS-LS showed zone of inhibition for bacterial and fungal organism except Rhizopus in the agar cup diffusion method. It was compared with standard drugs and antiseptic and can be used in the treatment of skin related infections. The phytochemical analysis relived the major organic component which can incorporated in disinfectant and antiseptic in future to overcome the hospital acquired infection.


In-Silico Analysis of Bael Leaves Phyto-Components Treatment Against Corneal Opacity of Amur Carp (Cyprinusrubrofuscus)

Lopamudra Sahoo1, Yashaswi Nayak1*, Sagar Rout3


India has the oldest herbal practices in the world. Many studies have investigated the use of phytoconstituents found in plants in the treatment of various diseases. However, there are currently few studies on the phytoconstituent properties and pharmacological effects of Aegle marmelos. This study used computer simulation methods to try to discover the therapeutic potential of plant components in the leaves of Aegle marmelosin treating eye opacity in Northeastern carp. Auto Dock software was used to perform in silico analysis and Bio was used to visualize the docking results via Discovery Studio.This study focuses on screening the therapeutic activity of potential pharmacophores in the gene responsible for eye opacity in Cyprinus rubrofuscus(i.e., Amur carp). Computer analysis. Studies such as drug probability, pharmacokinetic properties, rule of five, and bioavailability radar play a crucial role in identifying suitable pharmacophore groups for further insillico.ico analysis. The molecular docking of seven selected compounds showed good interactions with the desired eye proteins and revealed significant binding affinities. Among the seven compounds, Cuminaldehyde (13.60 Kcal/mol) showed a higher molecular docking score, providing concrete evidence that the application of sweet-scented osmanthus plant components can be an effective strategy for treating eye opacity in carp.


“Association of Lactate to Albumin Ratio Level with Organ Failure and Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients”

Ushasree Jala & Suresh Kumar N


Introduction : The prognostic role of lactate to albumin (L/A) ratio has hardly been explored in severe sepsis patients.  This study examines the utility of L/A ratio as a clinical & prognostic marker in severe sepsis patients. Objectives : To investigate the potential utility of the lactate to albumin ratio as a prognostic marker for Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methodology: This prospective follow-up study was conducted with non-trauma adult (>18 years) ICU patients with severe sepsis for 4 months at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre.  Clinical and laboratory data for day 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) were collected.  Results: We recruited 28 patients with a mean age 57.7 years (Standard deviation or SD 15.0 years), majority being female (n=17, 60.7%).  The median L/A was 1.96 (SD 0.54) and 1.74 (SD 0.51) on D1 & D2, respectively. The D1 L/A was positively correlated with  APACHE II score (Pearson’s correlation co-efficient or r=0.61, p<0.001) (figure 1), heart rate on D1 (r=0.52, p=0.004) and D2 (r=0.51, p=0.005), respiratory rate on D1 (r=0.77, p<0.001) and D2 (r=0.76, p<0.001), serum creatinine on D1 (r=0.8, p<0.001) and D2 (r=0.81, p<0.001); and negatively correlated with D1 mean arteriolar pressure (r=-0.43, p=0.02), platelets on D1 (r=-0.64, p<0.001) and D2 (r=-0.71, p<0.001). Three (10.7%) hospital deaths were reported and the median Lactate/albumin ratio for these patients (2.72, IQR 2.67 to 2.98) were high compared to those who survived (1.78, IQR 1.44 to 2.29) (p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test). 

Developing a Risk Management Model for Research and Development Facilities Construction Projects in Southern Malaysia

Vickneswaren Selvamugam¹, Mohd Saidin Misnan² & Mariatul Liza Meor Gheda³


The construction industry drives economic growth globally but faces challenges namely outdated practices and inadequate risk management. This research focuses on improving Risk Management in Research and Development (R&D) facilities construction projects, often poorly executed by Project Management Offices (PMOs). Most studies primarily focus on identifying and assessing risks, critical aspects like risk control and monitoring are often overlooked. To address this gap, this research endeavors to formulate a comprehensive risk management model specifically tailored for R&D facility construction projects within the Southernof Malaysia. The methodology involved conducting a descriptive analysis using self-administered questionnaires among 365 professionals in R&D and construction sectors, leveraging Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Additionally, structural equation modeling, as depicted through AMOS graphics, was employed to establish a robust and credible model. The findings underscore a significant, positive correlation between PMO requirements concerning Risk Monitoring and Control Practiceswhich encompass risk reassessment, audits, contingency reserves analysis, risk status meetingsand Project Success Factors related to schedule adherence, cost management, facility specifications, and customer satisfaction within the realm of R&D facility construction. By successfully achieving its research objectives, this study has developed practicable project risk monitoring and control practices of risk management model for R&D facilities construction projects, thereby providing a valuable resource for professionals in the field. By integrating these practices into their project workflows, R&D and construction experts can effectively mitigate risks and confront the challenges prevalent in the construction industry, ultimately leading to improved project outcomes.

The Role of Bilirubin - Albumin Ratio Versus Platelet - Albumin Ratio as a Predictor of Mortality in Critically Ill Patients Without Pre-Existing Liver or Biliary Tract Disease – A Prospective Study

1Syed Hazarath Nabi, 2Suresh Kumar N


Objective: - To compare the bilirubin - albumin ratio versus platelet - albumin ratio as a better indicator for predicting mortality in critically ill patients without existing liver or biliary tract disorders. Methods: - A prospective study was conducted among adults (>18 years) admitted to the ICU at a tertiary care centre in India among 196 patients. Platelet albumin ratio (PAR) and Bilirubin - Albumin Ratio (B/A ratio) were obtained from patients' records on the day of admission. Results: - The mean age of the participants was 53.8 years (SD 16.8 years). Twenty-one (10.7%) deaths were reported in the hospital during the period of study. The mean Bilirubin-Albumin Ratio (B/A ratio) was significantly higher among those who died (2.8; SD 1.7) compared to those who survived (0.6; SD 0.96; mean difference 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6 to 2.8; p<0.001). B/A ratio on admission had a good predictability (AUC 0.87, p<0.001)) of mortality, but the predictability of PAR was quite low (AUC 0.48). The cut-off for the B/A ratio for predicting mortality is 0.4 with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 74%.  Conclusion: - The B/A ratio is a reliable predictor of mortality in critically ill patients who do not have pre-existing liver or biliary tract disorders.


Effect of Titanium Dioxide on Properties of Cement Mortar Blended Periwinkle Shell Ash

Audu, I. Tiamiyu.1 Job, O. Fredrick2. Dakas, A. Isa³, Ishaya, Awari. A.


Pozzolana cement/concrete has been identified with the problem of early strength development by many researchers, this was due to the slow pozzolanic reactions in pozzolana mortar/concrete, which also denies its usage where early strength is of paramount. To arrest this, several additives are being added to enhance its early strength development. The introduction of titanium dioxide (TiO?) at different percentage replacements of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of the weight of cement on the optimum dosage of periwinkle shell ash as adopted from the work of Olusola & Akaninyene (2012) serve as control specimen (0%TiO?) in this research with a designed mortar of grade 7.5N/ mm2 at 28days. This study therefore, examine the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO?) on the properties of cement mortar blended periwinkle shell ash (PSA). The rheological properties and the compressive strength were carried out at 3, 7, 14 and 28days. Decreased in consistency for the mortar was observed as TiO? percentage increases when compared with the control. Likewise, the initial and final setting time of the mortar decreases as the percentage replacement of TiO? increases. The compressive strength tends to increase by increasing the amount of TiO? compared to the control up to 6% replacement of TiO. It was concluded that the addition of TiO? to mortar mixes reduces the measured flow in accordance with ASTM: C 1437– 07. It therefore, improves the rheological properties of the cement mortar, and the compressive strength was increased with the inclusion of TiO? at almost all the percentages with 6% TiO? as the optimum dosage.

Preoperative Stop-Bang Questionnaire and Other Difficult Airway Determinants in Prediction and Correlation of Difficult Airway

1Revathi Ashok, 2Suresh Kumar N


Introduction : The most common cause of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality till date is difficult airway management. Difficult airways are strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and OSA syndrome (OSAS). Patients with OSA who are anesthetized have a higher risk of problems because of anatomical and physiological alterations in their upper airway. The STOP-Bang Questionnaire is a simple, self-reporting screening tool that consists of four subjective (STOP: Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, and high Blood pressure) and four demographic(BANG: BMI, Age, Neck circumference, Gender) items.


Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide for Enhanced UV Protection and Sustainable Cleanliness on Glass Surfaces

Hariini Chandramohan 1 and Sethu Gunasekaran 2


Novel materials for self-cleaning glass surfaces are being researched due to rising demand for environmentally friendly and self-cleaning glass surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have significant photocatalytic ability, making them a good fit for self-cleaning coatings on glass surfaces. The sol-gel synthesis is carried outsince the method allows for precise control of particle size and shape to formulate TiO2 nanoparticles. The hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxide precursors are followed by controlled heat treatment to yield TiO2 nanoparticles. UV-Vis, FTIR-ATR, Particle size analysis, and SEM techniques were used to analyse the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesised TiO2 nanoparticles. The contact angle technique is used to assess the self-cleaning characteristics of nanoparticles and the results are compared with silica dioixide nanoparticles synthesised via the same sol gel route. By providing a sustainable method for preserving transparent surfaces, the present research has the potential to benefit a wide range of disciplines, including architecture, automobiles, and renewable energy.


The Church and Homosexuality: An Assessment of the Understanding and Perceptions of Selected Christians in Lagos Metropolis

1Adewuyi, Timothy Olagunju 1Alabi, Emmanuel Olaoluwa 1Ajani Ezekiel, 1Ayuba, Larry Yusuf


This study examined the readiness of the Christian Church in Lagos to engage with the emerging LGBT community. Employing a descriptive survey design, it assessed awareness levels of LGBT issues, biblical perspectives on homosexuality, and effective approaches for ministering to LGBT individuals. The questionnaire, administered online via Google Forms, garnered 255 responses. Lagos Metropolis was categorized into Evangelical and Non-Evangelical churches, with 208 (81.6%) respondents from Evangelical and 47 (18.4%) from Non-Evangelical congregations. Denominations included Baptist, Redeemed Christian Church of God, The African Church, Catholic, and others across nine of twenty Local Government Areas.  The study highlighted a high awareness of homosexuality within the church community, despite tendencies to deny its existence. It emphasized the incongruence between affirming homosexual behaviors and adhering to biblical principles, considering such orientations contrary to societal norms. Furthermore, it underscored the belief that homosexual orientations are seen as curable and sinful, requiring repentance and conversion to heterosexual orientations for full inclusion in church life and ministry.  Recommendations proposed promoting Christian values through avenues like sports evangelism, musical outreach, welfare programs, and other ministries to uphold heterosexuality over LGBT culture within Lagos churches.


A Differential Impact of Family Background on Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies of Potential Entrepreneurs

Purna Prabhakar Nandamuri, Vijayudu Gnanamkonda


Entrepreneurial ventures have emerged to be the major drivers of economic growth. Any economy must endeavor to create a supportive regulatory environment to facilitate entrepreneurial activity. Indian entrepreneurial efforts have been sustained to drive India’s growth story owing to several policy initiatives to improve the entrepreneurship ecosystem. Entrepreneurship Education and Training (EET) constitutes the essential part of the ‘institutional’ component of the ecosystem. The participant characteristics have a moderating influence on such program outcomes. Studies have suggested that entrepreneurship is facilitated by specific cultural dimensions. In a diverse-culture economy like India, designing a uniform training program for potential entrepreneurs won’t serve the purpose. Hence the entrepreneurial training programs should, first, recognize the role of participant characteristics in terms of the socio-demographic profile, while designing the program content and curriculum. The present study attempts to identify the differential impact of the moderating variable of the family background of the participant on the training outcomes and finds that, out of the 13 personal entrepreneurial competencies tested, seven of the components of the training program content are highly significant to the demographic variable. In contrast, the remaining six components proved nonsignificant.


Consumers Attitude, Buying Behavior and Satisfaction towards Online Shopping

Mr. S. Tamilselvan, Dr.P.Nalasivam


The proliferation of the internet and digital technologies has transformed the retail landscape, ushering in the era of online shopping. This shift has not only altered how consumers interact with brands but has also revolutionized their purchasing behavior and satisfaction levels. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for businesses to thrive in the competitive e-commerce environment. In India, the e-commerce industry has experienced rapid growth, accelerated further by the COVID-19 pandemic. Major players like Amazon, Flipkart, and Snapdeal are intensifying competition, leading to innovations in logistics, payment solutions, and customer service. Despite the significant opportunities for growth and innovation, challenges such as regulatory changes and data privacy concerns persist. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing consumer behavior towards online shopping in Coimbatore City, India.The research focuses on internet users in Coimbatore City who are interested in buying products or services online. The sample population consists of consumers who have experienced online shopping through various retail stores and web-based merchants. Structured personal interviews using questionnaires were employed to collect primary data, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of consumer behavior. Additionally, online questionnaires were distributed to gather responses from a diverse range of participants. A total of 390 usable responses were obtained after addressing missing data.The study employs the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as the theoretical framework to analyze consumer behavior towards online shopping experiences. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted using AMOS 20.0 software to validate the measurement model. The results indicate high convergent validity, with factor loadings exceeding 0.5 and construct reliabilities surpassing 0.7. Furthermore, discriminant analysis confirms the distinctiveness of the measurement model's constructs.Key findings reveal that factors such as price, trust, convenience, consumer habits, and website information significantly influence consumer attitudes, buying intentions, and satisfaction levels in the Indian e-commerce market. The study provides valuable insights for online marketers to enhance their strategies, attract and retain customers, and drive sustainable growth in the dynamic e-commerce landscape.


Follow After Peace with All Men" (Hebrews 12:14) in Light of Peaceful Co-Existence in Nigeria

Best Olusola Aremu1, Olusegun Atanda Ariyo1, Funke Elizabeth Oyekan1


Peaceful co-existence is essential in promoting the development and growth of societies.However, this has become a mirage in Nigeria because of continuous unresolved social, economic and religious menace within the Nigerian society. Scholars have treated the significant role of Christian education and religions in achieving peace and social integration in Nigeria through its teaching on peace, reconciliation, forgiveness, love and prayer. Nevertheless, these scholars have not paid attention to the “follow peace with all men assertion of Hebrews 12:14 in light of peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper exegetically analyse the “follow peace with all men” assertion of Hebrews 12:14 in light of peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. The paper employed the grammatico-historical method of biblical exegesis through diachronic approach. The study revealed that there are many conducts antithetical to peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. The word “ε?ρηνηνδιωκετε” (seek peace) with all men is without any exception. Thus, the call for Nigerians to build up a peaceful relationship with one another that disregards social, economic and religious differences. All parochial and self-centered thoughts should be discarded for peaceful co-existence.


Sustainable Customer Relationship Management in Electronic Banking Services

Mr.M.Shankar, Dr.P.Nalasivam


The banking industry in India has witnessed a profound shift towards customer-centric activities, emphasizing the importance of managing and retaining customers. Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) has emerged as a pivotal strategy for banks to meet customer needs and enhance satisfaction in the digital era. This paper explores the concept of Sustainable e-CRM, which integrates environmental and social considerations into customer relationship management strategies. By aligning e-CRM practices with sustainability goals, banks can mitigate environmental impacts, foster social responsibility, and build long-term relationships with customers. The study investigates the adoption, drivers, challenges, and best practices of sustainable e-CRM in Indian banking, aiming to contribute to knowledge in this field. Furthermore, it examines the impact of sustainable e-CRM on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and business performance, offering insights for banking institutions navigating digital transformation and sustainability imperatives. The research highlights the importance of balancing economic growth with environmental protection and social responsibility to ensure the long-term viability and resilience of the banking sector in India.


The Impact of Medication Concordance in Type II Diabetes Patients in India Population

Sireesha Kalva1*, B.Sravya2, K.Chaitanya3, Shaik Syeed Ahamed3, Sowmya3, Ranga Perita4,Deepshika Gundaboina4, S.M.S. Fahad Hussaini4 & Ravi Sankar Erukulapati1



Audience Perceptions of Health Communication Strategies in Chinese Television News during the COVID-19 Pandemic

1Zhang Shuang & 1Lee Kuok Tiung


Through in-depth interviews, this study explored the health communication strategies of Chinese television news during the COVID-19pandemic and their perceptions and evaluations among audiences. The study found that TV news effectively improved public health literacy, eased public anxiety, and guided public health behaviors during the pandemic by releasing timely information about the pandemic, inviting authoritative experts to interpret the situation, popularizing health knowledge, and providing emotional support. The audience generally evaluated the performance of TV news positively, but also made some suggestions for improvement, such as hoping to increase interaction with the public, enhance the transparency of information, and provide more mental health support content. Based on the results of the study, the following recommendations are made: continue to exert authority and broad coverage, enhance interaction and transparency, increase mental health support content, promote scientific protection knowledge and behaviors, and develop multi-channel health communication.