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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Determinants of Early Marriage amongst girl Children in Dasda Block of Tripura State

Tulika Dey & Nityananda Pradhan


Child marriage encroaches on children’s rights and exposes them to experience violence, exploitation, abuse, and forced sexual relations due to unequal power relations. They are more vulnerable to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).Earlypregnancy is one of the most dangerous causes and consequences of this harmful practice.Tripura occupies the second position in the country with respect to the prevalence of child marriage amongst girls aged 15 - 19 years. A study was conducted with the broad objectives to explore the causes and consequences of early marriage; and to design strategies for interventions to curb the menace of early marriage amongst girl children of Dasda block of Tripura State.Descriptive research method was followed in carrying out the study. Data are collected from teachers, girl students, parents and school heads of five Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools inthe study area with the helpof interview schedules and focus group discussions. The study revealed that most of the girls, who marry at an early age, drop out of school and only a few can manage to attend school post-marriage. Schools should organize awareness programs for girls, parents, and community/SMC members, from time to time, against the early marriage of girls on the contents such as the consequences, characteristics, and challenges of adolescence, etc.


Stock Performance of IPOs in India: An Empirical Analysis Based on Market Timing

Sunaina Dhanda and Shveta Singh


Problem– The purpose of this study is to see if market timing predicts the reporting of stock performance after the issue. Furthermore, this study examines the behaviour of issuers’ companies performance in the light of varied market timings. Approach– This study focuses on 769 BSE-listed initial public offerings that took place amidApril 1, 2012, to March 31, 2022. It evaluates market timing using moving averages. Using multiple regression analysis, the research further investigates the impact of market timing on thestock performance of IPO companies in India.

Findings – This study finds that there is a significant presence of market timing in India but, the underperformance of Indian issuers is not accredited to market timing. The long run performance of companies is also indiffereent towards different market timing.Conclusion– The findings of this study will assist the potential investors, analysts and stakeholders about performance of public issuers in India. A decreased stock performance during the post-issue year depicts that market timing cannot be attributed with the company’s performance.The findings of this study hold implications to the regulators as well to keep an eye on issuers’ stock performance.


Tourism Management Evaluation in Mubi Town Adamawa State Nigeria

1Hashim Abdullahi,*2M. ZainoraAsmawi, & 3Abdul Razak Abdul Aziz


The tourism industry has both positive and negative environmental consequences which are the product of the managerial attitude. The study aims at evaluating tourism management in Mubi town Adamawa state Nigeria to make recommendations. Spatial and quantitative data are employed in the study.  Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing were utilized for the locational map generation with the aid of Arc. GIS.10.3. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered to the sample populations for the quantitative data generation using systematic random sampling techniques. Observations and photography were conducted as part of the data collection. A correlation descriptive statistical tool was used for correlating Environmental Tourism Potential (ETP) and Physical Tourism Potential (PTP). Statistical ranking techniques were utilized for the respondents’ perceptions results. The results of the descriptive statistics correlation between the tourism industry management (TIM) and physical tourism potentials (TPT) showed a very significant and perfectly positive correlation at (0.01 level, 2 –tailed).  This indicated the correlation at positive at 0.01 and 2 Tailed.  This uncovered a very strong connection between tourism industry management (TIM)  and physical tourism potentials (TPT) in Mubi town.  Additionally, the respondents quantitative ranking revealed that the tourism industry could create global interaction in Mubi town had the highest agreed responses.  Tourism industry development could provide infrastructural facilities, employment opportunities, and revenue to the government in Mubi town followed as the second in the ranking.  The third in the ranking is in Mubi town is yet to establish tourists’ information. Recommendations for infrastructural provision, staff employment, and development together with marketing are made.


Correlation of Nasal Morphology to Various Skeletal Patterns: A Retrospective Study

Dr. Surbhi Dharne, Dr. Akhter Husain, Dr. Vivek Amin, Dr. Abirami Ramesh, Dr. Sandeep Shetty


Introduction:The distinctiveness of a person may be seen in their face. Numerous facets of the persona, such as personality, temperament, general health, and stress levels, might be hinted at. In terms of biology, the face phenotype is a result of genetics and environment and represents characteristics of populations in certain places. As a result, the face is a dynamic structure that can convey a wide spectrum of expression, from extremely subtle to considerably exaggerated. Even the slightest variations in expression can alter how others see something. Facial appearance is largely influenced by the shape of the nose. Studies on the relationshipbetween nasal structures and craniofacial configurations are limited. Objective:The present study was carried outto analyze the association of nasal cephalometric variables with skeletal structures.Methods:This retrospective study was conducted amongst the individuals living in Mangalore city. Cephalometric and nasal analysis was performed on 65 patients who came for an orthodontic treatment (aged 18–30 years). The evaluation was carried out using parameters like Soft tissue convexity, Nasal length, nasal bone angle, nasolabial angle, Nasomental angle, and nasal depth. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and one-wayANOVA—to find correlations between the groups.Results:Correlation between craniofacial relation and nasal bone anatomy exists. An acute nasal bone angle is seen in the Class II skeletal pattern.Sexual dimorphism has been found for nasal parameters: the nasal bone angle is significantly smaller in females.


Social Media Marketing Technology and Online Consumer Purchase Interest Influence the Effectiveness of Business Continuity through Competitiveness of Online-Based MSME Businesses in South Sulawesi Province

1Muhammad Azis, 2Thamrin Tahir, 3Romansyah Sahabuddin, 4Wahyudi Putera, 5Fajriani Azis


This study aims to explain and analyze the effect of marketing technology and consumer buying interest on the effectiveness of business continuity through business competitiveness to bridge the gap. The population in this study are owners/managers of online-based MSMEs who are members of the Association or Association of MSMEs in the South Sulawesi Province region in 6 districts / cities, including Makassar, Gowa, Takalar, Jeneponto, Bantaeng and Bulukumba, totaling 706 owners/managers of online-based MSMEs. The sample used in this study, namely 250 respondents, using probability sampling or multistage random sampling techniques or determining cluster sampling based on the division of an area / region in stages. Furthermore, using testing with the SPSS Ver.-2023 program by first testing validity and reliability, then testing classical assumptions by testing normality, heteroscedasticity and linearity, conducting direct and indirect testing. Then the analysis technique used for hypothesis testing is Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) Lisreal Ver,-2023 Program by testing the Path Analysis Model-Estimate Model and Path Analysis Model- T-Value Model Diagram. The results showed that the indirect effect of marketing technology had a significant effect on business competitiveness. Indirect influence of consumer buying interest has a significant effect on business competitiveness. The direct effect of marketing technology has a significant effect on the effectiveness of business continuity. The direct effect of consumer buying interest has an effect and is not significant to the effectiveness of business continuity and the direct effect of business competitiveness has a significant effect on the effectiveness of business continuity.


Missiological Reflection on the Intervention (Guidance) of the Holy Spirit in Acts 13:1-3 and its Relevance to Promoting Christian Missions in African

Ezekiel Ajani, Ph.D. Victor Umaru


The Holy Spirit plays a prominent role in God’s mission today. He is the most important Person in the Triune God concerning Christian missions. One of the significant roles of the Holy Spirit in this regard is the effectual guidance through instructions of individuals or groups into God’s mission on earth. Christian missions without the explicit divine guidance of the Holy Spirit resemble a ship at sea with a faulty compass. Christianity in Africa is gradually getting the world's attention and recently becoming the centre of academic discussion concerning religion. However, the concept of missions and the work of the Holy Spirit concerning missions have received either little or no attention in recent scholarship. This study employs a synchronic approach which is the form of exegesis in the context of the canon, which deals with the interpretation of individual books and texts in their present ‘canonical’ form. It is argued that this form is the definitive version because the decisions made by those shaping the individual biblical books and the canon as a whole should be taken seriously. This article offers some missiological reflection on the Person and Work of the Holy Spirit in Acts 13:1-3 and validates the Holy Spirit’s implicit scriptural position as the most important Person in the Triune God in Christian missions in Africa. The article recommends that African Christian missionaries and sending churches must pre-initiate missionary work through prayers and fasting, receive explicit guidance in the place of prayer concerning missions’ outreaches, and must not neglect or ignore the Person and work of the Holy Spirit in their missionary endeavours

Influence of Feed Types with Respect to Feeding Frequency on Larval Survival, Growth and Morphology in the Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens (Regan)

Dr.Santhi Pon Indira.Y.S.1 and Dr. L.Roselin rajathi 2



 B. splendens fry fed on Infusoria soup / rotation of feed showed the low mortality and higher growth parameters (MBW, MBL, SL and CFL) in the first week, Infusoria and Artemia nauplii (1 : 1 ratio) in the second week and Artemia nauplii alone in the third week. Duncan multiple range test revealed that, rotation of feed significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced high growth in fry as compared to other feeds. However, feed types did not influence the size of mouth in B. splendens fry. The length of air bladder was 2.5 times more in fry fed on rotation of feed as compared to fry received Infusoria. Fry received three meals a day significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the tested growth parameters and length of air bladder (except head and mouth size) as compared to one or two or four meals a day. Fish fed with liver in all stages of B. splendens (fry, juveniles, adolescent and adult) elicited the higher feeding rate than those fed with Artemia and mixture diet; however, the trend was reversed in rate and efficiency of conversion. B. splendens fed with mixture diet in all stages elicited the high protein, lipid and energy contents in muscle and gonad tissues followed by fish fed with Artemia and liver.


Understanding the Role of Herbal Plants and Their Secondary Metabolites Associated With Drugs Induced Genotoxicity"

Sulakshana Pal Singh & Dr. Lokesh Verma (Professor)


The modern person cannot do admirations to his health in this age of modernization. He is being enmeshed in a muck of ailments as a result of his way of life. The unique plants that can be used to maintain health were known to our ancestors. However, allopath develops with time. People became interested in allopath because the results were immediately apparent, but there were also several negative effects that occasionally surfaced. Sometimes these adverse effects were so bad that people began tightening new illnesses. Cancer is a fatal illness that affects people worldwide. Cancer has been around for a very long time. As result of this, there are numerous additional problems like (organ toxicity) kidney, liver toxicity etc. The anticancer medicine has an influence on the cell cycle, which affects both normal and cancer cells' genes. As a result, the patient's gene structure begins to deteriorate, normal dividing cells experience genotoxicity, and more mutagenesis occurs. Nevertheless, the anticancer drug can be used to treat the disease. Numerous studies are being conducted constantly to eliminate this genotoxicity. In this examination, we'll explore the similarities that are largely present in all of those herbal plants and extracted substances effect on the genotoxicity caused due to any reason

Impact of Covid-19 on Employment Distribution and Per Capita Income of Labour Force in India

Dr. Brindpreet Kaur & Dr. Manoj Kumar Sharma


[Covid 19 and the subsequent lockdown imposed in a phased manner in almost all the countries of the world, including India, dented the incomes and purchasing powers of millions of people across the globe, in an unbridled and anomalous manner. The labour force, especially the daily wagers witnessed stark reduction in their wages, compared to the pre and post covid period. After the unlock and in the post Covid recovery phase, the real wages of the labour have regressed in comparison to the pre covid levels, thus causing a major dwindling of their purchasing power, in the wake of the mounting food inflation and its impact on the cost of living in the economy. The present paper is an attempt to find answers to four major research questions – What has been the impact of Covid-19 on the status of employment of the labourers in India; how has Covid 19 impacted the employment distribution of labour force in the country; how has the pandemic impacted the per capita income of labour force in India; what has been the impact of pandemic on the purchasing power and economic capacity of Indian labourers, in the light of the increased cost of living, especially for the labour force belonging to the vulnerable section of industrial employment. The findings of the research will be based on CMIE's Consumer Pyramids Household Survey (wave 26 and 27) and the RBI Bulletin 2022. The analysis will be based on the study of labour with a monthly average wage rate of about 120 USD. The study proposes to use secondary data analysis for reaching its findings. The data available in the form of reports will be analyzed using appropriate statistical tools like Simple Averages, Percentage method, Compound Annual Growth Rate, etc.The underlying hypothesis is that despite an increase in the nominal income of the labour to the pre Covid levels, their real income has sharply declined, thus rendering the poor labourers in India, poorer. The existing literature review has revealed that some work has been done on the impact of Covid 19 on the wages and employment of the labour force living on the verge of poverty line, but the analysis of the impact on their purchasing power, vis-à-vis the increased cost of living, has not been reviewed so far. The present research aims to fulfil this research gap.]


Socio-Economic Status of Coir Workers in Kerala

Dr. Joben K Antony & Dr. Biju K. C.


1. Problem :The coir industry is an agro-based and labor-intensive traditional industry that originated in the state of Kerala which provides livelihood to nearly 3.7 lakh people and contributes significantly to poverty eradication by providing employment opportunities to semi-skilled and unskilled people in rural areas of which 80% of them are women. Hence it is important to understand the socio-economic conditions of coir workers in Kerala. The broad objectives of this study are to examine the socio-economic status of coir workers, to analyze the income and consumption pattern of coir workers, and to identify the problems of coir workers and some suggested measures to resolve them in Kerala. 2. Approach:  The study was based on both primary data and secondary data collected through a random sampling method from 250 coir workers from the Alappuzha, Kollam, and Kottayam districts where the majority of coir workers exist. Analysis of data is carried out by cross tab, chi-square test, and t-test. Secondary data is obtained from various sources like books, journals, articles, government publications, etc. 3. Findings :It is found that 86% of coir workers are women and 44% of the workers belong to the age group of 50-60. The social classification of the coir workers shows that 42% of the coir workers belong to OBC followed by 28% of the General category.  The educational attainment of the coir workers reveals that 42.4% of the coir workers have only primary schooling. It is found that 32% of coir workers receive a monthly income between Rs.1500 to Rs.20000. It also shows that the majority (76%) of the coir workers have debt burdens. There are 62% of respondents who depend on banks for debt. The causes of debt are house construction (44%), education of their children (16%), and marriage purposes (13%). The study also reveals that there are 45.6% of coir workers who have defaulted their loans. It also shows that 38% of the coir workers have more than ten years of work experience and 38% of the coir workers face health issues like back pain and allergy. 4. Conclusion: The study found that there is a significant difference between male and female workers on per capita expenditure on food and nonfood expenditure. The per capita expenditure on non-food items by female workers is greater than that of food expenditure by them and per capita expenditure on non-food items by male workers. The workers in the coir industry face a wide range of issues, including a lack of raw materials, unpaid pay, lack of market demand, lack of government backing, lack of modernization, and lack of value-added goods. Due to their inadequate educational background, they are even unable to pursue alternative employment opportunities. Therefore, the government and other officials need to come up with some solutions to the problems facing the coir workers. Otherwise, they will have a sad existence.


Lattice dynamical study and ultrasonic properties of thorium carbide (ThC)

U C Srivastava aand S P Singhb


In this paper thermophysical andultrasonic propertiesofthorium carbide (ThC)inthe effects of three-body interaction (TBI) and by use of VTBFS model is reported.we are theoretically reporting elastic constants, pressure derivatives, dispersion relation curve, specific heat curve, combined density of states (CD’s) and equation of state and some ultrasonic propertiesof the thorium carbide (ThC). The achieved results are good with earlier reportedresults,whichgive very important information of this compound for further research.


Maintaining Control Over Blood Sugar Through Yoga

Dr. Subramaniam Seshan Iyer


Diabetes is a common disease in India and is making a huge impact on the health of an individual. People suffering from diabetes often are scared and afraid that they are not going to survive. On the positive side diabetes makes you disciplined and makes your routine quite systematic. The intake of foods is systematic and time to time, secondly regular exercise is also followed resulting into people getting into healthy mode. The major diabetes in India is either generic or stress. Life has become so stressful that people of age 35 – 45 are having blood sugar problem on a regular basis. Secondly life is so hectic that people are unable to take time out from their regular to do exercise resulting health hazards.In this research paper, I will be addressing certain Yoga postures which will help people suffering from diabetes to have a systematic and health life. In addition these yoga postures will keep him fit and also energetic. As you know diabetes is an ailment where there is lot of restrictions with respect to food intake which reduces the overall energy of the individual. These yoga postures will allow them to regain this energy.


Impact of Crude Oil Consumption on Deaths Due to Air Pollution in India: A Forecasting Approach

Shiv Kumar Singh Pundhir1, Seemant Kumar Yadav2 & Anand Mohan Agrawal3


India’s rank in crude oil consumption is third after USA and China. A high quantity of diesel (70%) and petrol (99.6%) is consumed in the transportation sector. As per reports transportation sector contributes 29% of t air pollution. Due to air pollution In 2019 in India, 1.6 million people died. In this work, correlation analysis is performed to find the dependency of casualties due to air pollution on crude oil consumption and registered vehicles in India. Historical data on crude oil consumption, registered vehicles, and casualties due to air pollution are analyzed to predict casualties due to air pollution. Using HoltWinters and ARIMA models. A high positive correlation (0.9) is found between deaths and crude oil consumption and registered vehicles in India. Using the ARIMA models predicted values for crude oil consumption and registered vehicles in India for 2030 are found 7.39 million barrels per day and 550.8 million respectively. These values are used for the regression model to predict deaths due to air pollution and expected deaths due to air pollution were found in 2085938 for 2030.


Identify the Sign of Art, and Literature in the Field of Biographical Writing

B. Dhanalakshmi, Dr. P. Preethi,


This study discusses historiography and literary involvement in studying and writing history, especially analyzing historical sources to construct an objective account of events. One of the magnanimous writers, Irving Stone, and his enigmatic writing proficiency impacted the literary world. His approach to biography involved extensive research and a profound understanding of his subjects' lives, but he also employed his imagination to fill in the gaps and make the story more engaging. This combination of fact and fiction resulted in an enthralling narrative that drew readers in and made them feel as if they had lived through the subject's experiences. Stone's portfolio includes numerous acclaimed biographies like Lust for Life and The Agony and the Ecstasy, which established him as a master storyteller and an innovator in the field of biographical writing.  Irving Stone made a lasting impact on the literary world through his one-of-a-kind approach to biography, where he combined facts with fiction and brought his subjects' innermost thoughts and emotions to life, inspiring readers and writers alike. As a critic and researcher, Stone's attention to detail and unwavering commitment to accuracy established his reputation as one of the greatest biographers of his time. Stone's novels were characterized by a vivid portrayal of the emotional struggles and inner conflicts of his subjects. This study brings the lives of historical figures to a broader audience and creates works that were both informative and entertaining.


Trends in Accounting Practices Among Street Hawkers in Dinajpur District

Md. Fazlay Rabbi, Mohammad Main Uddin, Rabiul Islam, Md. Mamunar Rashid


The major goal of this study was to ascertain whether there was a significant correlation between changes in accounting practices and the demographics of Dinajpurdistricts street hawkers. 54 street hawkers of different ages, both male and female, responded. For this investigation, a self-administered questionnaire was used. Data was gathered using in-person interviews. Data were analyzed using chi-square, frequency, and mean. The level of significance for the alpha was fixed at .05. The corresponding percentages for men and women were 68.5 and 31.5, respectively. 37 percent of them reported having completed elementary school. This shows that the street economy is being driven by primary schooling. 27 percent of hawkers are between the ages of 31 and 40, and 55.6 percent have been working as hawkers for more than five years. The respondent profile indicates that there was no discernible correlation between street hawkers' accounting practices. According to the research, accounting practice is not influenced by factors such as age, gender, education level, or years of experience.


Toxic Effects of Ammonia on Survival and Behavioural Responses in Labeo Rohita as a Function of Body Size

Dr.L.Roselin rajathi 1 , Dr. Santhi Pon Indira.Y.S.2 and Dr. J.Sakthi Bama 3


The 96 hr LC50 value of ammonia for small and large size groups of L. rohita were 1.47 and 1.63 mg  l-1 respectively. The high ‘b’ value obtained in small fish indicates that, the toxic impact of ammonia was more in smaller fish than larger fish. The 95% confidence limits were 1.45 (lower limit) and 1.48 (upper limit) mg NH3 l-1 in small size group of L. rohita and it increased to 1.43 and 1.76 mg NH3 l-1 in large size group of L. rohita respectively. The slope function calculated for small and large size groups of test animal was 1.02 and 1.13 respectively. A positive correlation co-efficient was obtained for the relationship between the ammonia concentrations and per cent mortality and it was statistically significant for small (r = 0.965; P < 0.01) and large (r = 0.952; P < 0.01) size groups of L. rohita exposed to toxic levels of ammonia . The relationship between the toxic concentrations of ammonia and per cent mortality of small and large size groups of L.rohita expressed by the regression lines (Y = a + bX) were Y = -1238.60 + 879.77X and Y = -327.57 + 232.06X respectively. The ‘b’ value obtained for small size group was 880 and it significantly declined to 232 in large size group of L. rohita exposed to ammonia levels.

Is Dentistry Contributing to Climate Change? Knowledge-Based Awareness and Education Survey in Maharashtra

Dr. Sonali Kisan Waghmode


Background: According to HCWH 2019, healthcare industry is 5th largest greenhouse gas emitter. Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways. Despite the many benefits offered by eco-friendly approach, one of the main hurdles is the unawareness among the profession itself and related patients. Aim: To assess the knowledge and spread awareness amongst dental students, dental practitioners and dental academicians about carbon foot printing in dentistry. Materials&Methodology: We conducted cross-sectional awareness survey in Maharashtra for dental practitioners, dental academicians and dental students on topic named “is dentistry contributing to climate change?” to check knowledge and spread awareness about carbon foot printing in dentistry and dental practice. To share view on dentistry and its impact on climate change. There were five questions. After knowledge-based questionnaires, answers were provided to create awareness. Followed by shared a poster for awareness and education on carbon footprint in dentistry. Dentists are encouraged to motivate patients for good oral hygiene so that promoting green dentistry.  Result&Observations: Results showed Dentists are 50% aware about what is carbon footprint but they don’t know about various dental treatment impact and how to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Statical data showed overall no significant difference between knowledge of dental students, dental practitioners and dental academicians.  Conclusion:Oral health is an extremely important part of human life. Dentistry as a profession should amalgamate sustainable development goals into regular practice and support a shift to an Eco-dentistry practice in pursuing healthy lives and well-being for all through all stages of life. It is the responsibility of all dental professionals to meet the demands of society to reduce the impact on natural resources at the same time promoting optimal oral health for all people and maintaining patient safety. The dentist should take steps to educate all of the dental team on eco-friendly practices and simultaneously reinforce safety of the patient and quality of treatment. It is important to spread awareness about how to reduce carbon footprint in dental practice. Together let us contribute to slow down and reverse the climate change.


Investigation of Factors Affecting Implementation of the Nigerian Space Policy

Ibiyemi A. Jesuleyea* and Timothy O. Oyebisib


The failures and difficulties that have shown up in the implementation of major public policies around the world have helped to direct attention to the need for explicit planning. Proper implementation of such policies entails giving adequate attention to factors like political variables and institutional capacities. This study attempts to assess the implementation level of the Nigerian Space Policy (NSP) as adjudged by the coordinating and implementing organizations, alongside the factors that might have affected the implementation. Copies of questionnaires were administered to collect data from selected top and middle level managers among the NSP coordinating and implementing bodies. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and relational statistics. The NSP was judged by the coordinating bodies and implementers to have an average level of implementation. The results showed that awareness of the Policy among the stakeholders, interaction/collaboration among the stakeholders and the operations of the NASRDA activities centres were the factors found to have statistically significant (p<0.05) relationships with the level of policy implementation in the operations of the NSP coordinating bodies and the NASRDA activity Centres.  Only government support for the development of indigenous competences was found to have statistically significant relationship with the policy implementation level in the operations of the multifarious stakeholders.  Improvement on the identified factors could enhance level of NSP implementation, though efforts should be expedited by relevant stakeholders to avert the deterioration tendency of the situation.


Monetary Policy Shocks and West African Countries' Industrial Output Performance

Atsuwa Ruth Ngukimbin1 & AbdulkarimMusa 2


Indicators of monetary policy that affect industrial production performance are analyzed in this study. A 40-year period from 1980 to 2019 was used, with a focus on 10 West African countries, to analyze the shock transmission mechanism between monetary policy indicators variables and industrial production performance in West African countries. Using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, ADF unit root test, trend analysis, panel ARDL estimation, and panel VAR estimation, data from the World Bank Development Indicator database was examined.   The analysis's findings indicate that while money supply trended primarily in the same direction as manufacturing sector output performance, real interest rates and monetary policy rates trended primarily in the opposite direction. Real interest rates in the service sector moved in the opposite direction of output performance from money supply and monetary policy rates, which typically moved in the same direction as output performance. Furthermore, the production of the manufacturing sector in a few West African countries is significantly impacted positively by the real interest rate and the interbank rate but negatively by the money supply and exchange rate. In the long run, both the money supply and the monetary policy rate have a major negative impact on the output performance of the service sector, whereas in the short term, only the monetary policy rate has a significant negative impact.This study comes to the conclusion, among other things, that monetary policy variables, particularly over the long run, have a more significant impact on the output performance of West Africa's manufacturing sector than they do on that of the service sector.


A Robust Feature Selection Framework for Effective Processing of Machine Learning Datasets

Samera Uga Otor


Most machine learning datasets are riddled with noise, outliers, redundant features, and blank entries. These datasets must be properly formatted for the learning models to process them and produce agood result using data preprocessing techniques such as data cleansing, feature selection, and feature engineering. Therefore, a feature selection framework was developed in this study. The framework defined a list of datasets, feature selection score functions for regressors and classifiers such as Chi-square, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and regressors and classifiers such as Decision Tree, Multilayer Perception Neural Network, K-nearest neighbor, and Random Forest as a pipeline. The framework was designed to choose between a regression predictive modeling anda classification predictive modeling based on the data type of the output variable. It also allows for the number of datasets, feature selection scores, regressors and classifiers to be increased or reduced as desired.

The framework was tested using the datasets CIC-DDoS2019, XIIoTID, DDoS-SDN, and DoS/DDoS-MQTT-IoT. The datasets were subjected to; several preprocessing techniques for data cleansing, which included filling the not-a-number values, infinity values, special characters, empty values, and converting negative values to positive values as needed and several feature engineering procedures, such as label imputers, encoders, and scalars. The datasets were then evaluated to get the features with the best scores for each dataset as either a classification or regression problem. Furthermore, to test for feature stability, the datasets were evaluated using recursive feature elimination (RFE). Results show that for the CIC-DDoS2019 and XIIoTID datasets, f-classif selected the best features with an accuracy of 99% to 100%. For DDoS-SDN datasets, f-regression with Random Forest regressor selected the best features with MSE of 0.0005 and R2 of 0.998%, and for DoS/DDoS-MQTT-IoT datasets, mutual info regressor with Random Forest selected the best features with MSE of 0.0128 and R2 of 94% respectively. For feature stability, the consistent features are supplied for researchers who intend to use the dataset for further research.


Personality Traits, Organizational and Operational Police Stress in the Ethiopian Federal Police: A Correlational Cross Sectional Study

Tamirat Mulugeta Bekele1 & Dr. Teka Zewdie Mengesha2


Problem:There are few studies worldwide that tried to investigate a relationship between personality and police stress. These studies reported significant relationship among personality traits and police stress. However, most of the studies are conducted in western context, and there are few studies conducted in African setting that show the pattern of relationship among personality traits and police stress. This study therefore, aimed to assess the relationship personally has with police occupational stress in the Ethiopian context. Approach:A cross-sectional correlational method was employed in this study. Using a stratified sampling technique, 401, police officers, of which 22.9% are females, were selected and completed the survey. Police Stress Questionnaire and the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory were used to collect data.Findings:Officers in the Ethiopian Federal Police Commission experienced a high level of occupational stress, where organizational stress (M=3.99) is found to be higher than operational stress (M=3.88). Neuroticism was found to have a significant positive correlation with organizational and operational police stress (r=.163 and .196) respectively.  Similarly, significant positive the relationship was observed between agreeableness and police organizational stress (r=.316) and police operational stress (r=.226). Conscientiousness was also found to have a significant positive association with organizational police stress (.279) and police operational stress (.179). Organizational police stress was also found to have a significant negative association with extroversion and openness (r=-.137 andr=-.160) respectively. Extroversion and openness did not have a significant association with operational police stress. The regression analysis showed that four of the personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness) significantly predicted both police organizational and operational stress, but not openness. Conclusion:It can be concluded that personality traits are significant predictors of police organizational and operational stress in the Ethiopian Federal Police.Police organizations should work towards understanding the relationship among personality traits and occupational stress, consider personality types on recruitment and assign police officers to tasks fit their personalities so that to increase performance and serve the public in a better way.


Analyzing the Key Performance Indicators in SME using Hierarchy Process

Ayswer A.S1, Dr N Ramasamy2, Dr M Dev Anand3,Dr N Santhi4


Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a country play an important role in its socio- economic well-being. Its development and well-being will be beneficial for the firm as well as the country itself, recognizing the same governments have provided policy reforms and incentives to SMEs. Now a day, many companies may have performed poorly because they lack effective and efficient performance management frameworks. Moreover, strategies to adequately and judiciously allocate resources to meet organisational goals. So most of the SME’s lack an awareness of their performance compared to their peers and the areas in which they are slacking. For that, Performance measurement plays a vital role to improve the performance of the firm by identifying the obstacles in the system.

Therefore, this paper aims to analyse the  performanceindicators for measuring the performance of SMEs and ranking it against its peers, it will identify the areas the firm is lagging in and will help in improvement. Performance measurement enables an organisation to plan, measure, and control its performance with the aid of pre-defined strategy. Therefore, it enables it to achieve its desired goals and to create shareholder value. For analysingthe  performance indicators, , A Multi criteria decision-making tool ,Analytic Hierarchy Process is used.


Comparative Analysis of Deep Learning Techniques on LOT devices

Moushumi Barman1 & Bobby Sharma2


With the rapid proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the threat landscape has expanded, posing significant challenges for secu-rity and privacy. Malware attacks targeting IoT devices have become a pressing concern, as they can compromise sensitive data, disrupt ser-vices, and even lead to physical harm. This research paper presents a comparative analysis of deep learning techniques for detecting mal-ware on IoT devices. The study focuses on addressing the unique challenges associated with limited resources, diverse communication protocols, and dynamic environments of IoT devices. A benchmark dataset comprising real-world IoT network traffic, encompassing benign and malicious activities, is utilized. Various deep learning models, including Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), Autoencoders (AE), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNs), are implemented and trained on the dataset. Performance evaluation based on accu-racy, along with computational complexity and resource consumption, highlights the most effective techniques. The CNN model identifies malware patterns accurately by exploiting spatial dependencies, while RNNs capture temporal dependencies effectively. Autoencoders detect anomalies by reconstructing normal behavior. MLPs and RBFNs pro-vide additional insights into the dataset and potential attack vectors

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Metabolic Aspects in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-A Randomized Control Study

1Princy Merlyn.G, 2Ponmathi.P, 3Venkatesh.N, 4Dhanalakshmi M.G, 5Malathi.S


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder that affects ovaries in women during childbearing years. This results in an irregular menstrual cycle. Around 1/3 women across the world suffer from this hormonal disorder. The prevalence of PCOS ranges from 2.2% to 26% worldwide. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Methodology: The study was conducted at Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai. Subjects were included in the study after satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An informed consent was obtained from the participants who are willing to participate in the study Subjects will be divided into two groups by A pretest measurement of fasting insulin and fasting glucose, LDL, HDL was taken. One group will be trained with moderate intensity steady training (MIST) aerobic exercise, physical activity and diet advice while the other group will be receiving low intensity steady training (LIST) aerobic exercise, physical activity and diet advice. The post-test measures will be taken following eight weeks of intervention.Results & Discussion: There is no statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest measures of HDL, FI, FG and HOMAIR values in both low intensity and Moderate intensity Aerobic training (p>0.05).There was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest measures of LDL in MIST(p<0.05). When both the groups were compared there was no significant difference between them (p>0.05). LIST is found to be clinically effective in LDL, FI and HDL, thus quite beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS. Future studies with longer duration can bring a better understanding of low intensity steady state training which the patient found comfortable to exercise for prolonged time.Conclusion: There was no significant effect of aerobic exercises and no significant difference between LIST and MIST over metabolic parameters in women with PCOS.



How State have Failed the Law for Genocide Given Under 1948 Genocide Convention

Shrabani Acharya


Why is it that governments repeatedly break their legal promises? Self-interest, obligation, and compulsion/coercion are the three fundamental motivations for a state to observe international law, just as they are in domestic law. The first two are mostly self-policing; a country's own values and necessities will keep it in accordance with the law. The last incentive, coercion, calls for the intervention of an external authority. There must be some kind of enforcement that can bring the offending party into conformity with the law and hold it responsible for its transgressions against it, even if the state's self-interest is not best served by adherence to the law and there is no ideological feeling of responsibility. U.N. Security Council Resolution 1564 from 2004 threatened to penalise Sudan's oil business if the country did not take steps to rein in its murderous Arab militias. China declared it would reject any proposed oil embargo, essentially nullifying the resolution, despite abundant evidence that the Sudanese government was subsidising its murderous campaign with cash from oil sales. A phrase requiring the agreement of the Sudanese government, the very perpetrators of the genocide, was added to a resolution asking for peacekeepers in Darfur when China refused to support it. Thus, China is preventing the enforcement mechanisms of the Genocide Convention from taking effect because it prioritises its economic ties with the Sudanese government over its responsibilities as a member of the Security Council. Sadly, this is just one example of a state ignoring its jus cogens duties for economic reasons. After investing almost any resources, we're now expected to spend millions on feeding migrants and rescuing a failing state. International efforts to prevent, suppress, and punish genocide and genocide-like acts have stalled for decades because of internal political factors that make it difficult for states to generate the political will required for effective law enforcement of genocide.



Iris Recognition for Personal Interconnection Using Lamstar Neural Network

1 Dasaradha Arangi, 2 A V Ramana, 3S Kesava Rao, 4 N Seetayya


One of the most promising biometric recognition methods is iris recognition. This is because the iris texture has many features such as freckles, wreaths, stripes, furrows, crypts, etc. These traits are unique and distinguishable to different people. Such unique features in the anatomical structure of the iris make it possible to distinguish between individuals. Therefore, in recent years, many people have tried to improve performance. This article first explains various general steps for the iris recognition system. Then a special type of neural network is used for the recognition part. Experimental results show that high accuracy can be achieved, especially if the first few steps are performed well.


Evaluation of Serum Magnesium in Uncontrolled and Controlled Diabetes Mellitus

Dr.Lanke Vani *1 & S.G.V.Siva Sai Datta 2


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has increased incidence because of changing pattern of dietary and life style changes and stress. This metabolic disorder is associated with altered serum electrolyte levels like magnesium which may lead to serious complications if not detected early. Objective: To estimate and compare serum magnesium levels in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted on 30 uncontrolled diabetic subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1 c) more than 7 and 30 controlled diabetic subjects with good glycemic control, HbA1 c less than 7. Serum magnesium levels were estimated in both the groups. Statistical analysis was done by using Graphpad Quickcalcs calculator. Student's unpaired t-test was done to compare between two groups and statistical significance was determined and expressed as P-value. Results:Serum magnesium levels expressed as mean ±  S.D. was 1.440± 0.271 in uncontrolled diabetic group when compared to 2.033 ± 0.385 in controlled diabetic group. The decrease in serum magnesium levels in poorly controlled diabetics than in those diabetics with good glycemic control has a p-value < 0.0001 which is of extreme statistical significance. Conclusion:To conclude there was decreased serum magnesium in uncontrolled diabetics when compared to well controlled diabetics. This warrants the need for correction of hypomagnesemia in diabetics to prevent associated complications and morbidity.


The Transformative Effects of AI on Employment: A Regression Analysis of Selected OCED Nations

Dr. Vikas Deepak Srivastava Prabhu Narayan Srivastava


In cyber space era, the potential of AI has charismatic power to transform various sectors of society by improving efficiency, accuracy, and safety. This research study aims to investigate the association between increasing application of AI and its effect on employment status. Data on employment status, wage rates, and AI application in percentage term are extracted from secondary sources such as the OECD. The findings reveal that Germany and the United Kingdom have the highest number of people employed in reference period, indicating a robust workforce. Estonia, on the other hand, has room for growth in terms of employment opportunities. It is noted that Luxembourg and the Netherlands offer the highest minimum annual wages in Europe. The study also highlights the variation in AI utilization by firms, with Luxembourg and the Netherlands leading the way, while Greece and Romania have lower adoption rates. Regression analysis shows that both AI utilization and annual wage rates significantly affect employment status. Higher AI utilization is associated with lower employment levels, suggesting potential job replacement through automation. Conversely, higher wages are linked to increased employment status, indicating that attractive wages can attract and retain more workers. Interestingly, the study suggests that AI utilization has a larger impact on employment status than wage rates. However, it is crucial to note that these findings represent regression analysis of selected variables for reference period and should not be interpreted as causation. To fully capitalize on the benefits of AI, collaboration between policymakers, businesses, and communities is essential to equip the workforce with the necessary skills to adapt and thrive in an AI-driven economy. This approach will maximize the potential benefits of AI while mitigating any negative impacts on employment.


Zero Truncated Model Estimations of Fake Drug Syndicates Inonitsha Southeast, Nigeria

Ugochukwu Osisiogu, Theresa Efor, Chinwuba Emeka


This paper examines the use of zero truncated models for the estimate of the population size of fake drug Syndicates in Onitsha, Southeast Nigeria. Various estimators under zero-truncated Poisson models and geometric models were used to estimate this kind of hidden population. The estimators are Maximum Likelihood, Turing, Chao's Lower Bound and Zelterman. The weighted estimators for the four candidate estimators under zero-truncated Poisson model gives the population size of fake drug Syndicates as 6579. As 1434 were observed, this means that only about 22% of these Syndicates are observed with 95% confidence interval of 19%-25% leaving about 78% unobserved still in the distribution chain of this drugs. Similarly, the weighted estimator for the four candidate estimators under zero-truncated geometric model is 12649 with only about 11% of the population being observed with confidence interval of 10%-13%, leaving about 89% still in the distribution chain. This is not good news for National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), the agency responsible for checkmating illicit and counterfeits drugs in Nigeria. The study also shows that of all the offense committed by fake drug Syndicates, falsification of genuine drugs was rampantly committed, followed by the selling of expired drugs, while the least committed offense was the selling of banned drugs


Financial Literacy and Gender: A Behavioral Perceptive, Evidence from G20 Nations

Dr. Vikas Deepak Srivastava & Prabhu Narayan Srivastava


This research study is an attempt to explore the financial literacy index of G20 nations, focusing on the importance of financial literacy, the gender gap in financial literacy, and its impact on individuals and the economy. The research highlights the need for equal access to financial education and resources for both men and women, suggesting gender-specific programs, embedding financial education in curricula, and promoting inclusive financial services. It emphasizes the significance of the financial literacy index as a tool to measure financial knowledge and understanding within a population. By improving financial literacy, individuals can enhance their financial well-being, make better financial decisions, and avoid financial hardships. It also contributes to economic growth and stability at both individual and societal levels. The geometric mean tool is used by aggregating scores on three major financial index components. The findings of the financial literacy index for G20 nations indicate that most countries have above-average scores, indicating a relatively high level of financial literacy. However, some countries, such as Argentina and Italy, have lower scores, suggesting room for improvement in financial literacy education. Conversely, countries like Canada, China, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, and the United Kingdom have higher scores, indicating a better understanding of financial concepts among their human dividends. The research study specifically highlights India as having a below-average financial literacy index score, emphasizing the need for improvement in financial literacy education. Given India's large population and growing economy, individuals need a good understanding of financial concepts to make informed decisions about their finances. In summary, the abstract presents a comprehensive overview of the financial literacy index of G20 nations, discussing its significance, providing key findings, and suggesting measures to bridge the gender gap and improve financial literacy worldwide.


Mathematical Modeling of Forest Fire Comprehensive Review

Kanni Raj Arumugam Pillai, Yara Ezal Deen Sultan


The goal of forest fire modeling is to understand and forecast the behavior of forest fires through numerical simulation. To simulate fire dangers and fire spread behavior, statistical techniques are applied to historical fire incidents. A number of fire-based data tables are used to create the Canadian fire weather index (FWI). FWI is a straightforward method that effectively identifies vegetation's fire vulnerability. Simple empirical equations are used to calculate the Australian fire danger index (FDI). Similar to FWI is FDI. Models for forest fires that combine stochastic and mathematical techniques accurately mimic the spread of the fire and forecast its severity. Physical models use heat transport through convection and radiation as well as the heat balance of sources (fire) and sinks (forest areas close to the fire source). MATLAB or Delphi programs are used to solve the differential equations relating to heat transfer. The world crown fire modeling experiment's predicted fire spread behavior closely matches the predictions made by mathematical approaches.  In real-time forestry, forest landscape, wind speed, ambient temperature and rain fall level are obtained from satellite imagery and weather forecasting and machine learning is used for predicting the vulnerability to forest fire and the rate of spreading of the fire.


Mathematical Model on Two Phase Arterial Blood Flow of Human Hepatic Circulatory Sub-system with Special Reference to Malaria

Ram Naresh Yadav, V. Upadhyay


In this paper, we consider two phase arterial blood flow of human hepatic circulatory sub-system during malaria in which one phase is of blood plasma and other is that of red blood cells.  In this study we apply non–Newtonian Power law model according to stress and strain rate of arteries and employing the Navier- Stoke equation and equation of continuity for cylindrical co-ordinate system. All mathematical equations are written in tensorial form and solution technique adapted is analytical as well as numerical for collected clinical data of blood pressure and hemoglobin. Resulting equation shows a linear relationship between hematocrit and blood pressure drop and graphical presentation for particular parametric value is much closer to clinical observation.  

Development of a Credit Card Fraud Detection Model

Sholanke Temitope Folasade & Akano Olaitan Mary


In the era of digitalization, utilization of credit cards is on the rise for acquiring goods through both online and offline avenues. Fraudulent credit card transactions have been on rise nowadays. This study used machine learning algorithms to detect fraudulent activities. The model was trained using machine learning algorithms logistic regression, random forest and xgboost. Implemented was carried out using HTML and CSS as a web application. The algorithms are compared and the one with greatest accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score is considered the best algorithm for fraud prediction. Our findings indicates that XGboost has the highest accuracy of 99.86%, followed by Random Forest Classification with 99.84% and Logistic Regression with 99.41%.Random forest classification and XG Boost models demonstrated good performance in predicting fraudulent transactions, while the logistic regression model performed poorly in this regard. These results offer insight to target users about the performance of three different fraud detection models.


Determinants of Firm Growth: The Case of Ethiopian Manufacturing Firms

Hailemariam Leggesse Gurmu, , Jemal Abafita


The unreliable contribution of the Ethiopian manufacturing firms on the economic growth is the, main headache to the policy makers in the country. The aims of the study were to identify the determinants of firm growth in Ethiopian manufacturing sector. The study based on data obtained from Ethiopian central statistics agency on medium and large firms for 2008 to 2020. OLS for comparison and System GMM developed by Blundell and Bond (1998) that uses lagged first differences of the explanatory variables and the dependent variable as instruments was used parallel to examine the relationship between size and growth as well as identify the other major determinants of firm growth. Both OLS and system GMM result indicated that age and size have negative relationship with firm growth that shows small and younger firms grow faster. This is good evidence against Gibrat law. Furthermore, the lags of firm growth have negative effect which indicates there is no persistent growth in the Ethiopian medium and large manufacturing firms. In addition export, capital intensity, human capital and location has a positive and significant effect on firm growth while labour productivity has a negative and significant effect on the firm growth. The policy perspective emphasis should be given to improve exposure of firms to foreign market, new technology, and invest on infrastructure and human power development. Small businesses that are more labor-intensive should be more concerned.


The Strategic Leadership Role of School Principals in Developing Strategic Plans:The Case of Four Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dr. Amanuel Eromo Adillo


The main purpose of this study was  to investigate how principals in Addis Ababa, contribute to the improvement of academic performance in secondary schools through strategic planning. In an attempt to address this issue, a qualitative case study was conducted in four purposefully selected senior secondary schools. The researcher collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews with principals, department heads, and supervisors from high-performing and low-performing schools. Qualitative data obtained from the semi- structured interviews were coded and analyzed thematically.The relevant documents were also analyzed. The research result reveals that in schools,principals did not play strategic leadership role in creating and executing strategic plan at school level. The findings also indicate that principals lack strategic leadership skills and knowledge in areas such as conducting a SWOT analysis, defining the vision, mission, and values, setting goals and monitoring implementation. Moreover, there is a lack of coordination between strategic planning and academic performance. As a result, it can be inferred that secondary schools in the study area have not utilized a structured approach in developing their strategic plans based on the context and condition of schools, which included important elements to enhance student academic performance.Based on the findings, the study suggests that secondary schools should have a well-defined policy guideline regarding the strategic planto enhance academic performance. In light of this, the Ministry of Education is advised to create this guideline to effectively support and managing school leaders to improve academic performance.


Entrepreneurial Orientation and Growth of Private Secondary Schools in North-Central Nigeria: The Mediating Role of Socio-Cultural Perception

Dr Ngele Anthonia Nnebuife & Dr Muhammad Maimuna Yakubu


The study symbolised the vitalness of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as a rewarding element for the growth of private secondary schools in North-Central Nigeria. As a result, the structural equation model (SEM) was employed to examine the mediating role between entrepreneurial orientation and growth of private secondary schools in North-Central Nigeria. The findings divulged that, socio-cultural perception possessed a positive and significant mediating effect on the relationship between the EO variable and growth in terms of number of academic staff and number of students. Hence the study concluded that the EO components considered in the study are important variables in explaining growth of private secondary schools in North-Central Nigeria and socio-cultural perception partially mediated the relationship between EO and growth of privates secondary schools in North-Central Nigeria. The study recommended that notable actions be taken to ensure that the inherent societal perceptions endorse the exhibition of EO attributes which results in growth of private secondary schools in North-Central Nigeria.



Evolutionary Computing Techniques and Methods

Naresh E, Shiva Darshan S L, Srinidhi N N, Ananda Babu J


We have come to realize that as our needs evolve, software needs to evolve to better develop, understand and move forward in technological history. The need for everchanging solutions for our everchanging needs gave rise to a software engineering model that has been used since the 1950s. There are two main classifications of Evolutionary Techniques in Software Engineering. Evolutionary computing can be defined as a system that can adjust to evolving requirements and the world in which it operates continuously. This can be interpreted as a metaphor for Darwin's theory. but this concept has been used fervently since the 1950s to explore, improve and gain better insight into technological sciences and algorithms. Evolutionary development can be vaguely described as a mixture of iterative and gradual models in the software development lifecycle. This model splits down the production cycle into simpler, gradual cascade models, with consumers gaining access to the product after each cycle. Users provide input to help develop the product, resulting in quantifiable deliverables that can be used to promptly check and confirm their requirements. In this article, we will be exploring these various methods that have been studied throughout the years and their real-world applications.



Book Review: The Cat Who Saved Books by Sosuke Natsukawa and Translated by Louise Heal Kawai

Abhishek Thakur


Cats hold a significant place in Japanese literature, with notable examples dating back to the early days of modern Japanese literary works. Natsume Soseki's I Am a Cat, a satirical portrayal of Meiji-era society through the perspective of a cat, stands as one of the pioneering classics. (In 2021, Chiroru Kobato faithfully adapted the story into a manga, which was translated by Zach Davisson.) Another influential author, Junichiro Tanizaki, published the novella A Cat, a Man, and Two Women three decades later.


Gender Specific Study in Subjects at Risk of Developing Dementia, Anxiety and Depression After Covid-19 Exposure

Jigar Sanjiv Padhiar, Uddipak Rai, Parag Rane


Introduction: Dementia, anxiety and depression are brain conditions that affects several upper cortical processes, including memory, thinking, direction, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Objectives: The objective of this study is to study the effect of demographic factor on dementia, anxiety and depression in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. Methods: This study is designed to observe subjects at risk of developing dementia, anxiety and depression after Covid-19 exposure patient data were collected from the hospital with help of hospital staff. Eligible patients were involved in the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who meet the eligibility criteria was required to fill the questionnaire. So based on responses from the subject, the data was analyzed. Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDL) was used for the study. Results:  We have performed statistical analyses with the categorization of patient i. E. Gender and disease condition. The total number of patients (1000, Post Covid-19) enrolled in the study. Based on the response received from post-Covid-19patients, the data were analyzed by SAS Program. The responses, which were resulted in “YES” against each question of the questionnaire, were calculated as proportion. Conclusion: while the long-term impact of COVID-19 on dementia, anxiety and depression risk is still uncertain, it is essential to prioritize the health and well-being of older adults, especially those with pre-existing dementia, during and after the pandemic. Maintaining social connections, providing accessible healthcare services, and implementing preventive measures


Atrial Fibrillation and Cryptogenic Stroke: Role of Holter Monitoring Reiterating the Fact and Applicability to Modern Medicine

Dr Sahana Panambur, Dr Harsha Sundaramurthy, Dr Shasthara Paneyala & Dr Nemichandra SC


Background: Cryptogenic strokes of the past are now sine qua non of atrial fibrillation. Yet, despite major advances in monitoring strategies for AF, there is no consensus regarding the optimal duration of monitoring. Results: This hospital based prospective clinical study screened 1000 stroke patients and included 142 patients in the study based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria . As per the current recommendations patients with cryptogenic stroke underwent 24 hour holter monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation. The mean age of patients was 68.5 years with increasing incidence of atrial fibrillation with increasing age. Out of the 142 patients included, 5 were identified to have atrial fibrillation, with paroxysmal variant  being the most common type. The most frequent risk factors of stroke were type 2 diabetes mellitus (65%), hyperlipidemia (58%) , hypertension (39%) and smoking (42%). NIHS, MRS and KATZ score showed no statistical significant correlation with occurrence of atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic stroke. Analysis of the neuroradiological data revealed that 9.2% of strokes were large vessel, 24.6% were embolic, 11.3% were lacunar and 15.5% were subcortical infarcts. 19.7% had supratentorial bleed, 14.1% had infratentorial bleed and 2.1% had subarachnoid bleed. Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation is a leading avoidable cause of recurrent stroke for which early identification and prompt treatment are critical. However, due to the paroxysmal and asymptomatic presentation of atrial fibrillation, clinicians often tend to miss the diagnosis in cryptogenic stroke. Thus cost effective longer duration monitoring strategies are probably required to adequately detect AF in cryptogenic stroke as it has therapeutic implications in preventing recurrent stroke.


Bioremediation of Heavy Metals by Fungus in Aqueous Ecosystem: A Review

Vani Sharma and Bhavya Trivedi


Industrial accumulation of heavy metals in aqueous ecosystems menaces both ecosystem and human health, thus embrace the development of potentially cost-effective technology to eliminate toxic heavy metals. Microbial removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution studied extensively and fungi elevate high concentration of heavy metals by investing low cost. pH, metal ions concentration, biomass concentration and time of incubation attribute to heavy metal bioremediation ability from aqueous solution. This review discusses bioremediation technology i.e. biosorption through fungi for potential removal of these metals.


Analysis of an Insilico Interaction by a Curcumin Derivative specifically Only with the AKT1 Molecule but Not AKT2 .

Prakash Vaithyanathan


Akt1 is an important macromolecule expressed excessively in many cancers. Inhibition of Akt1 by natural compounds is always advantageous for there are fewer side effects. It is well known that curcumin modifies the behavior of AKT1/AKT2/AKT3 but a natural ligand or its derivative that interacts specifically with AKT1 is one, that will be of tremendous interest in the world of cancers. For the first time, a derivative of curcumin that interacts only with AKT1 but not AKT2 is proposed by way of bioinformatics-based verification studies. Through simulation-based analysis, this research studies the interactions of curcumin derivative with AKT1 protein and compare the same with the fda approved AKT1 inhibitor, capiversatib. The curcumin derivative’s energy was localized along with optimization using the PDB file 4EKL obtained from RCSB.  The stability of the curcumin derivative’s non-bonded interactions with the AKT1 protein was studied using Desmond MD method.  The affinity of the curcumin derivative’s interaction was -10.327 kcal/mol and for the fda approved molecule, Capivasertib, it was -8.339 kcal/mol. The MMGBSA value of -60.53 kcal/mol for the curcumin derivative-AKT1 complex was much better than the value of -26.65 kcal/mole for the Capivasertib-AKT1 complex. The curcumin derivative molecule did not interact with Akt2 molecule as indicated by the failure of good docking poses by the docking software. The curcumin derivative molecule was helped by hydrogen bond formations with Glu228, Ala230, Lys179, Glu278, Thr312, Tyr315 whereas for Capivasertib, the hydrogen bonds were formed at Glu234, Glu278, Glu228 and Ala230 in addition to various hydrophobic interactions for both the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulation studies confirmed the stability of the curcumin derivative molecule-Akt1 complex for the entire duration of 100 nanoseconds. Hence, the curcumin derivative molecule may target specifically the Akt1 molecule for its behavioural modification.


A Questionnaire Based Study to Evaluate the Attitude and Awareness Towards Preferring the Method of Recording Occlusal Vertical Dimension of the Patient in the Dentists of Gujarat

Dr Liya Neha Bipinchandra, Dr Darshana N Shah


Problem:A fundamental consideration is the preservation of the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD), which entails maintaining the distance between specific anatomical points during maximal intercuspal position.One of the challenges that dentists often face when recording OVD is the lack of reliable landmarks.These landmarks serve as reference points to determine the correct vertical dimension.Approach:A questionnaire-based survey was administered among 164 participants in Gujarat, including postgraduate students, clinicians, and academicians. Logical and validated questions were included in a Google Form, encompassing attitudes and awareness regarding methods for recording OVD. Responses were collected and analysed using descriptive statistics with Microsoft Excel and SPSS Statistics version 24.0 for Windows.Findings:The study revealed that a significant majority of dentists favoured physiological methods for recording OVD. However, awareness of newer techniques, specifically anthropometric measurements, was limited among participants. These findings highlight the need for continuous education to keep dentists updated with evolving practices and to enhance their familiarity with various OVD recording methods. The null hypothesis was rejected, indicating a meaningful distinction in attitudes and awareness regarding OVD recording methods among dentists in Gujarat.Conclusion:The study underscores the significance of comprehensive dental education and continuous learning to ensure dentists remain well-informed about advancements in their field. By improving awareness and knowledge of various OVD recording methods, dental professionals can offer enhanced patient care and more favourable treatment outcomes. This research provides valuable insights for refining dental education and clinical approaches, ultimately leading to patient well-being.


A study on Vedic Astrology with special reference to HIV/AIDS: HIV prediction using Vedic Astrology & Data Mining technique

Dipesh Raj, Rudresh M Shastri, Vikas Chouhan, Srirama, Arick Istriyanti


Problem: Unlike other medical conditions, HIV/AIDS is one of those irreversible medical conditions where the carrier of the virus not only goes through the severe medical condition but also goes through a very tough psychological breakdown along with unpredicted social reaction. The HIV bearer goes through serious damage to the immune system by the HIV virus which eventually leads to AIDS which is the syndrome. Although multiple HIV prevention programs are being conducted across the globe, the count is still getting increased rapidly year by year. Approach: A detailed study was conducted to understand the symptoms of HIV/AIDS from medical perspective along with the classic Vedic Astrology books to identify the HIV/AIDS symptoms from astrological perspective. A total of 144 references were identified which might lead to HIV/AIDS. A total of 979 HIV Positive samples and 979 HIV Negative samples were collected from multiple hospitals and reliable sources across the globe. The sample was collected from 49 countries. The astrological charts were generated based on gender, date of birth, time of birth & place of birth and then converted into raw data in Microsoft Excel with a total of 181 variables. Further, the statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics and then multiple data mining models were runusing IBM SPSS Modeler. Findings: After running multiple algorithms, 110 variables were dropped out and the final algorithms were run with 71 variables. It turned out, the Bayesien Network algorithm for Data Mining gave the best fit model with coincidence matric accuracy of 97.29%. The evaluation metrics had AUC of 0.996 and Gini of 0.993. The model had confidence value for always correct as 0.998 with 97.29% accuracy along with 98.69% 2.0-fold accuracy. Out of 979 HIV positive cases, the model predicted 940 cases correctly. Out of 979 HIV negative cases, the model predicted 965 cases correctly. This gave the confidence value report for mean correct as 0.986.Conclusion: There is very high co-relation between astrological chart and HIV/AIDS transmission. With the help of astrological chart and by applying this Bayesian network model, we can predict the chances of HIV transmission with an accuracy of more than 97% which is one of the most accurate models in the field of Medical Astrology. The implementation of this model can make huge difference in order to slow down the transmission of this irreversible virus from one person to another. This could be a ground breaking approach for public health professionals to take necessary preventive action in order to stop this infection getting spread and make the world once again HIV free.


Health Infrastructure in Rural India: A Comparative Study

Dr. Ritu Pandhi Nayyar


 Health services are one of the fundamental sectors of the society and the economy. Providing social health protection and equal access to quality healthcare have significant positive effects on individual and public health, economic growth and development. India has shortage of health care facilities, especially in rural areas, where majority of the population resides. In this context, the present study was carried out with aims to examine the current status of health indicators of major states of rural India and to make a comparative analysis of rural health care infrastructure in India. The study is primarily based on secondary data that has been collected from different sources of Government of India. From the present paper, it was realized that there are inequalities and shortages in the existing rural health care infrastructure in the major Indian states. For meeting the deficiency of rural health infrastructure in terms of government buildings there is an urgent need of investment in the same by the government. Further, focus should also be given towards rationalising the existing health care institutions to improve their service delivery. The principle of the equity should be followed for spreading the health care services across regions.

Alcaligenes Faecalis, An Opportunistic Pathogen of Multidrug Resistance

Rina Rani Ray and Smaranika Pattnaik


Alcaligenes faecalis, naturally found in soil and water is also found to be present as a member of normal human microbiota. Some of the strains are found to cause diseases of human, both adult and new-born, some of which are life threatening. A faecalis strains are also found to cause diseases in birds like poultry birds and turkeys; some vertebrates and nematodes. The most dangerous fact is that most of these strains are resistant to almost all existing antibiotics and this resistance is conferred by antibiotic resistant genes (ARG), constituting the resistomes. Being a free-living organism, under the stress of environment and antimicrobials present therein, A faecalis finds shelter in living body.  In course of time, it turns to opportunistic pathogen in the immune compromised hosts and as result of rampant use of antibiotics for both empiric and definitive therapy of the diseases, few strains become multi drug resistant. The biofilm mediated infections conferred by these antibiotic resistant strains give rise to various chronic and nosocomial diseases in human.


Effect of Circuit Training on Inflammatory marker and Insulin resistance Among Young Adults with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome- A Randomized Controlled trial

Bhavani. V, Ponmathi.P , Sathyaprabha.B


The present study was conducted to find the effect of circuit training on inflammatory marker and insulin resistance among young adults with PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome. Habitual low- grade inflammation has been  intertwined as a  threat factor of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart  disease and is linked to insulin resistance( IR) and abdominal  rotundity. Diagnosed cases of PCOS were included in the study following gynecological examination . Samples were selected using random sampling technique into two groups. Blood evaluation of inflammatory marker and insulin resistance is taken us outcome measure. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis by using mean, standard deviation,’t’ test and non parametric test. Results reveal that circuit training as significant effect on insulin resistance than inflammatory marker. Eight weeks of Circuit training has a significant effect on insulin resistance and does not have a significant effect over inflammatory marker among young adults with PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome 

Influence of Consumers Perceptions through Perceived Social Risk on Store Loyalty Behaviour of Young Indian Consumers

Dr. Meenu Mathur , Dr. Shweta Sharma


Problem: The purpose of the study was to understand the influence of varied consumers’ perceptions in predicting retail store loyalty behaviour among young Indians. The study focuses on the influence of brand familiarity, quality and affective perceptions on store loyalty behaviour of young Indian consumers. The mediating effect of perceived social risk is examined. Approach: The survey instrument using standard scales was designed to execute the study and the data was gathered from 232 respondents, young shoppers in the age group 18-25 from city of Indore (Madhya Pradesh) India. The hypothesized relationships were verified using covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) and bootstrap procedure. Findings: After testing various hypothesis, the findings reveal that relationships between Store Loyalty & perceived social risk (b = -0.694, at p= 0.000); brand familiarity& perceived social risk (b = -0.244, p =0.006); perceived quality (b = -0.335, at p= 0.000); & perceived social risk;and affective perception perceived social risk (b = -0.171, at p= 0.015) were negatively significant. Further, findings also indicates positive relationships, between brand familiarity and store loyalty (b = 0.967, at p= 0.000);perceived quality and store loyalty (b = 0.401 at p= 0.007) and affective perception and store loyalty (b = 0.715, at p= 0.000). The mediation relationships were also examined by testing the significance of indirect effects and a significant positive direct effect of Brand familiarity on store loyalty was observed. The indirect effect of brand familiarity (through social risk) on store loyalty was significant. Moreover, the direct effect of Perceived Quality on store loyalty was significant. The indirect effect of perceived quality (through social risk) on store loyalty was also found significant. Further, the direct effect of Affective Perception on store loyalty and the indirect effect of affective perceptions (through social risk) on store loyalty were found significant. Conclusion: Concisely, it can be concluded that brand familiarity, affective perception towards brands and perceived quality influences perceived social risk and store loyalty. Also, it is imperative to highlight that perceived social risk plays a mediating role in influencing the retail store loyalty among young Indian consumers in purchase of apparel private labels. The study discussed the findings and accordingly gave out the implications and elucidated the possible future research prospects.


Interplanetary Origin of Large Geomagnetic Storms (Dst ? ?100 nt) During (2017 - 2021)

Mahender Pal, Pawan Kumar, Amita Rani, Namrata Thakur, Kalpana Singh, A. P. Mishra and Sham Singh


In this present research paper, we have found and analysis three major geomagnetic storms whose disturbance storm time DST<-100nT calculate and examine during last phase of solar cycle 24 and rising phase of solar cycle 25. There are three geomagnetic storms have been found 8 September 2017, 26 August 2018, and 4 November 2021 with DST magnitude – 124nT, -174nT and -105nT respectively. It was reported that the most common interplanetary structures leading to the development of large storms were followed by a CMEs and solar flares regions at the leading fronts of high-speed streams. However, the relative importance of each of those driving structures has been shown to vary with the solar cycle phase. The interplanetary and solarparameters as well as correlation with geomagnetic stormparameters have been studied in this paper.


Implementation of 180° Hybrid Ring Coupler Design in Microstrip with VNA Measurement for 5G Applications

J. Salai Thillai Thilagam, P.C.Praveen kumar, G.V.R.Sagar, L.L.Prasanna kumar


Problem: This paper presents the design, simulation, and experimental implementation of a 180° hybrid ring coupler in microstrip technology with coupler line width 1 mm. The hybrid ring, also known as a quadrature coupler, is a fundamental component in microwave and RF circuits, offering efficient power splitting with a 180° phase difference between its output ports. Approch: The design process involves careful consideration of microstrip transmission line dimensions, substrate material properties, and impedance matching for optimal performance. Findings: The proposed design is realized on RT/duroid material parameters with a dielectric substrate thickness of 0.8 mm, center conductor ring circumference is 1.5l and the microstrip transmission lines are patterned according to calculated dimensions port line length 10 mm, width 2 mm  to achieve the desired phase relationship and power division. Electromagnetic simulation software tool HFSS is employed to validate and optimize the design before fabrication. After the simulation phase, the microstrip hybrid ring coupler is fabricated for impedance 50 ohms and characteristic impedance is Ö2Zo. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements are conducted to evaluate the performance of the implemented coupler. The measured S-parameters are compared with simulation results to validate the accuracy of the design and to identify any deviations between the simulated and measured responses. The results of the VNA measurements are presented frequency for 3 GHz resonance with return loss of more than 16 dB and over 2-6 GHz scale, demonstrating the performance of the microstrip 180° hybrid ring coupler in terms of power division, insertion less than 1 dB, good isolation, and phase difference between output ports. Conclusion: The paper concludes with a discussion of the achieved performance and potential applications of the designed microstrip hybrid ring coupler in microwave and RF systems, such as phase shifters, balanced mixers, and signal distribution networks. The presented design process and measurement methodology provide insights into the practical implementation of microwave components using microstrip technology.

Whether Contemporary Jurisprudence is Capable for Uniform Governance Worldwide Analysis of Impact of Contemporary Jurisprudence upon Communist Ideology

Atul Garg


The philosophy of the School of Contemporary Jurisprudence, Role of Jurisprudence in Modern Civilization. Factors involved inthe existence of Democratic and Communism ideology. The School of Contemporary Jurisprudence is appealing for the Universal Governance System for Democratic and Communism ideology, expecting the next Democratic, political and Judiciary revolution to be nearby.


Factors Influencing the Attitude of the Indian Fishermen towards Entrepreneurship Development in Fishery and Its Allied Sectors in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu: An Empirical Study

Dhivya D , Dr. E. Thangasamy


Globally, the process of socio-economic development becomes the basis for national development at macro level. For the purpose, an entrepreneurial activity is a must. Contribution of fishery and its allied sectors in this line is very significant. It is quite interesting to identify the influencing factors of an individual in this sector. This paper attempts to identify the key factors influencing the Indian Fishermen in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu.  The study was undertaken based on the primary data collected from the sample respondents directly by the researcher by using a pre-tested interview schedule comprising the questions in Five-Point Likert Scale.  The adequate sample size was determined scientifically to make the respondents representative for ensuring validity and reliability of the data for analysis.  Thereafter, the data was tabulated, coded, edited and analyzed with appropriate statistical tools for drawing a meaningful conclusion there-from.  The results of the study revealed that Capital’ has been the most influencing factor whereas the factor ‘Infrastructure’ has been the least influencing one. Further, it is also obvious that the factors ‘Raw material and Market’ are also prominent in influencing the attitude of the entrepreneurs towards the fishery sector. However, the factor labour has higher potential to influence the entrepreneurs than the factor infrastructure.


The Impact of Delivering Quality Service: The Case of the Registrars Office at Kotebe University of Education (KUE)

Amanuel Eromo Adillo,


This study aimed to evaluate the service quality of the Registrar's Office at Kotebe University of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The researcher used an explanatory sequential design with a mixed method of research approach. Service quality model questionnaires and interviews were administrated to gather data. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and various statistical techniques. Qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interviews were analyzed and coded thematically. This study used linear regression models to examine how various aspects of service quality affect customer satisfaction with the University's Registrar. The findings show that assurance, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness and personal interaction have positive effect on members’ satisfaction whereas empathy does not. The analysis of linear regression result indicated that the R2 value is 0.5408, i.e. the independent variable of service quality and explained 54.1% of the variation in customer satisfaction, indicating a moderate impact.However, the qualitative data and document analysis results confirmed that the provision of service quality didnot satisfy students' expectations. Based on the findings, the study concludes that, overall, the Registrar's office's performance not pragmatic to  meet customers’ expectations. Based on this, the study recommends that the office makes efforts to improve its services and ensure customer satisfaction.


Bank Systematic Risk Analysis Pre and Post Covid-19 Pandemic Period of Some Selected Privatized Commercial Banks in Bangladesh

Ayrin Sultana,. Md. Ahad Ali,. Bilkish Banu,. Preity Shaha


Problem: The privatized commercial banking sector in Bangladesh faced several challenges related to bank systematic risk during the COVID-19 epidemic. These issues included asset integrity, compliance with regulations, and changes in the macroeconomic environment. The accurate identification and assessment of crucial elements influencing systematic risk were hampered by the lack of efficient risk assessment procedures. The epidemic increased systematic risk in financial institutions, causing financial hazards, credit, and economic downturns. Unpredictability and lockdown measures disrupted banking operations and reduced risk assessment effectiveness. Unexpected economic shocks caused the bank to face unprecedented volatility and a high level of uncertainty, which disrupted conventional risk models. As a result, traditional risk models were upset, with repercussions for banks, evaluations of credit quality, and risk management in the markets. Approach: This research utilized a fixed effect regression model to analyze the statistical significance of variables in predicting systematic risk exposure in banks. The one-way fixed effect model was chosen due to its suitability, unique effects, and accurate gauging correlations among variables. The study examines the relationship between bank-specific accounting measures and market risk in the Bangladeshi banking sectors. Data from the Bangladeshi Securities and Exchange Commission's database was collected from 2013 to 2021, focusing on privately owned banks. The dependent variables were sourced from financial statements and stock Beta data from platforms like,, and Data entry was done in Microsoft Excel. For analysis, entered data were exported to STATA software version 15×64. Descriptive statistics that were suitable were employed. Pearson’s correlation and a one-way fixed effect regression model were utilized. Findings:The findings suggest that in the pre-COVID period, bank stock beta positively correlates with Total assets (6.25e-05) and statistical significance (0.001) Thisprovides evidence that a higher assets volume will likely result in a higher likelihood of systematic risk for banks. Loan loss ratio (6.67), Asset quality (0.02), and earnings per share (0,003) none of them are statistically significant. In the aftermath of the pandemic, Total assets (2.09E-05) and significance (p=0.072) consider a loan-to-asset ratio for bank diversification, finding larger loan portfolios will lower non-interest-generating diversification. Loan asset ratio (13.54) and significance (p=0.069), Liquidity ratio (0.77), loan loss ratio (1.28), and earnings per share (0.177162). EPS for both periods is a positive coefficient which indicates that higher levels of productivity can reduce the bank’s systematic risk. ROA (0.242965)is positively associated with systematic risk. Conclusion: This study highlights the complex relationship between bank-specific accounting measures and systematic risk in Bangladesh’s privatized commercial banking sector. Liquidity ratio, Loan-to-asset ratio, and earning per share impact risk before and after the pandemic. Higher assets increase systematic risk likelihood, while diversification through loan portfolios counteracts this effect. Traditional risk models struggle to capture volatility, emphasizing the need for flexible risk management techniques.


Correlating Body Fat with Dietary Intake, Physical Activity, Alcohol, Smoking Among Adults in Chengalpattu District

Yaga Jeyanthi. M, Dhasarathan.C


Statement of the problem: Correlating body fat with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, smoking among adults in Chengalpattu district. Objectives: The primary objectives include determining adult body fat levels, evaluating dietary habits, physical activity patterns, alcohol intake, and smoking consumption. Through a correlation analysis, the study seeks to establish links between body fat levels and dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking habits. Furthermore, the research develops into the relationship between demographic variables and dietary patterns, physical activity levels, alcohol intake, and smoking practices. By exploring these interconnected facts, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interactions shaping adult body fat and its determinants. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with 200 adults in quantitative approach. Cross sectional research design. Sample selection was done by purposive sampling technique method in the age group of 18-59 years. Semi structured questionnaires were used to assess the Body Mass Index (BMI), Dietary intake, Physical activity, alcohol and smoking. Results: The analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation between BMI and dietary intake (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), indicating that adult with higher body fat tend to have increased dietary consumption. Additionally, a weak negative correlation was observed between BMI and physical activity at work (r = -0.39, p < 0.05), suggesting that higher BMI levels might be associated with lower physical activity engagement in occupational settings. However, no significant correlation was found between BMI and physical activity at home (r = -0.16, p > 0.05). Furthermore, a weak positive correlation emerged between BMI and alcohol intake (r = 0.16, p < 0.05), indicating a potential link between higher BMI and increased alcohol consumption. Regarding smoking, a moderate positive correlation was identified between BMI and smoking behavior (r = 0.84, p < 0.01), suggesting that individuals with higher body fat are more likely to smoke. The findings revealed that BMI was statistically significant with dietary intake (P-0.05), physical activity at workplace (P0.001) alcohol (P-0.05) and smoking (P-0.005).Conclusion: Based on the WHO classification of body weight among 200 samples 28 (13.7%) of the participants were underweight, 25 (9.3%) were at a normal weight, 78 (99.4%) were overweight, and 69 (93.1%) were obese. Health education was provided regarding weight reduction methods among adults in Chengalpattu district after data collection. It is important to teach weight reduction methods to the adults to prevent complications of overweight and obesity.


Influence of oral moisturizers for the relief of Xerostomia among Institutionalized Type II Diabetic patients - A Randomized Controlled Trial

Krishna prakash G. Praveen Jodalli. Rekha P Shenoy. Imran Pasha M. Junaid. Supriya A.


Aim:  The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of oral moisturizers for the relief of xerostomia among institutionalized type II diabetic patients in Mangaluru, South India. Materials and Methods: A parallel group, single blinded randomized control trial was conducted. A total of 90 participants from four institutionalized old age home participated in the study. Dry mouth conditions were assessed using CODS Index. Samples of unstimulated saliva was collected at baseline, 7th, 14th and 21st  day from which salivary flow rate was assessed. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 58.9 ±12.2. Among the 90 participants, 20 (22.2%) participants were male and 70 (77.8%) participants were females. Inter and intra group comparison of mean score among the three different groups was performed. To compare the salivary parameters in xerostomia among institutionalized type II diabetic patients. - Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study reveals that all the three oral moisturizers showed significant improvement within the groups. However, a comparison between the groups showed no significant difference among the three different oral moisturizers in xerostomia among type II diabetic patients. Clinical significance: The results from this study imply the importance of prescribing oral moisturisers to relieve the dry mouth symptoms as a result of diabetics.


Pediatric Condylar Fractures - A Literature Review

Dr. Jaya A R Dr. Mamatha N S Dr. B S Bhavana Koushik


An Extensive Examination of Rice Bran's Anti-Diabetic Characteristics Additionally, This Might be Given Antioxidant Properties

Shiva Mishra, Nayyar Parvez, Dr. Pranay Wal


Rice bran is one of the agricultural wastes that is rich in nutrients (RB). It features a wide range of minerals, lipids, proteins, fibers, trace elements, and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, and phosphorus. In rice bran oil, tocopherols, tocotrienols, oryzanol, and unsaturated fatty acids are prevalent. The separation and purification process has an impact on the quantity and quality of rice bran oil. Researchers have discovered that the bioactive components of RB have pro-, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-colitis properties. In vitro and in vivo studies with human volunteers revealed that RB-derived substances were hypoglycemic-preventing agents. A thorough update of the antidiabetic activity of RB and its derivatives is required to determine the state of the art in the relevant industry. The biological activity and composition of RB were examined in the current study, as were the effects of various solvent extraction methods on the biological properties of rice bran oil and rice bran extract. The current review focuses on the observed anti-hyperglycemia effects of rice bran derivatives as well as the most likely mechanism.


Insights and Outlook on the Role of Digital Platforms in the Dissemination and Reception of French Electronic Literature

Peter Akongfeh Agwu, Ekanem,Samuel Aloysius Ph.D, Lilian A. Okoro, Edward Ugbada Adie


Contributing to extant academic discourse on the emerging trend of digital humanities and electronic literature, this study explores the evolving landscape of French electronic literature (French E-Lit), focusing on the pivotal role played by digital platforms in its dissemination and reception. The aim is to gain valuable insights into how digital platforms have impacted the accessibility, visibility, and reception of French E-Lit, and assess the contribution of these platforms to the existing body of knowledge in contemporary literature, while offering an outlook on potential future developments within the field. The study is grounded in a multidisciplinary theoretical framework that combines elements from literary studies, media studies, and digital humanities. A mixed-methods approach is adopted in this study, combining both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The research reveals that digital platforms have significantly democratized the dissemination of French E-Lit. These platforms have allowed authors to reach wider audiences, experiment with new forms of storytelling, and engage with interactive elements, fostering an innovative literary environment. This study’s gain lies on fact that it enriches our understanding of the evolving literary landscape in the digital age.


Knowledge on Demand Approach Using Business Intelligence and Ontology

Dr. T. G. Vasista


Organizational knowledge can be treated as a valuable strategic asset. Organizations are lacking well-developed strategic models today that can aidin connectingknowledge-oriented technology and organizationaltypesto business strategy. The integration of BI (Business Intelligence) with ontology is observedas a potential method to formulate the strategy and helps in filling the gap in executing the strategy. It has been seen as a potential solution to business decision-makers as an efficientway to increase enterprise "soft power" and add value to the revolution and reconstruction of conventionalbusiness systems for achieving long-term profitability in a sustainable business environment. About 85% of DW projects in the US have failed to meet the intended business objectives (CGI white paper, 2004) with the traditional approach of building data warehousing and data mining approaches. So this paper has attempted to propose a hybrid approach for building Ontology-based Integration of Business Intelligence to achieve semantic interoperability by integrating DWH, OLAP, DM, and Ontology and Semantic Engineering technologies for achieving Semantic capability in Business Intelligence Services.


The Impact of Delivering Quality Service: The Case of the Registrars Office at Kotebe University of Education (KUE)

Emmanuel Eromo Adillo


This study aimed to evaluate the service quality of the Registrar's Office at Kotebe University of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The researcher used an explanatory sequential design with a mixed method of research approach. Service quality model questionnaires and interviews were administrated to gather data. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and various statistical techniques. Qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interviews were analyzed and coded thematically. This study used linear regression models to examine how various aspects of service quality affect customer satisfaction with the University's Registrar. The findings show that assurance, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness and personal interaction have positive effect on members’ satisfaction whereas empathy does not. The analysis of linear regression result indicated that the R2 value is 0.5408, i.e. the independent variable of service quality and explained 54.1% of the variation in customer satisfaction, indicating a moderate impact.However, the qualitative data and document analysis results confirmed that the provision of service quality didnot satisfy students' expectations. Based on the findings, the study concludes that, overall, the Registrar's office's performance not pragmatic to  meet customers’ expectations. Based on this, the study recommends that the office makes efforts to improve its services and ensure customer satisfaction.


A Study on the Usage of Social Media as Advertising Tool by Self Help Groups in Coimbatore District

Dr. K. Lokeswar & S. R. Ravikumar


Over the years, social media advertising have dominated the advertising landscape. Social media have become a pathway where retailers can extend their marketing campaigns to a broader range of consumers. Social networking site provides the ideal platform for direct communication between marketer and customers. Self Help Group is a group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic back ground. The marketing activities of self-help groups are much less than the new codes defined by globalization. They only engage in direct and local marketing. Social media helps SHG women entrepreneurs in gaining empowerment through global social media networking in the process of marketing their products. SHG women are producing variety of products and using global social media networking like, face book, WhatsApp, while marketing their products which is a good sign for their empowerment as it opens the channels for wider marketing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how Self Help Groups in coimbatore district use social media as an advertisement tool to promote their products. This is a qualitative research study.  And focus group method is followed in this study where 6-10 people provide feedback regarding their products and services.  The expected result in the usage of social media as advertising tool by Self Help Groups in Coimbatore district is limited and they need awareness and more training on that.


Drivers of Agility in Context of Higher Education Institutions: A Systematic Review& Conceptualization

Priya Rathi , Dr. Sandeep Gupta , Dr. Avinash Samvedi


Higher education institutions (HEIs) need to be more agile, especially in terms of being flexible and creative, to keep up with global standards as competition heats up. This study looks at ways in which HEIs could do so to enrich the teaching-learning experience. This study used the Scopus and Web of Science databases to source relevant articles. Through our literature review, we noticed increasing trend in publications from 2016–2022. Additionally, we did not find any substantial information on resource agility or the process agility in the context of HEIs. This review helped us gain a two-dimensional view of ‘agility’ (i.e., resource agility and process agility), besides identifying their significant ‘enablers’ that go on to support the dynamic requirements of HEIs. Therefore, we propose a conceptual model based on an input-process-output model. In the future, this model could be tested for its universal applicability; nevertheless, this is our primary contribution to the extant literature.


Strategic Scenario Analysis of Banarasi Saree of Bangladesh on a Selected Industry

Mosa. Shely Khatun & Purbasha Dash


The primary objective of this exploratory research is to assess the strategic scenario for Bangladesh's Banarasi Sarees in the selected industry. The research is influenced by the descriptive character based on primary and secondary data to produce a compatible analysis (Using the Porter Five Forces model). The study finds minimal entry barriers due to government attempts to support the sector's expansion by examining the number of suppliers that operate there and compete with slight product variations, available supplier switching costs, and weak bargaining power. Many of the raw materials used to make Bangladeshi Sarees are imported from China and India, despite the efforts of certain local enterprises to provide some of these components. As the consumers' bargaining power is enough, given the high pull demand and low production capacity, the availability of suitable substitute products cannot decrease the demand for Banarasi Sarees due to their distinctiveness. Finally, the analysis of the Banarasi Saree market will help with judgments on its development, employment, creation of the marketing mix, and market viability.


Behind the Smokescreen of the Lush Green Tea Gardens of Assam: A Sociological Study of the Gendered Experiences of Health-Seeking Behaviour

Suchismita Deb and Urfat Anjem Mir


This paper attempts to explore the gendered experiences of health-seeking behaviour within a tea garden community in the district of Cachar,in Assam by analysing the underpinning socioeconomic and cultural factors which impactthe health-seeking behaviour as well as the resulting health status. The study utilised a constructivist paradigm to analyse the influence of these factors and experiences of maladies which leads to the construction of meanings of health and illness through the participants’ subjective experiences with the help of a multiple qualitative research approach. The findings highlight a significant influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on health practices and beliefs within the community.


Quantitative Analysis of Co-current Imbibition Phenomenon with Heterogeneity and Gravitational Effects

Disha A. Shah, Amit K. Parikh


The phenomenon of Co-current imbibition in a vertical download direction, coupled with the influence of heterogeneity and gravitational effects, is investigated through a comprehensive mathematical analysis in this research paper. Imbibition, the process of fluid penetration into porous media, plays a pivotal role in various natural and engineered processes. This study focuses on quantitatively understanding the behavior of Co-current imbibition and its interactions with heterogeneity and gravitational effects. The mathematical framework yields a non-linear partial differential equation (PDE) that describes the phenomenon. To solve this governing equation, the Variational Iteration Method is employed, along with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The results are presented through numerical computations and graphical representations, facilitated by MATLAB.


Assessing Customer Satisfaction of Mobile Financial Services in Bangladesh: A SERVQUAL and structural Equation Model Approach

Md. Abdur Rouf


The objective of this article is to assess the level of customer satisfaction of mobile financial services by utilizing the well-known SERVQUAL model and employing a structural equation model. An effective survey questionnaire was developed to collect data from Bangladeshi participants. This research selected participants via convenience sampling. For the analysis employing covariance-based structural equation modeling, 550 of the distributed questionnaires that were completed and usable were selected. Among the nine dimensions of the extended SERVQUAL model, the results indicated that visibility, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, security, user interface, and service recovery have a significant effect on customer satisfaction, whereas assurance and customization do not. This research addresses a gap in the literature by showing how mobile financial service providers may enhance service quality, increasing customer satisfaction and usage intent.


Behind the Smokescreen of the Lush Green Tea Gardens of Assam: A Sociological Study of the Gendered Experiences of Health-Seeking Behaviour

Suchismita Deb and Urfat Anjem Mir


This paper attempts to explore the gendered experiences of health-seeking behaviour within a tea garden community in the district of Cachar,in Assam by analysing the underpinning socioeconomic and cultural factors which impactthe health-seeking behaviour as well as the resulting health status. The study utilised a constructivist paradigm to analyse the influence of these factors and experiences of maladies which leads to the construction of meanings of health and illness through the participants’ subjective experiences with the help of a multiple qualitative research approach. The findings highlight a significant influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on health practices and beliefs within the community.


Race and Social Inequality in the United States of America: Mapping the Linkage and its Implications on African-American Communities

Md. Farijuddin Khan


Race has been an important constituent that has shaped the American Creed since the inception of the United States as a democratic nation. The ‘American White’ has defined the ‘place’ of African-Americans in the larger American society. Although the White-Black division in the United States has become a matter of the past, almost bridged, a few cases in the last decade in the United States suggest otherwise. Be it the 2012 case of Trayvon Martin, the Florida teen gunned down by a neighborhood watch volunteer, or May 25, 2020, the chokehold killing of George Floyd in the street of Minneapolis by white police officers, there has been a close link between race and social inequality in the United States. The paper has attempted to highlight the close link between the two in the United States in the case of the African-American minority community by drawing into the deep history of race relations in the United States. Based on the linkage, the paper has investigated if the latest incidents crippled the American Creed that defends liberty and rejects discrimination based on race and color of individuals. The study has used descriptive, historical, and qualitative/quantitative data analysis from primary and secondary sources. The paper concludes that despite the comparatively calmer and more dynamic mainstream American society in the post-BLM America, the country still faces the challenges of race issues and disparities.


The Ethical Status of the Consciousness Ascertained in the Philosophy of sankara and G. W. F. Hegel: A Comparative Analysis

Dr. Reena Kannojiya


The problem of consciousness can be analyzed in diverse ways with the different philosophical traditions. Problem - this paper comparatively will analyze the ethical views of consciousness in the Indian (?ankara) and Western (G.W.F. Hegel) Philosophy. Approach - As ethics of consciousness depend on principles and values to attain universal satisfaction in the form of 'freedom' by externalizing the subjectivity in the form of objectivity that will help in analyzing the status of consciousness. It will comparatively enumerate the arguments in terms of human actions because it supports regulating moral actions to experience freedom as self-knowledge. Finding - The notion of freedom as self-knowledge is critically analyzed in both the systems that help in deriving the similarities and differences in the thought process of two historically and culturally different traditions. The paper will also expose the methodology of the ?ankara and Hegel by analyzing the phenomenal and empirical aspects of ‘J?va’ and ‘Being’ in respective traditions. Conclusively, the paper explores the ethical possibilities of human actions and values in the form of moral laws that helps humans in attaining self-knowledge as freedom.


Dynamics of Savings and Investment and Determination of Rate of Interest in Indian Money Market: A Classical Approach

Rizwan Qasim, Jamil Ahmad , Dastgir Alam


Purpose: The present study aims to examine the impact of savings and investment dynamics on the determination of the rate of interest in India. Methodology: For this purpose, a classical approach is adopted, and it is assumed that gross domestic saving (GDS) is positively associated with deposit rates for various term deposits of 1-3 years (DR1), 3-5 years (DR2), and above 5 years (DR3), while gross domestic investment (GDI) is negatively associated with the lending rate (LR) of interest. To test the efficacy level of this approach, the Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (D-OLS) method and Impulse Response Function (IRFs) are employed. To check the robustness of the DOLS findings, fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and canonical cointegration regression (CCR) techniques are used. Finding: The econometric results show that DR1 and DR2 are positively associated with GDS and follow the classical ideas. However, DR3 is negatively associated with GDS. Additionally, the outcomes of the econometric analysis for GDI and LR support the principles advocated by classical economists. The IRFs results corroborate the results obtained through the DOLS model whereas; the robustness tests seem to be very much consistent with our earlier findings. Conclusion: The result of the study may present a better insight into understanding the relationship among GDS, GDI, DR, and LR and can improve the efficiency of India’s monetary policy.


Relevance of Vedic Mathematics Ekanyunena Purvena and Ekadhikena Purvena Sutras in Calculus

Rohit Ranjan Lal, Dharmendra Kumar Yadav


Problem: It is believed that Vedic Mathematics sutras are applicable for particular cases only in computation, whereas this study shows that the sutras have not been explored properly and if it is explored, a miracle may come out. Approach: In the present article we have analyzed the Vedic Mathematics Ekanyunena Purvena and Ekadhikena Purvena Sutras in finding the derivatives and antiderivatives of some elementary functions expressed in a power series using the power rule. We have also discussed the limitations of these sutras in finding derivative and antiderivative. For verification purpose, we have used Mathematica software to find the series of some functions, which can be applied for all elementary functions. Findings: Although it will be more laborious and time taking because to apply Vedic sutras, we have to follow four steps: to find series expansion, do term-wise operations, modify the new series to adjust it in some elementary functions and then write the result. In all examples, we start from Newton’s approach and end with Leibnitz’s approach to write the final result of derivative and antiderivative respectively. The study is strictly restricted to find the relevance of the Vedic sutras. Therefore three more formulae except sutras were added in the study to support their existence in modern mathematics especially in Calculus. Conclusion: Finally we have concluded that to study the derivative and antiderivative in total, three formulae for derivative and two formulae for antiderivative are sufficient i.e., using only these five formulae, we can study Calculus of single variable functions.



Microwave Remote Sensing Scope and Challenges in Image Interpretation A Review

Mr. Sudheer Reddy Bandi, Dr. Anbarasan M, Dr. Merlin Linda G, Dr. Murugesan S


: It is a known fact that there are three powerful sensing techniques to observe the activities on the earth surface. They are given as optical remote sensing, thermal remote sensing, and microwave remote sensing. There are some practical and theoretical differences between the sensors and their applications. The aim of the present review is to show how the microwave sensing is different from other sensing techniques by describing the properties of all the types of remote sensors and how these properties will benefit the scientists and researchers for going into the microwave remote sensing. This work also focusses the major applications of all the sensors and discusses the scope of various mechanisms like interferometry, polarization and issues in microwave remote sensing in the context of image interpretation.


Age Specific Study in Subjects at Risk of Developing Dementia, Anxiety and Depression after Covid-19 Exposure

Jigar Sanjiv Padhiar, Uddipak Rai, Parag Rane


Introduction: Dementia, anxiety and depression are brain conditions that affects several upper cortical processes, including memory, thinking, direction, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Objectives: The objective of this study is to study the effect of demographic factor on dementia, anxiety and depression in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection. Methods: This study is designed to observe subjects at risk of developing dementia, anxiety and depression after Covid-19 exposure patient data were collected from the hospital with help of hospital staff. Eligible patients were involved in the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who meet the eligibility criteria was required to fill the questionnaire. So based on responses from the subject, the data was analyzed. Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDL) was used for the study. Results:  We have performed statistical analyses with the categorization of patient i. e. age and disease condition. The total number of patients (1000, Post Covid-19) enrolled in the study. Based on the response received from post-Covid-19patients, the data were analyzed by SAS Program. The responses, which were resulted in “YES” against each question of the questionnaire, were calculated as proportion. Conclusion: while the long-term impact of COVID-19 on dementia, anxiety and depression risk is still uncertain, it is essential to prioritize the health and well-being of older adults, especially those with pre-existing dementia, during and after the pandemic. Maintaining social connections, providing accessible healthcare services, and implementing preventive measures


The Exit Ban and its Reasons in the Laws of Afghanistan

Parwiz Stanekzai, Abdul Hamid Rafat


Freedom of entry and exit across borders is a clear and fundamental human right and a part of social life. Every individual has the right to leave their locality, district, province, and country by their own choice and action, and no one should face any obstacles in their travels. The Afghan Constitution explicitly states in Article 39: "Every Afghan has the right to travel within the country, choose a place of residence, except in areas where prohibited by law, and every Afghan has the right, in accordance with the provisions of the law, to travel abroad and return to the country." However, according to the principle of legality in crime, no one should be punished unless the law has decreed so. Thus, the right to travel abroad is not absolute but subject to limitations based on security or financial considerations, as specified by the law.

Exit bans are usually related to criminal cases rather than civil and commercial matters, meaning that a person who has committed a specific crime may be under judicial pursuit and investigation. If the crime is proven, the individual may be temporarily or permanently banned from leaving the relevant area, district, province, or country.


Game Theory Under the Purview of Digital Payments

Dr. Kiran Kumar Tarikere, Akhil Dattatraya Joshi


Problem: Game Theory is a theory which deals with such a situation that is competitive in nature. Competitive nature arises due to conflicting opinions or interests. These different interests give rise to different preferences. With the difference in preferences, provides with different strategies. There are mainly pure strategies and mixed strategies when it comes to Strategy. Under different strategies, Pay-Off Matrix is formed. Each game gives a point where maximum of a minimum row coincides with minimum of maximum column. Such point is called as Saddle Point. Even with respect to Digital payments this technique can be used. Application of Game Theory in Digital Finance will open up a new branch for Operations Research. Such Game Theory can also be called as Digital Game Theory. Combining Game Theory and Digital Finance can help to resolve many technical problems which rise at the course of execution of Digital payments in the Digital World.  In this paper the problem is about application of game theory in the world of Digital Finance. If Game Theory principles are applicable in Digital Finance then to what extent it is applicable? How the applicability can be visualized? What conclusion can be drawn? Approach: To apply Game Theory in Digital Finance first all the Digital Payments platforms have to be listed. In order to make users well versed with Digital Payments, there have been many schemes which have been implemented such as Digitalization, Digital India, Jan Dhan Yojana etc. These schemes help in initiating digital payments easily. There are many digital payment platforms where Digital transactions can be done very easily. Namely UPI, BHIM, NEFT, AePS, IMPS, APBS and NETC. The data with respect to all the listed payments gateways are recorded. Later the principles of game theory are applied in order to understand the saddle point amongst the Digital avenues. In order to find the saddle point, basically three year data with respect to all digital avenues are taken and recorded. All data is recorded with respect to Value of Transactions and volume of transactions. Findings: This paper discusses about how to apply the knowledge of game theory in the world of digital payments. The key findings with respect to application of Game Theory in Digital Payments states that with respect to value of transactions, the saddle point is calculated to be at NEFT payment gateway whereas for the volume of transactions, the saddle point is calculated to be at UPI payment gateway.  Conclusions: It can be concluded that the most preferred payment gateway from Value of transactions point of view is NEFT Payment platform whereas with respect to Volume of Transactions, UPI is the most preferred payment gateway.


Numerical Result of Boundary Layer Stagnation Point Flow and Heat Transfer Over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet With Combined Effect of Magnetic Field and Thermal Radiation

Ambuja Joshi


Numerical solution of MHD  momentum and thermal boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially stretching sheet, with combined effect of Magnetic Field and Thermal Radiation are considered for investigation. The influence of various flow and heat transfer  parameters are analysed with the usage of graphs.


Design a Wireless Network Scenario Using CBR

Bhupal Arya , Amrita kumari, Jogendra Kumar


Design a wireless network scenario adapted for evaluating routing protocols allows researchers and network designers to gain valuable insights into protocol performance. These scenarios enable informed decision-making, parameter optimization, and the development of efficient routing solutions for wireless networks. Performance metrics, including packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and network throughput, are utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocols. These metrics provide insights into the behavior, efficiency, and reliability of the routing protocols under various network conditions. The scenario encompasses factors such as network topology, mobility patterns, and traffic generation to facilitate a comprehensive analysis.


A Critical Analysis of Obesity WSR to Sthoulya

Dr Shruti Yadav, Dr Amit Yadav


Sthoulya is a burning problem in the world scenario and has acquired the status of an epidemic by WHO . WHO global estimated as  about  13% of the world’s adult populations (650 million adults and 41 million children) were obese. Obesity is a complex , multi factorial disease which invites several pathological complications like hypertension, type -2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Infertility, Hepatic Stealosis/ Fatty Liver, Endocrine Abnormalities, Obstetric Complications, Osteoarthritis of weight bearing joints , certain type of Cancers(Arbuda) , and possibly immunological impairement as well as it hampers the cosmetic value of the affected person. Obesity i.e Sthoulya roga of Ayurveda comes under the heading of Medoroga which results due to dysfunction of Medo Dhatvagni( factor responsible for nourishment / metabolism of Medo dhatu) and is considered as metabolic disorder. It is well described in  Charak Samhita by Acharya Charak in chapter 8 . in Ayurveda. Atisthaulya ( obesity) is described as accumulation of Meda( fat/ adipose tissue) and Mamsa ( flesh/ muscle tissue) leading to flabbiness of hips, abdomen, and breast. It is considered as Santarpanottha Vikaras( disease due to consumption of excessive calories) in Ayurveda.


Technical and Vocational Education: A Panacea for Mitigating Youth Unemployment

Olojuolawe Rufus Sunday, M.O. Ogunmola


This research paper seeks to explore the potential of technical and vocational education (TVE) as a means of reducing the endemic unemployment problem in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study examined the historical context of TVE in the modern-day labour market and the challenges that exist in accessing and implementing TVE programmes. A qualitative research design was employed for this study, using interviews and document reviews as the primary data collection methods. The findings of the study highlighted the repositioning of TVE as a panacea to unemployment in Ekiti State, based on the historical context of the labour market and the challenges that hinder access and implementation of TVE programmes. This repositioning is seen as a way to increase the employability of the youths in Ekiti State and reduce the percentage of the unemployed population. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of the full implementation of TVE programmes in the state, and how this can be achieved through the collaboration of the government, industry, and educational institutions to create a conducive environment for the effective utilization of TVE programmes. In addition, the paper suggests that the government should provide adequate resources and incentives to aid the implementation of TVET programmes.

Blurred Idea Expression Divide in Musical Works

Jithin Saji Isaac and Dr. Asha Sundharam


The raison d'etre for copyright protection is to balance the conflicting interests of the public and the private. The public wants access to the work, while the private needs to be compensated for the time, skill and labour expended for the work. The balancing of the interests requires keeping a pool free for all to exploit. Copyright law ensures this pool by keeping ideas free for all to exploit. Copyright does not protect ideas, but only expression of ideas. The difficulty in preserving this balance is to draw the line between idea and expression. In music the divide is more blurred due to the availability of limited notes and ideas. The basic concept of idea is explained by studying the theories of Plato, Locke and other philosophers.  Further ahead the researcher identifies the difficulties in drawing the dividing line between idea and expression and also analyses the need for sieving out the protectable from unprotectable elements in music. Differentiating between idea and expression is pivotal  in copyright law as only expression of an idea is entitled to copyright protection. This study attempts to discuss the difficulties encountered by music due to the idea expression blur.


Animal Metaphors in Representation of Women in the Ovoko Dialect

Jacinta, Ukamaka Eze , Juliana Ginika Mamah, Bestman Esegbuyiota Odeh, Chioma Magdalyn Akaeze, Peter Ada Achadu


Problem: Studies of animal metaphor abound in extant literature showing how animals are used in representing people in different linguistic communities. Unfortunately, this area of study has not gained popularity in the Igbo language. Therefore, this research work sets to investigate animal metaphors in representation of women in the Ovoko dialect – a variety of the Igbo language in Enugu State, Nigeria. The main objectives of this research work are to identify the domestic birds metaphorically used in representing women in the Ovoko dialect and examine their metaphoric meanings as used in the area understudy. Approach: As two of the researchers are native speakers of the dialect under study, the data used for the study were sourced through introspection and unstructured interview (which was used to validate the data elicited). The study employs analogical mapping as the study’s framework. Findings: The study reveals that there are three domestic birds that are used metaphorically to represent women in the Ovoko dialect. The domestic birds are chicken, duck and turkey. It is also discovered that the meanings attached to chicken when used metaphorically can be derogatory or extolling depending on how it is used and who uses it to represent who. Moreover, duck and turkey are generally derogatory in their use because it is only their ugly attributes that are used for mapping on women in the dialect being studied. Conclusion:  Only objects of similar qualities are meant to be compared with each other. This study has actually demonstrated this feat through the application of analogical mapping as a theoretical base for the analysis of the animals used in the representation of women in the study area. However, animals used in this study are by no means the exhaustive lists, but has created a vacuum on how other animals could be employed in the community to achieve the same result.The study concludes that the theory of analogical mapping in the study of animal metaphor in representation of women in the Ovoko dialect successfully captures the illocutionary effect of such statements. It also argues that context of use of such animals determines the meaning intended for them in the statement. The researchers then recommend that more research works should be done in the Ovoko dialect on this area in order to document more of the animal metaphors and other metaphors as used in the dialect.


Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Accuracy of the Provisional Fixed Dental Prosthesis Using Three Different Materials Produced by Direct Technique: An in Vitro Study

Dr. Sareen Duseja Dr. Vilas Patel Dr. Liya Neha Bipinchandra Dr Satish Makwana


Purpose: To evaluate and compare the marginal accuracy of the provisional fixed dental prosthesis produced using commercially available auto-polymerized, light cured and dual cured composite resin by direct technique.

Materials and Methods: Total sixty prototypes of interim fixed dental prosthesis were produced using of stainless steel die and three different types of commercially available provisional restorative materials. Prototypes were divided into three equal Groups (A, B and C). Group A (auto polymerized composite resin), B (Light cured composite resin) and C (Dual cured composite resin) consisted of ten prototypes each. All the prototypes were preserved in artificial saliva at ambient temperature and after their sectioning, the measurements were made at 4 marked points (mesial, distal, labial and lingual) of each unit (i.e. tooth number 35,37) under stereomicroscope. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy was measured at 3 lag periods, i.e. at 24 hours, at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks after fabrication. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA, repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni test using SPSS (Statistics software Version 20.0; IBM Corp.) The mean marginal discrepancy of Group C (Tempspan), Group B (Revotek LC) and Group A (Protemp 4) is 141.55 ± 3.66, 105.76 ± 4.89 and 78.18 ± 4.68 respectively at 24 hours, 181.79 ± 3.33, 138.61 ± 3.63 and 102.30 ± 3.87 respectively at 2 weeks. 182.30 ± 3.47, 150.22 ± 8.77 and 116.57 ± 6.68 respectively at 4 weeks. Statistically, significant difference was present in the marginal discrepancy among all the groups at 24 hours, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Conclusion: This study has shown that provisional FDP produced with Auto polymerized composite resin registered the least vertical marginal discrepancy than that of the light cure composite resin and the dual cure composite resin. Provisional FDPs produced from the dual cure composite resin (Tempspan) are likely to exhibit significantly more marginal discrepancy than the auto polymerized and the light cure composite resin.


Concentrated Solar Power Systems: Overview, Design Considerations, and Technological Developments

Pooja Jha, Manjeet Kumar, Keshav Kumar, Abhishek Thakur


Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems have gained significant attention as a renewable energy solution due to their ability to generate electricity using concentrated sunlight. This paper provides a comprehensive review of CSP systems, covering their overview, design considerations, and recent technological developments. It examines the fundamental principles behind CSP technology, highlighting the different types of CSP systems, such as parabolic trough, power tower, and dish/engine systems. The review explores key design considerations, including solar collectors, thermal energy storage, power conversion, and grid integration. Furthermore, it discusses recent advancements in CSP technology, including innovative collector designs, advanced heat transfer fluids, and improved thermal storage materials. The paper concludes with an assessment of the current challenges and future prospects for the widespread deployment of CSP systems.



Government Initiatives: Means To Achieve Sustainable Goals in Rural Areas

Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Mir Dr. Jahangir Ahmad Bhat


Rural infrastructure is the fundamental for the socio-economic development of a country. Well-developed roads provide several socio-economic welfares to the people. Roads are the mainstay for the agro based economy, increase the agricultural productivity. Roads provide access to the people in terms of reach. About 40% of village people of this nation are not linked by all season -weather roads. India is having road linkage of 56.03 lakh kms, which is the second biggest in the world. While the road transport is a vigorous vein to India’s economy, the pulse of fabrication has not kept up with the exponential rise in motorized vehicles. As roads contribute 4.7% towards India’s GDP, compared to railways that contribute around 1%. Agreeing to one of the study, it is projected that India will require to invest 41.7 trillion for road developments to upkeep the rising GDP growth. The present research intends to know whether the government Initiative through Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) has strengthened rural economy and to what extent the people have derived benefits from such Scheme. The primary data was collected consists of 400 samples for which different statistical tools were used like Factor Analysis, Regression Analysis, Correlation and ANOVA. During the analysis it was observed that the scheme has benefitted people and contributed towards the economic development in number of ways. Better road connectivity have made the life of people ease in terms of market connectivity, education access to towns and access to jobs in urban areas. Further, the respondents have been facing a challenge of transport facility which is not available with ease and least impact has been found on agriculture. Further, suggestions have been put forward to make the scheme fruitful for the people and to eradicate the problems related to the scheme by committing to responsibility and accountability.


A Novel Additive Internet of Things (IOT) Features and Convolutional Neural Network for Inter-Class Classification and Source Identification of IOT Devices

Aamo Iorliam, Jessy Akaabo


The inter-class classification and source identification of IoT devices has attracted a great deal of attention due to the vast amount of available IoT devices and the huge amount of data these IoT devices generate almost every minute. As such there is every need to identify the source where the IoT data is generated and also separate an IoT device from the other based on the data they generate. This paper proposes a novel additive IoT features with the CNN system for the purpose of IoT source identification and classification. Experimental results shows that indeed the proposed method is very effective achieving an overall classification and source identification accuracy of 99.67 %. This result has a practical application to forensics purposes due to the fact that accurately identifying and classifying the source of an IoT device via the generated data can link organisations/persons to the activities they perform over the network. As such ensuring accountability and responsibility by IoT device users.  


Feasibility of Using Trans Abdominal Sonography for Selective Screening for Gallbladder Malignancy in High-Risk Populations in Areas with Higher Incidence of Carcinoma Gallbladder in North India

Parijat Suryavanshi


Problem: Carcinoma Gallbladder is endemic in North India, with most cases presenting in advanced stages of the disease. Being relatively chemoresistant, detecting disease in the early operable stage is paramount for a cure. Screening in a large population in India is a formidable task, with a cost-benefit ratio of screening programs that must be carefully weighed for them to be practical and feasible.  Approach: We explored the possibility of utilizing conventional Ultrasound as a screening test for carcinoma Gallbladder based on Wilson and Jungner's ten Principles of screening. We checked whether USG fulfils the ten criteria listed in classical work by Wilson and Jungner to qualify as a good screening test. Finding: We have found Ultrasound as an appropriate modality for screening gallbladder cancer in the high-risk North India population. It is cheap, readily available, acceptable to the population, and reproducible with no radiation hazard. It can also detect gallstones before they become symptomatic, which may help decrease the incidence of gallbladder cancer in the long term. Conclusion: In developing countries with a large population living in rural areas, cost-effective screening tests for Cancer are a formidable challenge. Our research convinced us that USG could be an effective modality for screening gallbladder cancer in India.



Assessing the Risk Factors Affecting Users Continuance of Mobile Fintech Adoption in Bangladesh

Md. Minhaj Uddin, Md. Kawsar Ahmed, Md. Nazrul Islam


With growing access to digital technology in financial service process, the acceptance of mobile fintech services have increased remarkably in Bangladesh, particularly after COVID19 outbreak.  The enhanced use of fintech is contributing to accelerate financial inclusion and economic development of the country every year. To retain this growing adoption and momentous impact of mobile fintech in Bangladesh, determination of threats and constraints associated with the usage of fintech is inevitable. This study aimed at investigating the risk factors hindering the user’s intention to continue the present use of mobile fintech services in Bangladesh. Based on the literature review, a conceptual model was developed for achieving the objective of the study. A total of 361 respondents participated in the online quesnaire survey. The collected data were analyzed and hypotheses were tested using the structural equation modeling. The analysis showed that only operational risk significantly affects users’ continuous usage intention of mobile fintech-services; whereas the security risk, financial risk, and legal risk have no effect on users’ intention to continue the current usage of mobile fintech services. The results are significant to the mobile fintech providers, consumers and policymakers to minimize the risk related to the fintech operations and use in Bangladesh.


Disruptive Technology and the Accounting Profession in Nigeria: Evidence from the 21st Century

Emuebie Emeke, Ogundeyi Adebayo Olusesi , Chukwu Emeke, Professor Akintoye I.R


As disruptive technology continues to reshape industries, the accounting profession stands at a crossroads in the 21st century. This study investigates the intricate dynamics between disruptive technology and the proficiency of accounting professionals in utilizing technological advancements. Employing a quantitative methodology, surveys were administered to gather insights from accounting professionals. The study examined the perceived impact of disruptive technology, adaptability to technological changes, and the valuation of traditional accounting knowledge. Through descriptive statistics, correlations, and a multiple linear regression model, the study uncovers the interconnected influences of these factors on proficiency in accounting technology. The findings underscore that acknowledging the impact of disruptive technology, remaining adaptable, and valuing traditional knowledge contribute synergistically to proficiency. The study offers implications for practitioners, educators, and organizations, advocating for a balanced integration of tradition and technology in navigating the evolving accounting landscape.


Utility of Mixing Studies for Screening Haemophilia in a Resource Limited Hospital Setting

Dr. Ashim Manta, Dr. Gayatri Gogoi, Dr. Nitu Mani Khakhlari,


Background: Mixing studies are initial screening tests done in cases of suspected bleeding disorders. In cases with abnormal coagulation test, they help differentiate if the prolongation in time is due to deficiency of Factor or due to presence of an inhibitor. The principle is that the normal plasma contributes a sufficient concentration of clotting factors to correct for a factor deficiency. Factor deficient plasma are commercially available but are very expensive. However the reagents for mixing studies can be prepared in the laboratory, thereby making it cost effective. Method: The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh. The duration of our study was from June 2017 to July 2018. The clinical details were collected from the patients. The patients were tested for bleeding time, platelet count, Prothrombin time, Activated partial thromboplastin time and mixing studies. Results: Total number of cases in the study was 36, of which 31 were male patients and 5 female patients. Hemophilia A was found in 14 cases, haemophilia B in 2 cases, inhibitor was detected in 3 cases and 17 cases had normal values. Conclusion: Mixing studies are cost effective diagnostic screening tests for evaluation of abnormal coagulation tests.


Study of Relationship between Early Menarche and PCOS with Reference to Problems Associated and Its Awareness in the Community

Mrs Arjumand Fatima , Miss Qudsiya Amreen


Objective: To determine whether they exist any relationship between early menarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hypothesis: There is a no significant relationship between late menarche and PCOS in girls aged between 18-21 years old. Type of study: survey type cross sectional studies carried out for a period of 3 months. Sample size: 100 samples of adult girls aged between 18-21 years. Methodology: Data was collected through a structured questionnaire, anthropometric measurements like height, weight, BMI ,and waist hip ratio was calculated. Statistical tools like average mean, standard deviation and one sample t test was done to draw conclusion. Data obtained was interpreted by pie diagrams, bar graphs and tables. Result :The study was done on total 100 girls taken as sample , after screening it was found that out of 100 total 28 girls suffer from PCOS .Among the girls suffer from PCOS it was found that 68% of the girls attained there puberty at the age of 16 years and 32% at 15 years of age .T test was done and the critical t – value of +/- 2.51 is obtained , hence the null hypothesis was rejected .from the findings it was proved that girls who attained menarche during 15-16 years of age suffers from PCOS .Most of the problems faced by these girls were weight gain (46%) followed by hair loss (32%) and mood swings (21%).Coming to the awareness about the said syndrome it was discovered that majority of the people around 58% are not aware about PCOS and its symptoms, whereas 42% are literate about the syndrome and its symptoms. Suggestions like balanced diet, active lifestyle and good sleep pattern following circadian rhythms are advised for prevention and management of the syndrome.


Role of Lens Vault in Angle Closure: Hospital Based Study at a Tertiary Care Center

Priyanka Gupta, Himani Gupta, Monika Jain, Prakriti Pokhriyal


Problem: Crystalline lens has a mechanistic role in eyes with narrow angles, either independently or in combination of other ocular biometric parameter. We have tried to assess role of lens vault in patients of angle closure presenting to our glaucoma OPD. Approach: It was prospective hospital based cross sectional study. The lens vault measured on anterior segment optical coherence tomography in patients of primary angle closure with age 40-70 years and cataract grade 2 and 3 (LOCS) and compared to age and cataract matched controls. Results calculated using chi-square and student t test as required. Findings: Present study compared 100 cases of angle closure and 100 cases as controls from similar age and cataract grade matched normal population. Mean age of patients in angle closure group was 52.40 ± 6.73 years. Mean age of normal control population group was 51.48 ± 5.47 years.  The difference was statistically insignificant. Number of subjects of angle closure with grade 2 cataract were 38 and grade 3 cataract were 62. Cataract grading in normal control group were grade 2 in 46 cases and grade 3 in 54 cases. The difference was statistically insignificant.  The mean lens vault in patients of angle closure group was 898.14 ± 26.5 µm. The mean lens vault in patients of normal control group was320 ± 27.2 µm. The difference was highly significant. Conclusion: In the presence of visually significant cataract, consider lens extraction as the initial treatment option for the management of primary angle closure.


A Study of Relaparotomies in Department of General Surgery in a Tertiary Care Centre

Dr A. Ramesh


Problem: Relaparotomy is a potentially serious adverse postoperative complication requiring urgent or planned reintervention within 60 days of primary abdominal surgery. It not only carries significant morbidities such as wound sepsis, dehiscence, delayed recovery in the immediate post operative period and recurrent adhesive intestinal obstruction, incisional hernia and wound scar as long-term complications, even it can also lead to mortality due to septicemia and MODS. Hence, a planned decision should be made at right time by the operating surgeon to prevent complications. This study is aimed to identify the incidence, indications, type of primary surgery, risk factors and outcome of relaparotomies carried out in a tertiary care center at specified period to provide new insights &working guidelines regarding relaparotomy management to fellow surgeons. Approach: This is a retrospective observational study conducted in department of general surgery during the period of one year from May 2021 to April 2022 by verifying the operative register, case sheets, inpatient register, death register &nominal register to collect data in a pre-validated format regarding laparotomies, indications and demographic features of patients along with details of re-laparotomies, type of primary surgery, day of re-intervention & mortality. Data were analyzed using microsoft excel and SPSS software to calculate results. Findings: In this study of above chosen period, total number of laparotomies performed for general surgical indication were 275. Re-laparotomies performed within this institution in the above chosen period for patients at the same period of hospitalization for primary surgery were 14. Incidence of relaparotomy in this study was 5.09%. Gender wise, 13 male patients and 1 female patient underwent relaparotomy. Majority of them were in 61–70-year age group as observed in 6 out of 14 relaparotomies with median age affected was 59. Re-operations performed after 7 days were 8out of 14(56.8%). Mean time interval for relaparotomy in this study was 7.71±3.13days. Major indication for relaparotomy was burst abdomen in 7 out of 14 patients (50%). Mortality rate for relaparotomy in this study was 28.5% as 4 out of 14 re-operated patients were expired and all 4 of them were re-operated after 4 days. Most common cause of mortality was septicemia (50%). Conclusion: Re-laparotomy is a critical postoperative complication. Hence a carefully planned decision must be taken by the operated surgeon at right time to prevent any catastrophic event.


Security and Health Implications of Covid-19; Prevention and Control Using Lime and Lemon Hand Sanitizer

Udochukwu, Ugueri, Ejirefe, Influece, Asemota Osas Lucky, Igiri Vivian Chika, Echeta Maryrose Ogechi, Emele Augustine Chijioke


Problem: The covid-19 pandemic has heavily impacted countries across the globe, including Nigeria. Apart from the obvious health implications, the pandemic has also brought about security concerns and implications for the Nigerian population. Several countries including Nigeria depend on importation of hand sanitizer which makes the products scarce and expensive. Therefore, the need to formulate a homemade hand sanitizer was necessary to bridge the gaps. In the formulation of these hand sanitizers, the antibacterial activity of Lemon and Lime juice on mesophilic bacterial isolates was evaluated. Approach: Freshly collected lime and lemon were adequately washed and blended into syrup. 100 ml of isopropyl alcohol was added to 100 ml of Lemon juice to create the lemon (LE 100) hand sanitizer.  100 ml of isopropyl alcohol was also added to 100 ml of Lime juice to create the lime (LI 100) hand sanitizer, and 100 ml of isopropyl alcohol was mixed with 50ml of lemon and 50 ml of lime juice to form the (LE/LI 50/50) hand sanitizer. The antibacterial sensitivity test was carried out using the disc method, which was socked in the hand sanitizer.  Findings: Micrococcus sp. was more sensitive than other Gram-positive bacteria to LE 100 with a 29 mm zone of inhibition. Streptococcus sp. was more sensitive to LI 100 with a 31 mm zone of inhibition and Bacillus sp., was more sensitive to LE/LI 50/50 with a 25 mm zone of inhibition. Escherichia coli was more sensitive than other Gram-negative bacteria to LE 100 and LE/LI 50/50 with 22 mm and 20 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more sensitive to LI 100 with 18 mm zone of inhibition. Lemon and lime extracts have shown effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against these bacterial isolates. They are natural, affordable, available and safe. It has shown the ability to inhibit the growth of most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and thus can be used in the control and prevention of Covid-19.


A Study on-Role of Social Media for Driving Business Practices by Promoting Green Products Towards Customers at Kolkata Metropolitan

Nandini Chakraborty And Dr. Chinmoy Ghosh


Social consciousness encourages people to use eco-friendly practices and products, which can considerably flow the environment. It is necessary to create public awareness of environmental issues because it can help individuals make informed decisions that can advantage the environment. The olden times of skin care and cosmetics can be traced rear to Centuries in Egypt. Health benefits and hygiene were the main concern for skin care during the original times. The trending of guarding skin from dangerous adulterants came the need of the hour and the operation of factory excerpts for healthy skin started blooming day by day encyclopaedically.


Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals on Human Health and Bacteriological Qualities of Ossiomo River, Edo State, Nigeria

Augustine, B. Odigie and Sunday Eghosasere Omozuwa


Water contaminated with heavy metals and its health challenges is as a result of human activities in the River. This study evaluates the risk assessment of heavy metals on human health and bacteriological qualities of Ossiomo River, Edo State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected in triplicates from January 2021 to June 2021 for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).The concentrations of metals were Cr 0.003, Pb 0.009 and Cd 0.005 mg/L and risk assessment was determined using the USEPA guidance. Heterotrophic and coliforms bacteria were isolated and enumerated using pour plate and most probable number techniques. Antibiogram test was carried out using Kirby-Bauer antibiotic disc diffusion method. The average carcinogenic risks (CRing) were 11.25×10-6 mg/kg/day for children and 10.06×10-6 mg/kg/day for the adults. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.1 ± 0.0 ×103 cfu/mL (Upstream) - 9.1 ± 2.1 ×103 cfu/mL (Midstream) while the mean total coliform counts ranged from 23 MPN/100 mL(Upstream) - 201 MPN/100 mL (Midstream).Six (6) bacteria isolates were isolated and identified asPseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoneaand Salmonella enterica.Proteus mirabilis had 16 (31.4 %) as the most frequent bacteria isolate while Escherichia coli had 3 (5.9%) as the least. Ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftriaxone 100%, azithromycin 90%, gentamycin 100%, pefloxacin 95%, oflaxacin 75%, cefuroxime 70% and ceftazidine 60% were effective against Enterobacteriaceae infections while augmentin 0% and nitrofurantoin 0% were ineffective. Low human activities in the river will help manage adverse health risk on consumers.


Malarial Infection: A Threat to Human Health In South Western Part Of Nigeria

Awolaju, B.A. & Oloyede, J.O. & Akinloye, K.F.



This Was Conducted On Malarial Infection: A Threat To Human Health In South Western Part Of Nigeria. One Hundred And Two (102) Samples Were Randomly Selected Among Academic Staff, Postgraduate Students Of Olabisi Onabanjo University And Outsiders. This Study Aims At; Assessing The Prevalence Of Global Malarial Infection In Humans, Examining The Risk Of Malarial Hazard, Identifying Factors Promoting Malaria In Endemic Areas And Identifying Control Measures And Treatments That Will Ensure Elimination Of Malaria In An Endemic Areas. The Research Instrument Used To Collect Data For The Study Was An Online Questionnaire Which Was Sent To Respondents’ E – Mail Addresses. The Data Collected Were Analysed Using Chi – Square Test. The Results Revealed That;There Is Significant Relationship Between Malarial Infection In Pregnant Women And Living In Malaria Risk Areas. Chi – Square Calculated Value(10.864) Is Greater Than Chi – Square Table Value(10.255). There Is No Significant Relationship Between  Maternal Anaemia And Low Birth Weight Which Could Be Assumed To Be Responsible For Death During The First Months Of Life. Chi – Square Calculated Value(14.396) Is Lower Than Chi – Square Table Value(15.603). Chi – Square Calculated Value(13.375) Is Greater Than Chi – Square Table Value(11.965). This Shows There Is Significant Relationship Between Effect Of Malaria On Children’s Schooling And Physical And Mental Impairments. This Result Reveals That There Is Significant  Relationship Between Acts And Chloroquine / Sulphadoxine – Pyrimethane On Malaria Parasites, Chi – Square Calculated Value(15.790) Is Greater Than Chi – Square Table Value(15.442).Hence, Acts Is Effective In Treating Malaria Compared To Chloroquine/Sulphadoxine – Pyrimethane.  Chi – Square Calculated Value (8.107) Is Greater Than Chi – Square Table Value(6.426).This Result Shows That There Is Significant Relationship Between The Use Of  Insecticide – Treated Bed – Net And Insect Repellents In Reducing Malarial Infection.Based On The Above Shown Results Recommendations Were Made To Enhance Health Status Of The Inhabitants Of Malaria Risk Areas In South Western Part Of Nigeria.


Prevalence of Booster Dose Vaccine Hesitancy and to Understand the Factors Leading to Vaccine Hesitancy of Rural Community People: A Cross-Sectional Study

Yagajeyanthi M,Kannan S, Porolin N, Monish kumar, Fahim Ali MA.


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain infection which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCOV-2). By the World Health Organization in March 2020, it has been classified as a pandemic. For better and long lasting protection, a booster dose of CO19VID vaccine is intended to increase the immune system. There is a further protection from delta and Omicron variants in booster doses.Objectives: Assess the prevalence of booster dose vaccine Hesitancy. Identify the factors leading to booster dose vaccine Hesitancy. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community in Poonjeri, Chengalpet district, Tamil Nadu. A group of 255 participants was selected using a purposive sampling. Self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The gathered information was coded and examined. Result: In vaccination status 91% (n=232) were First dose of COVID-19 vaccination taken and 23% (n=23) were not taken First dose of vaccination. 82% (n=190) were second dose of COVID-19 vaccination taken and 18% (n=42) were not taken. 25% (n=46) were booster dose of vaccination taken and 75% (n=144) were not taken. Based on factors leading to booster dose vaccine hesitancy 41% (n=60) sample indicates that fear of complication, 27% (n=40) sample indicates that fear of getting covid, 16% (n=24) indicates that I will not getting covid and 13% (n=27) indicates that fear of death.


Revan Indices of Certain Graph Models

Siva Kumar Pathuri, Vishu Kumar M, Silvia Leera Sequeira and Veena K


There are many topological indices. Among the  degree based topological indices, Randic index Zagreb indices, Banhatti indices etc. The Revan vertex degree of a vertex in G is defined as . The revan edge connecting the revan vertices u and v will be denoted by uv. The first and second Revan indices of a graph G, defined as and. In this paper we obtain the first and second Revan indices of certain graphs say square path, square cycle, wheel graph, fan graph and comb graph. 

Does Government Tax Revenue Impact on Economic Growth? A New Evidence from Nigerian Data

Gambo Haladu, Imide Isreal Onokero, Abraham Alexander, Mark Okechukwu Mazeli, & Ikubor Ofili Jude


The study looksat effect of government tax revenue on economic growth in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning he period of 1994 to 2021. In order to achieve the objective of this study, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach was used to analyze the effect of government tax revenue on economic growth. The results revealed that company income tax (LCIT) has a coefficient of 0.11, petroleum profit tax (LPPT) has a coefficient of 0.068 and value added tax (LVAT)has a coefficient of 0.11 and all have positive effect at 5% significant level on economic growth (LRGDP) in Nigeria in the long-run. However, the short run results revealed that all the tax revenue variables such as company income tax (LCIT) at its current year and its previous one year, two years, three years’ values, petroleum profit tax (PPT) at its current year and its previous one year, two years, three years’ values and value added tax (LVAT) all have negative relationship with economic growth (RGDP).  Therefore, based on this result the study recommend that the tax authority should adopt more digitalization method to prevent revenue leakages, exploring the opportunities of taxation of the digital economy. Also, the government should ensure that tax income is used judiciously for the betterment of the citizenry.


Changing Behavior of Tidal Channels and its Impact on Fluvio-Geomorphological Environment of Indian Sundarbans: A Geographic Overview

Dr. Jayanta Gour


Sundarbans has been the playfield to the tidal channels since its very origin. Tides and ebbs configure the shapes and sizes of the islands from time to time. The British government during their colonial period in India tried to tame the free movements and control the natural tidal drainage networks by different means for their own economic benefits. Till today, full-fledged embankment building processes in this mangrove delta are being carried out to protect the riverside villages from bank erosion during or during post cyclonic storms. Often, these newly constructed and reconstructed embankments are leading to more devastation here from an agro-economic point of view. The paper aims to identify the causes and effects of unscientific and forceful changes in the natural tidal drainage systems in Indian Sundarbans and recommends some eco-friendly remedial measures to bring back the age-old natural fluvio-geomorphological environment of Indian Sundarbans.



Automated Modulation Classification in Wireless Communication: A Deep Convolution Neural Network based Approach

Padma Charan Sahu, Bibhu Prasad , Ratnakar Dash , Debendra Muduli , Santosh Kumar Sharma, Debasish Pradhan


This study conducts an empirical investigation focused on enhancing the performance of automatic modulation classification in wireless communication systems. We integrate a Customized CNN model with deep learning features. Initially, we employ pre-deep learning models to extract crucial features. These extracted features are then fed into a custom CNN classifier for precise modulation format categorization. To provide a comprehensive comparison of feature classification against pre-deep learning models, we find that our proposed model achieves superior classification results. We validate our approach using the publicly available RADIOML 2018.01A dataset. Our experiments reveal that our proposed scheme achieves an impressive accuracy of 95.16%, outperforming other state-of-the-art classification methods.


Indianness is the New Otherness in the Short Stories of R. K. Narayan's Malgudi Days

Mrs. Suchismita Tagore Mukherjee , Dr. Samapika Das Biswas


Postcolonial criticism challenges the standardized conceptions of cosmopolitanism rooted in metropolitan cultures by inviting locally-bred, subaltern and third world experiences as forces of intervention and interruption in shaping Universalist ethics for a shared humanity. Nevertheless, these approaches remain more speculative than substantive, required for grounding local cosmopolitanism(s) outside of diasporic, transnational, exilic contexts.


Automated glaucoma detection model based on 2D discrete wavelet transform with ensemble learning approach

Santosh Kumar Sharma, Debendra Muduli, Debasis Pradhan, Surendra Kumar Nanda


Glaucoma is a retinal disorder and ranks among the prevalent contributors to irreversible vision loss on a global scale. This study introduces an automated image processing technique for diagnosing glaucoma using digital fundus images. Timely identification of retinal diseases is pivotal in preventing vision deterioration and blindness. In this paper, we have proposed a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) model for glaucoma classification using fundus images. This method employed a two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT) to extract features from fundus images. The dimension of the features has been decreased using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to obtain more prominent features. Finally, the reduced set of features is applied to ensemble learning techniques by combining the XGboost (XGB), random forest (RF) and decision tree (DT) to classify glaucoma or healthy. Evaluation metrics like specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy serve as some of the statistical measures to assess the efficacy of these classification algorithms. Here, we have used two standard datasets, G1020 and ORIGA. From the experimental result, we observed that the proposed scheme obtained an accuracy of 91.95 % (G1020) and 92.97 % (ORIGA) datasets, superior to other state-of-the-art methods in classification results with a substantially reduced number of features. However, these challenges impede the models' performance and generalizability, thereby diminishing the reliability of their predictions.


Multiple Mean Fuzzy LBP: A Novel Technique for face Detection

“M. Shalima Sulthana & C. Naga Raju


LBP known as The Local Binary Pattern non-parametric descriptor which is used to investigate different local structures in an image. It is rendered as a straightforward and effective texture operator for different real-time applications. LBP generated binary data is sensitive to noise and it will identify face images when its completely Visible. To increase LBP's efficiency and resilience, in this research paper we proposed a novel multiple mean fuzzy LBP(MMFLBP)to classify facial images with different facial expressions and rotation invariant images. GLCM with six features is used for construction of Database on the outcome of MMFLBP. Confusion matrix is used for estimating the accuracy of MMFLBP. Upon calculation of the experimental results, it is obvious that our proposed method exhibits better accuracy.


Simulation Based Performance Analysis of Routing Protocol in VANET

Prof.(Dr.) Anish Gupta, Gaurav Gupta, Dr.Jogendra Kumar


Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have received significant attention in recent years due to their importance in intelligent transportation systems. These networks enable communication between vehicles (V2V) and between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I) using wireless access technologies such as IEEE 1609 WAVE and IEEE 802.11p. A critical scientific challenge in implementing VANETs, particularly in urban environments, is the development of efficient and reliable routing protocols for packet transmission between nodes. In this paper simulate and evaluate the performance of three widely recognized routing protocols, namely Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), in the context of VANETs. The objective is to identify the most suitable routing protocol that ensures reliable dissemination of data packets. To accomplish this, existing topology-based routing protocols for VANET applications are assessed using the Qualnet simulation tool. The simulation results indicate that combining an appropriate channel model with an efficient routing protocol enhances the link throughput of VANETs when considering a fixed network size. Furthermore, the performance evaluation investigates the impact of network sizes and routing protocols on important metrics such as packet loss, packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, and overhead transmission.


Clinical, Laboratory, Colonoscopic and Management Profile in Patients of Liver Abscess from Northern India

Ravnit Singh*, Akash Rajender, Bhargav Desai, Vats Gupta, Rajat Bhargava, Subhash Nepalia


Problem: To study the clinical profile, microbiological aetiologies, colonic involvement & management in patients with liver abscess. Approach: 155 participants were involved in a retrospective observational study that was carried out over a year. Records of the history, examination, and laboratory tests were noted. Ultrasound guided aspiration was done and samples were investigated. All participants with an amoebic liver abscess underwent colonoscopy to evaluate the colonic involvement. Chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Findings: The mean age of subjects was 40.3 years. Most of them (60%) belonged to a lower socioeconomic class and 76% of them were alcoholics. Majority of abscesses were solitary (62%), involving commonly the right lobe (68%). 72% were amoebic, 20% pyogenic, 1 %tubercular, 2 %fungal and 5 % mixed liver abscess. Colonic involvement was seen in 75% of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients with most commonly isolated cecal involvement (60%). Small ulcerations were significantly higher among cases of multiple ALA compared to solitary ALA (P=0.0003). In 80% of patients, percutaneous needle aspiration was performed; in 15% pigtail drainage and in 5%, surgical intervention. Overall mortality was 2 %, all reported in surgical group. Conclusion: The frequent presentation was solitary amoebic liver abscess mainly involving right lobe in a young alcoholic male, of low socioeconomic class. Three fourth of the patients with an amoebic liver abscess had colonic ulcers, especially those who presented with diarrhoea. Appropriate use of minimally invasive drainage techniques reduces mortality.


ICT Usage, Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Ikubor. O. Jude, Gambo Haladu, Oladipo. A. Oluwaseun, & Abdul Mary Yusuf



The study examines impact of ICT usage and fiscal policy on economic growth in Nigeria from 1986 to 2022. The data used for this study were secondary data that were sourced from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin in all the variables including capital expenditure, recurrent expenditure, external debt, and information and communication technology. The study conducted stationarity test with Augmented Dickney Fuller (ADF) Unit root test and the result shows that all the variables were stationary at first difference. The co-integration test carried out using Johansen co-integration test also shows that there is long run relationship amongst the variables. The study further employed the vector error correction model (VECM) to estimate the parameters of the model. The result of the vector error correction model presented shows that error-correcting term have the right sign, and is also statistically significant at 5% level. Capital expenditure and external debt has a direct and significant relationship with economic growth at 5% levels. Recurrent expenditure has an inverse relationship, but significant with economic growth at 5% levels. Information and communication has a direct relationship with economic growth but not significant at 5% levels. The study therefore recommends that concerted effort should be made to ensure that digital economy serves as a veritable  means of achieving economic growth and at the same time provide effective monitoring mechanism to ensure that government recurrent capital are effectively utilized for the growth of the sector.  


Empirical Research Adaptation and Validation of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) in the Amharic Version of Ethiopia (CQS - AE)

Dawit Demlie Messay and Tamirie Andualem Adal


The study aimed at the translation of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS), which was developed by Van Dyne, Ang and Koh [24], into the Ethiopian Amharic version (CQS–AE), and validation of its psychometric properties, factor structure, and the hypothesized measurement model on a sample of public university students. Senior undergraduate students (n = 343), who were from different backgrounds, participated in the study. Factor structure and model fitness, construct reliability and validity, and correlation between factors were examined. Results of EFA revealed that CQS–AE is a four-factor structure as the original CQS, showing metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ. Except for two items of the metacognitive factor, all the rest items had a strong loading value of greater than .6. There were no cross-loadings either. CFA of the four CQ factors demonstrated acceptable model fit (χ2 162df) = 272.30, NFI = .863, CFI = .938, PCFI = .800, and RMSEA = .063 (p > .05). Internal consistency reliability of the factors yielded Cronbach's alpha ranging from .81 to .88. Analyses of AVE was above .50 and exceeded the square of the correlations with other CQ factors (0.21 – 0.42), showing convergent and discriminant validity of the constructs. The overall result of the study demonstrated that the CQS–AE is valid and reliable enough to measure CQ on public university students of Ethiopia.


Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes Towards E-Learning in Basic Education Schools in North Al Batinah Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman

Mohammed Ahmed Alkamshaki & Muhammed Yusuf


The study aimed to reveal the attitudes towards e-learning among mathematics teachers in basic education schools in the Governorate of North Al Batinah in the Sultanate of Oman.The researcher used the descriptive approach to achieve the objectives of the study. The study tool consisted of a questionnaire involving (11) items distributed to a random sample of (250) male and female teachers. The study results showed that the attitudes towards e-learning among mathematics teachers came to a high degree, and the total average of the scores was (3.77), with a percentage of (75.4%). The results also indicated no statistically significant differences due to gender and years of experience. Due to the results, the study recommends increasing training courses for teachers on the use of e-learning, improving infrastructure and technical and technological equipment in schools, providing experts in the use of e-learning and technical support for technical problems.


Management of Anger Among Adolescent Boys through Peace Education: Evidence from Two High Schools in Odisha

Nadia Azadi & Dr. Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini Das


The present empirical investigation aims to study the effectiveness of Peace Education in the management of anger among adolescent boys. The study adopted a pre-test and post-test control group design. Out of 200adolescent boys, 60 adolescent boys were selected as participants through median split.60 boys were divided randomly into an Experimental group and a Control group with 30 participants in each group. The result indicated that adolescents in the experimental group scored lower on each dimension of aggression as well as in the overall aggression scores as compared to their counterparts in the control group.  The implications, limitations, and future directions of the study are also emphasized concerning the national and international findings.


Original Research A Comparative Evaluation of the Compressive Strength of Two Core Build Up Materials Reinforced with Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

1. Dr. Vilas Patel, MDS 2. Dr. Sareen Duseja, MDS 3. Dr. Vishal Parmar, MDS 4. Dr. Vaidehi Patel, MDS 5. Dr. Birood Patel, MDS


Problem: Core building requires high strength, bonding, and aesthetics. GIC and composite resin are the gold standards, but the requirement for increased strength never diminishes. In this study, the compressive strengths of GIC and composite resin with their zirconia-reinforced alternatives were compared. Approach: 48 extracted molars that met the inclusion criteria were collected, and a square cavity of selected measurement, including one cusp of the tooth, was prepared to receive the restoration. 10% zirconia was added to the GIC and composite resin. Teeth with a prepared cavity were allotted to four different groups according to the restorative material: Group 1: GIC; Group 2: zirconia-reinforced GIC; Group 3: composite resin; and Group 4: zirconia-reinforced composite resin, tested for compressive strength using the Instron testing machine. Findings: ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests were used for the comparison of various groups. The composite resin group was found to have the highest compressive strength, followed by zirconia-reinforced GIC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of zirconia can increase the strength of GIC to some extent but reduce the strength and bonding of composite resin.


Socioeconomic Determinants of Sustainable Rural Development: A Study of Women from Rural India

Navdeep Kaur, Divya Verma Gakhar, Ranjit Singh Ghuman,


The research attempts to examine the socioeconomic determinants of sustainable rural development with a focus on women from rural India. The structure of sustainable rural development included three components: social inclusion, economic growth and environmental protection. Married Women (r=0.299, p=0.000) with higher educational qualification (r=0.515, p=0.000) and younger in age (r=-0.428, p=0.000) demon started higher financial literacy levels as compared to others. Results of linear regression indicated that financial literacy is significantly influenced by education, woman’s relationship with environment and informal economy such as her work situation, role in decision making and preparing household budget. The study concluded that education was the most important socioeconomic determinant of sustainable rural development, hence providing education to rural women could be a catalytic step towards the sustainable development of rural India.


Evaluation and Clinical Profile of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Liver Cirrhosis Patients at Tertiary Care Center

Bhargav Desai, SR III, Akash Rajender, Associate Professor, Ravnit Singh, SR III, Vats Gupta, SR III, Rahat Bhargav, Professor, Subhash Nepalia, HOD,


Problem: A poor prognosis is linked to cirrhosis's prevalent consequence, hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This research intends to examine the clinical profile for worse outcomes in patients with hepatic encephalopathy caused by liver cirrhosis. Approach: With 110 patients as the study group, this cohort study were conducted over the course of two years. An ultrasonography of the liver verified the presence of cirrhosis. Findings: 110 patients with HE related to hepatic cirrhosis were included in the study; 81.8% of the patients were men, and 41.8% and 46.3% of the patients, respectively, met grade 2 and grade 3 of the West Haven criteria. Almost 65 to 67% of patients had asterexis, ascites, or icterus.65% of population had alcohol dependence. In our study, the most common form of treatment for 75.89% of patients was lactulose. Conclusion; The majority of the patients had grade III HE, the most common cause of cirrhosis was alcohol, the most common symptom of liver cell failure was icterus, and the most frequently prescribed medication was lactulose.


Financial services of India post in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu A Birds Eye View

Kantha palani. J, E.Thangasamy,


Universally, there is no country, including India, which is free from socio-economic challenges such as poverty alleviation, unemployment, etc.  In order to achieve their broader goals, each country has been leaving no stones unturned in the face of acute competition amongst them which is a herculean task indeed. While making such endeavors, attaining an inclusive growth becomes very essential.  Rather, any country is expected to achieve its respective socio-economic destination via financial inclusion.  No country can progress without industrialization for creating adequate employment avenues for its citizens.  Undoubtedly, it will certainly increase the rate of GDP growth and national income on one hand and increase the per capita income and standard of living, apart from livelihood, to its citizens on other hand.  As a result, the financial system of such countries will be strengthened to compete with their counterparts globally and gradually. In this context, the role of financial institutions, including the India Post, is very significant as it renders financial services to the rural masses and weaker sections of the society while mobilizing savings from them for making productive investments.  Keeping in view, the current study has been attempted to identify and evaluate the financial services provided by the India Post in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu and suggest remedial measures for improvement of financial services to the people in the financial inclusionary path.


Impact of Lean and Green Strategies on manufacturing Industry of India An Empirical Investigation

Rajesh Kumar , Rajender Kumar


Lean and Green strategies are utilized by manufacturing companies to enhance the operations by reducing manufacturing and environmental wasteThis study has been carried out in manufacturing industry of India for assessing lean and green thinking of the organizations. Questionnaire survey of 160 manufacturing companies has been performed as ascertain the benefits occurred. Reliability statistics, correlation, single factor ANOVA, z-test and moderator methodology have been employed to achieve different objectives. Results signify that economic performance is significantly improved by implementing lean green strategies. TPM impact moderates to a very high extent between lean manufacturing and green strategies. Lean manufacturing strategies have been highly utilized by manufacturing organizations.


Value Relevance of Corporate Social Sustainability Reporting of Listed Financial Service Firms in Nigeria

Wilson Adebayo Adepiti, Muyiwa Ezekie Aalade (PhD), Olusola Esther Igbekoyi (PhD)


Nigeriafinancial service firms have been battling with challenges of societal regulatory deficiency issues that have hampered their competitive edge and global relevance. This has been linked with fundamental issues such as unethical business practices, respect for human beings and society, global acceptable standard for health and safety among others. This study is conducted toexaminevalue relevance of corporate social sustainability reporting of listed financial service firms in Nigeria.The study employed ex-post facto research design and relied on secondary data obtained’ from annual reports of the firms for a period of 2010 to 2020.The population of the study consist 51 listed financial services firms and 35 firmswere purposively selected as sample size.Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and panel corrected standard error (PCSE) regression due to identified heteroscedaticity problem.The findingsrevealed that human right, society andproduct responsibility as measuresof corporate social sustainability reporting are statistically value relevant, while labour practices and decent work are not statistically value relevant.The study concluded that any improvement on the firm’s socialsustainability reporting policy will enhance its value relevance in the Nigerian exchange group. It is recommended that listdedfirms should focus more on the projection of their socialsustainability information to promote its value relevance and increase competitive advantage.


Microbial Dehydrogenase Activity Reduction by Leaf Extract of Newbouldialeavis: A Marker of its Antimicrobial Activity

Anyalogbu Ernest Anayochukwu Aniemeka


Antimicrobials killor inhibit the growth of microorganisms thereby commensurately reduce the overall dehydrogenase activity of the culture. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant, Newbouldialeavis by evaluating the reduction in dehydrogenase activities of some pathogens exposed to it.  Using approved methods, standardized cells of the isolates: Salmonella (enterica) typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were cultured and supplemented with graded concentrations of the extract and control drug. Hydrogen ions and electrons released by the dehydrogenase activities of the cultures stoichiometrically convert triphenyltetrazolium chloride to triphenyl formazan which is quantified spectrophotometrically. The leaf extract and the control drug - Gentamycin produced a dose-dependent %inhibition in dehydrogenase activities in the three pathogens giving the range: 6.25 to 93.75 and 56.41 to 90.38 in S. typhi, 24.59 to 70.49 and 66.47 to 91.17 in S. aureus and, 3.20 to 100.0 and 6.45 to 88.17 in E. coli respectively. The reduction by the extract was more pronounced in the two Gram negative, rod-shaped pathogens:  S. typhi and E. coli with the latter being more susceptible. From this work, relative to the control drug, extract of N. leavis possesses antimicrobial potentials which could be exploited in the treatment of diseases in which the pathogens especially S. typhi and E. coli are implicated.


Research Paper Synthesis Computational Studies and Biological Evaluation of Novel Isatin Derived Schiff Bases as Potential Antimicrobial Antianxiety and Muscle Relaxant Activity

Anurag Sharma, Vaishali Bhardwaj, Aditya Prakash Varshney


Schiff bases are wide group of compounds characterized with the presence of  a double bond attached along with carbon and nitrogen atoms, the utility which is generated in the different ways to combined a variety of alkyl or aryl substituents. We describe here computational investigations, synthesis, and biological assessments of numerous new Schiff Bases as antianxiety, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antibacterial medicines in light of the risks associated with drug resistance. Here we synthesized six novel isatin derived schiff bases they are having different biological applications.The target compounds (A1-6) were produced from Isatin (1) and 1,4 diaminobenzene (2) with glacial acetic acid. Melting point, TLC , Infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize 3-(-4-aminophenylimino)indoline-2-one (3), which was chloroacetylated with chloroacetyl chloride and then treated with substituted phenylpiperazines. The target substances were examined for their ability to reduce anxiety, relax Swiss albino mice's skeletal muscles, and fight against bacteria including S .aureus, E. Coli, and C. albicans. The outcomes were contrasted with those of the reference medications, clotrimazole and diazepam. The intended molecules included substantial biologically active compounds.


Painometer App as an Assessment Tool for Pain Intensity Measurement in Nonspecific Low Back Pain of Young Patients

Priyadarshini Mishra, Dr. Hanuman Singh, Dr. Mukesh Goyal


Purpose: This study aimed to examine the practicality and dependability of the painometer application's Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for evaluating pain intensity, in comparison to the conventional NRS method. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an Android application as a tool for measuring pain intensity in patients with low back pain. Methodology: This study employs a descriptive research approach, with a sample size consisting of 59 patients. Analysis: Interclass correlation coefficients were employed to assess the Painometer application's efficacy on an Android phone for detecting pain intensity. Additionally, the Bald Altman plot was utilized to evaluate the agreement between the two scales. Conclusion: The Painometer application demonstrates strong reliability and agreement among both individual testers and different testers. Therefore, it can effectively quantify the level of pain.


The Philosophy of Education from the Perspective of the Bhagavad Gita

Dr. Ujjwala Kakarla,


The research paper aims at exploring and imbibing the philosophy of education in relation to the ideologies and methodologies of the ancient scripture, ‘the Bhagavad Gita’. The scripture contributes to impart right knowledge, true purpose and meaning of education from the perspective of historical and cultural thought process. Interpretation of education based on the ideologies of the Gita ignites and inspires us to acquire true wisdom and lead a meaningful life. The Gita is a powerful medium of instruction which educates and aids us to refine our body, mind and intellect in realizing our Self. All aspects of education – its aim, curriculum, pedagogy, meaning, assessment, roles of learner and teacher can be interpreted vividly through the scripture. Physical, mental, intellectual, and emotional development paves a way for spiritual development adding essence and meaning to life.


Role of India Post in Financial Inclusion in Tamil Nadu: An Empirical Study

J. Kanthapalani & E. Thangasamy


The term financial inclusion was coined to financially strengthen all the people in formal financial sector in every part of the world. This is a very important consideration for both developing and developed countries. Thus, the ultimate objective of launching a financial inclusion program in India was to include all people in the formal financial sector in specific unbanked and rural areas. Though, many formal financial institutions in India are involved in financial inclusion programme, India post is one of the largest physical network institutions in India. Therefore, the role of India Post in financial inclusion program in a sample village, named Melaiyur under Mayiladuthurai District of Tamil Nadu was considered for this study. The descriptive research method was adopted. Data collected for the study was both qualitative as well as quantitative in nature. It was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The village was selected purposively as a study area.  In this village, India post plays a vital role to provide financial services. The researcher has attempted to get a number of customers from the sample post office situated in the study area. Hence, the population of the study was treated as unknown.  To determine the sample size, the unknown sample size Cochran formula was used.  From the formula there are 384 customers was determined as sample respondents.  The result of the study shows that, irrespective of different aspects i.e., availability, access, cost, usage and reliability of using postal financial services majority of the sample users state that the post office provides better financial services to include the rural people in formal financial sector in the study area.


The use of Piezotome (Piezo Ultrasonic Surgery) in the Treatment of Surgical Crown Lengthening Case Series & Review

Dr. Akanksha Singh & Dr. Rika Singh


Severely worn teeth, or teeth that are badly broken down, with little tooth structure remaining, can provide a significant challenge for restoration. Crown lengthening assisted with the proper maintenance of biologic width, can help ensure that the marginal placement of restorations remains supra or equigingival, thereby not causing problems for the health of the marginal gingiva. Piezo-electrical surgery is a relatively new surgical technique and offers considerable advantages over conventional methods of bone surgery. Therefore this case series is an attempt to describe the beneficial effects of peizo surgery in the crown lengthening procedure.


MANUSCRIPT Unlocking the Weighty Truth: Exploring Obesity’s Grasp and Risk Factors Among Today’s Teens

Lokesh.G, & Subbulakshmi. S


Background: The frequency of obesity among children has a significant impact on their general health, which in turn affects how they will age and live as adults. The objectives were to assess the obesity rate of prevalence and its corresponding risk factors among adolescents. Material and methods: The design adopted for the study was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a purposive sampling technique with 302 adolescents in the age group of 10-19 years at a selected private school, Kelambakkam. Ethical principles of research were followed. Assessment of risk factors of obesity was done by structured questionnaire and obesity was assessed by BMI using WHO Z score interpretation. Results: It shows that the majority (76.15) of the adolescents were male, most of them in the age group of 15-17 years (46.9%), most of the adolescents were residing in rural areas (56%), most adolescents were belonging to the joint family (53%), most of them were studying 8th-10th std level (44.7%).The prevalence rate of obesity was15.23% andthe majority of the adolescents (65.65%) hada moderate risk for obesity, 23.85% of them had a severe risk of obesity, and a few of them (8.6%) had a mild risk of obesity. The meanvalue of risk factors for obesity among adolescents was 16.88 ± 4.8. The results show that there was a statistically significant association between avoidance of sports & physical activity(p-0.00116), taking meals more than 3 times a day (p-0.0023), frequency of receiving packet money from the parents (p-0.0012), desire for eating outside processed foods (Pizza, burger, rolls, nuggets etc, p- 0.0195, frequency of eating carbohydrate or high calorie diet (sweet, chocolates, honey, jam, and biscuits, p-0.0196,like to go for bed immediately after dinner p-0.019426,Desire to eat dairy product [milk, cheese, butter etc, p-0.0195 and level of obesity among adolescents.The demographic association revealed that there was a statistically significant association between age (p-0.00067), total monthly income (p- 0.0006), extracurricular activities (p-0.0064), and the level of obesity. Conclusion: The findings showed that obesity was highly prevalent and majority of adolescents were at risk of becoming obese. The researcher advised that lowering the risk factors and prevalence of obesity is essential for reducing obesity-related morbidity and raising overall well-being.


An Empirical Study on Agripreneurial Characteristics of University Students

Baby Iffat ,Dr. Devendra Kumar Dixit , Shamaela Tabassum , Farah Naaz ,Baby Neehat , Professor Mohd Shamim Ansari


Purpose/Problem – The study explores the agripreneurial characteristics of agricultural sciences and business students in Indian universities. This manuscript investigates agripreneurship concerning innovation, opportunity-seeking abilities, risk-taking propensity, and decision-making abilities by comparing agripreneurially inclined and not-inclined students and considering their implications for agriculture development efforts in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach – A convenient sampling method was employed to collect data from university students using a seven-point Likert scale based on an 18-item self-administered questionnaire. For data collection, Google forms were sent through LinkedIn, WhatsApp, Instagram, Telegram and email. Students were asked, "Have you ever seriously considered becoming an agripreneurs" and "What career option will you choose after completing your degree?" to understand the agripreneurial inclination. Findings- Through the application of a t-test, it was found that agripreneurial characteristics are more prevalent among agripreneurially inclined students than non inclined ones. Thus, agripreneurially keen students have higher risk taking propensity, innovativeness, opportunity-seeking abilities, and decision-making abilities. Research limitations/implications – The study is bound to undergraduate and post-graduation students from agricultural backgrounds from Aligarh Muslim University; randomly selected university students were included in the pilot survey. The sample size is somewhat limited, making it challenging to comprehend the agripreneurial characteristics among students. Conclusion – The country's economic performance can be impacted by agripreneurship since the agricultural sector creates job opportunities for its workforce, which makes up roughly 60% of the total population. This study will contribute to the existing literature. It may help policymakers and universities to enhance the quality of agripreneurial education and training to cultivate the creativity of agripreneurs. Originality/value – The study offers to comprehend variations between agripreneurially inclined and non-inclined students. The manuscript includes four agripreneurial characteristics; risk-taking abilities and innovativeness are extensively used in the existing literature. On the other hand, opportunity-seeking and decision making abilities are scarcely ever used to describe the agripreneurial characteristics of university students


Design of a Low Noise Figure Lnausing a Novel Coupled Inductor

Murali Banoth and Nistala Bheema Rao


Problem: A low noise amplifier (LNA) design requires minimum noise introduced by the amplifier. This can be achieved by reducing the losses at the LNA's input and matching the LNA's input noise impedance with the source impedance. On-chip inductors generally have higher losses due to lower-quality factors, and this affects the noise performance of the on-chip LNAs. Approach: The paper presents a novel pyramid and coupled pyramid inductor to improve the quality factor. The improvement in quality factor is achieved by reducing the parasitic capacitance and losses utilizing a multilayer structure and also by varying the length of the inductor in each layer. The coupled pyramid inductor is designed using Sonnet software. Findings:The pyramid and coupled inductors achieve a quality factor of 16.8 and 17.15. The inductance values for these inductors are 1.92 nH and 4.85 nH, respectively. The effect of the quality factor and the inductance are validated by designing a low noise amplifier at 5.5 GHz. The LNA's simulated noise figure and gain are 1.09 dB and 15.6 dB. Conclusion:The losses in the coupled inductor are decreased by reducing the width of the conductor at each layer to compensate for the eddy currents and also the substrate losses. This results in the improvement of the inductance and quality factor in the coupled pyramid inductor. The reduced losses result in improved LNA performance, which can be observed from the Figure of Merit (FoM) of 14.6 for the LNA.


Impact of Digital Technologies on World

Dr. Emmanuel Hans and Dr. Anjali Hans


Digital technology refers to electronic tools or automatic systems designed to store and process data. Digital technology provides us to work online, e-shopping, apps, and social media. Digital information can be stored on different types of media including electronic storage devices like digital files and memory cards. Some examples of digital information may include email, web pages, pictures, music, videos, documents, and other such data. Digital information refers to video, images, text, and sound. Digital Information Technology is a broad branch of engineering, which concentrates on converting data into information and then vice versa. In addition, digital information technology is used to transfer data and information in the form of images, texts, sounds, and videos.This paper attempts to demonstrate the significance of digital information technology in 21st century.


Public Perception of Media Censorship and Press Freedom During the Coverage of Endsars Protest in Nigeria

Felix Olajide Talabi, Bernice Oluwalanu Sanusi, Prosper Nunayon Zannu ,Samson Adedapo Bello, Adebola Adewunmi Aderibigbe, Joshua Kayode Okunade


Problem:Several scholars have written that mass media is essential for any society to exist as it is a major means of information dissemination. It is,however, noted that the media in various countries including Nigeria do not function as it ought to because of media censorship. Media censorship, makes the media lose its authority and independence, subsequently becoming the ruling government’s ‘puppet’. Approach:The study was conducted using a survey. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to 238 respondentsin Osun State, Nigeria. Findings:Findings revealed that the Nigerian media were censored during the 2020 ENDSARS protest. The study also revealed that media censorship affects the objectivity and accuracy of news reports whichshowed that media censorship made the press operate in an environment of fear. Conclusion:The study suggested that Nigerian journalists should be aware of their responsibilities to citizens of their country. It was recommended that the Nigerian government refrain from interfering with the editorial decisions of media organisations and create a conducive environment for journalists to report happenings within the country.


Appraisal of the Staff and Management Planning Status of Cross River National Park, Cross River State, Nigeria

Ayuk A. Nchor, Beshel A. Urim, Edimorphy T. Kejuo & Bity A Nchor


Problems: Lack of skilled staff, equipment and facilities prevented the park from implementing effective habitat restoration programmes as well as monitoring of threats and pressures. This study examined the Staff and Management Planning Status of Cross River National Park, Cross River State, Nigeria was. Approach: Primary data were collected through interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary data involved a reconnaissance survey of the park for two months to assess the situation on ground. Annual reports of the park were also used to support the results during field exercises (2011 - 2015).Findings: Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as chi-square. Results obtained from the study revealed that majority of the respondents (62.6%) submitted that the status of staff is not adequate for effective performance. Furthermore, a greater number (67.3%) were of the views that the skills to conduct critical management activities by staff were inadequate including 80.77% with opinions that no detailed work plan was put in place by the management of the park to guide its day to day operations.However,63.46% were satisfied with the training and development programmes of the park. While 90.38% were of the position that the park operated a comprehensive management plan. This position was rejected based on further investigations that revealed that the existing management plan was prepared in 2010 and therefore requires update. Conclusion: The status of staff as well as their effectiveness to conduct critical management activities were inadequate. Furthermore, management planning processes in the Park were also inadequate, in view of the fact that the Park was operating an outdated management plan.


Assessment of Tourism Development Impacts - The Case of Local Communities in Obudu Ranch Resort, Cross River State, Nigeria

Ayuk Atim Nchor , John Ebebe Odey, Beshel A. Urim, Bity Ayuk Nchor & Edimorphy Tiku Kejuo


Problems: In most developing countries, tourism data is insufficient, contributing to low tourism knowledge amongst residents. This does not only widen the knowledge gap between local communities and decision-makers but also accelerates their isolation from the tourism development process.This study aimed at assessing the impacts of tourism development on the host communities in Obudu Ranch Resort. Approach: Primary data were collected through interviews and Focus Group Discussion. Secondary data involved a reconnaissance survey of the resort for three months (March to May, 2015) to evaluate the situation on ground in the study area. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as chi-square.308 questionairres were administered to residents in five communities around the resort.Findings: The data generated were  analyzed showing that the economic impact of tourism in the destination were percieved to be on the positive side particularly in the areas of increase husehold income (88.76%), increase in income generating projects (93.50%) as well as increase in household income (83.76%). Other positive developments from respondents included gender empowerment (80.84%), enhancement of people’s knowledge and standard of living (93.83%). However 44.16% of the respondents expressed negative opinions on the influence of tourists on indigens. Conclusion: Results gathered from the study revealed that tourism development in the area had positive impacts on the economic and social life of the indigenes including tremendous commitment in sound environmental management.The management of the Resort should ensure that the present standard of economic, social and environmental status are maintained. Also, the need for dissemination of information and knowledge about tourism to communities therefore, of serious concern world-wide.


Exergo-Economic Analysis of a Gas Turbine Plant with Inlet Air Fogging System – A Case Study

Ene E. Bassey, Oyongha M. Agbiji, Remigus A. Umunnah, Raymond R. Ana Obasi-sam O. Ojobe, Patrick O. Odu


This study investigates the exergoeconomic analysis of a gas turbine power plant with compressor inlet air fogging system. The objective of the study is to determine the degree of exergy destruction and economic implications which accrues due to the fogging arrangement for the proposed case study. First, a comprehensive exergy analysis was presented based on plant component modelling. Exergoeconomic cost rates were developed using standard purchase and equipment cost as functions of plant operating variables. The developed cost matrix was solved using a written program in engineering equation solver EES. The results show thatthe cost stream of the combustion chamber reduced by 1.52 %, while that after the turbine reduced by 2.22 % for the fogged system. Additionally, the exergy streams related to compressor work for the fogged system had total reduction of 3.76 % leading to a power increase of about 5.20 MW. Moreover, a sensitivity breakdown indicates that for consecutive 10 MW rise, the exergy stream of the compressor improved by 142 $/hr. at 110 MW, 138 $/hr. at 120 MW, 135 $/hr. at 130 MW and 130 $/hr. at 140 MW. Similarly, the inlet stream to the expander (turbine) exist at 1560 $/hour, 1487 $/hour, 1429 $/hour, 1381 $/hour, 1341 $/hour, and 1307 $/hour for 270MW, 290MW, 310MW, 330MW, 350MW and 370MW of turbine output respectively. The results show that the cost rates are smaller at the exit of the turbine due to small temperature difference in the burnt gasses. The results show reduced cost of exergy destruction due to fogging justifies the retrofitting of the examined gas turbine plant.


Bacteriological Profile of Hemodialysis Fluid in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Saraswathi R, Velayutharaj A, Prabhusaran N, Nishanthini P


Problem: The association between severity of CKD (e.g., as measured by levels of estimated GFR) and risk of AKI has not been quantified until relatively recently. For several decades, many physicians believed that AKI was a self-limited process followed by complete recovery of kidney function to pre-AKI levels among survivors. Approach: The objective of this study is to assess the bacteriological quality of treated water and dialysate used in the HD unit of a tertiary care hospital. This is a cross-sectional and observational study where 50 samples were planned and possible to 48 only. The inclusion criteria are all AKD and CKD patients who were undergoing for hemodialysis and patients in antibiotic therapy were excluded. Treated water samples and dialysate samples were collected from each haemodialysis machine. The samples were further processed for bacteriological culturing and possible bacterial species were identified. Findings: Three out of 48 (6.25%) of treated water and seven out of 48 (14.6%) dialysate samples showed growth above acceptable limits of bacterial contamination. Bacterial colonies identified were Staphylococcus aureuscoagulase negative staphylococci (CONS), Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter sp. All the bacterial isolates were sensitive towards the battery of antibiotics used. No resistant strains identified in this study. Conclusion: This study had the observable data of maintenance of quality of dialysis water which is microorganism free for water treatment and distribution systems. Policy has to be adopted in order to regulate the quality of water used in HD. Adoption and strict implementation of standard disinfection protocols to minimize the pathogen exposure to patients.


Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from ECOWAS Countries

Onuogu, Ijeoma Christina, Akanegbu Benedict, and Muhammad Maimuna Yakubu


This research examines the nexus between HCD and GDP growth of ECOWAS nations. Using panel ARDL the study adapted the Solow Growth Model by including factors such as LE, MYS, EYS, and LF as determinants of economic growth from 1990 to 2021. Panel unit root tests were conducted to ensure that no variable was integrated of order 2. The Hausman test conducted revealed that the pooled Mean Group model was the most efficient and consistent estimator for this study. The estimated PMG model demonstrated a positive long-term relationship between HDC and GDP growth in the ECOWAS countries. However, the labor force variable in the ECOWAS countries had an insignificant impact in the long run. Conclusively, policymakers should formulate and implement appropriate social sector policies and programs to improve healthcare facilities for citizens, reduce adult illiteracy rates, and address undernourishment, thus harnessing the growth potential of human capital development in ECOWAS countries.


Impact of Flexible Work Arrangements on Employee Productivity in Information Technology Sector

Dr. Subramaniam Seshan Iyer Professor. A.H. Siddiqui Vaibhav Bobade



In today’s competitive world both men and women are working in order to fulfill their needs. This has resulted into chaos at their home as well as workplace. The result is that either of them are late to workplace which puts red mark in their attendance. A red mark denotes absent or late coming at workplace which is bad for any employee from employment point of view. Flexible working hours promote healthy work life balance and also lowers stress. This improves the wellness of employee and productivity increases. Many thinkers have increasingly focused on flexible working hours as a strategy to improve organizational and employee performance. In this research, various aspects are considered which affects the overall productivity of an employee. Flexible working hours also increases retention of employee who are talented and also upholds diversified workforce.


A Novel Approach for Zero-Day Attack Detection and Prevention

Dr. Jyoshna Bejjam, Rachit Rahul Das, Ankur Banerjee, Srujan Landeri, Mohammad Arshad Ali, Nikhil Guru Venkatesh


Zero-day network interruption assaults comprise a regular online protection danger, as they look to take advantage of the weaknesses of an organization framework. Zero-day attacks have always been a major contributor in data leaks which has led to loss of money, time, and resources. Our solution to detect and prevent such attacks is a desktop application that monitors your network traffic in real time and looks for any anomalies or malicious activity that may be happening and works to minimize the damage caused by prevention. Our Zero-day attack detection and prevention system is a software designed to protect the user’s machine from malicious connections and stop it if any are attempted. Our software utilizes a network flow collection tool called CIC Flowmeter to collect network flows from the user in real time. These flows are analyzed using a two layer approach. Protection is employed by blocking network port access for specific IP Addresses that have been flagged as malicious.


A Polyglot : To Detect Misinformation Spread and Auto Populate Real News Using Natural Language Processing

Dr B. Jyoshna, Geethika Palavarapu, Nampally Rakshitha, Nadigopa Niharika


The prevalence of fake news and misinformation in today's digital age necessitates the development of effective tools for detection and prevention. Our work presents a comprehensive framework for fake news detection, incorporating information retrieval, natural language processing (NLP), a model for prediction and checking URL reputation. Since most contemporary works on false news detection are written in English, their applicability has been restricted. The efficiency of language-agnostic feature transfer across many languages, demonstrating positive results. The framework offers a comprehensive solution for fake news detection, leveraging the advancements in information retrieval, NLP, and ML to tackle the challenge of combating misinformation in the digital realm. It offers multilingual inputs to make it available globally.


Impact of Service Climate on Brand Personality of Event Management Companies in Sri Lanka, The Mediating Role of Proactive Customer Service Performances

S.M.A.N.M Subasinghe & Professor. Bandara Wanninayake


This study aimed to identify the Impact of service climate on the brand personality of event management companies in Sri Lanka. Additionally, this study attempted to examine the mediating role of proactive performance between service climate and brand personality. Past studies have observed the relationship between service climate dimensions and brand personality, and the effect was construed on the hospitality industry. This research confirmed that proactive performance also has a significant mediating effect on service climate and brand personality. A deductive approach is used when forming the hypotheses and using the Structural Equation Model as an analysis technique. A sample of 385 respondents became the study participants through a self-administered survey; a mixed sampling approach was used to select participants with a heterogeneous distribution of demographic factors. This study empirically suggested that all service climate dimensions were essential in shaping good brand personality in event management companies. Moreover, the mediating role of proactive performances was supported. The paper includes implications for complex problem-solving about brand personality issues and how to present managerial engagement, work facilitation, and customer-orientated practices collaboratively working towards building a memorable brand personality in the industry with the help of proactive performances.


An Overview on Laccases: Production & Industrial Applications

Priyambada Singh, Sakshi Sinha, Priya Sutaoney and Madhvendra Sahu


Laccases have drawn a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. This makes them an excellent choice for use in a variety of biotechnological processes. These enzymes possess capacity to oxidize substances associated to lignin includingextremely durable environmental contaminants. The purification the commercial byproducts,primarily from the textile, petrochemical, and paper and pulp sectors; use as a medical instrument for diagnosis along with bioremediation harmful chemicals and explosives are some examples of these applications. The present review explores the different strategies of laccase production for obtaining maximum yield along with their uses and future expansion in several industrial sectors.


Design and Modeling of PID System with Controllability and Observability Test for Three Phase Induction Motor Speed Control using Voltage/Frequency

Christiana, A. Ekim , Akwukwaegbu I. Onyema , M. Olubiwe , Nosiri O. Chikezie , Paulinus Nwammu


Induction motor is a robust system which runs at their rated speed. It is obvious that many applications require variable speed operation. This study presents a design and modeling of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID) system, Controllability and Observability Test for three phase induction motor speed control. The scalar control methodology for varying motor parameters which include stator resistance, number of poles and voltage/frequency was used to investigate the performance of motor speed control. For the controller approach, Proportional Integral (PI), and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers were investigated. MATLAB/SIMULINK software was used for the simulation.  Furthermore, investigation of the PI, and PID controller performance revealed that the PI controller performed poorly due to existence of high peaks, overshoots and rise time. However, the PID controller yielded satisfactory results for the motor controller. The PID controller showed a better performance with a 1.01s settling time and an Overshoot of 15.1% as against that of the PI controller which was Unstable, didn’t settle and an Overshoot of approximately 96%.


Effectiveness of a Quorum Model towards Reliable Sharing of Data over Classical Models

Smita Athanere Parte , Ankur Ratmele, Dr. Ritesh Dhanare, Dr. Ramesh Thakur


In recent years, cloud platforms are growing more and more popular mainly because of their outsourcing capabilities. Because cloud technology can handle massive volumes of data, many public and commercial companies are captivated by it. Moreover, cloud services provide safe data transfers between authorized and registered users. Cloud-dependent data transfer has security and privacy problems depending on how sensitive the data is. This presents a significant obstacle for cloud-based data exchange. Some of the disadvantages of the available solutions include single point of failure, difficult and inefficient data models, and user revocation. We have proposed a quorum-based. The suggested approach integrates the quorum concept with the Multi-Authority access monitoring model. Experiments for quorum and non-quorum techniques are conducted. Therefore, experimental study demonstrated that the suggested techniques are significantly more effective in terms of processing needs, memory needed, encryption decryption, and key generation. These programs are effective as well as safe from any risks to user privacy and data.


Awareness of Diarrhoea Among Caregivers of Children Younger Than Five Years in the Wake of Acute Diarrheal Disease Outbreak and Declaration of Public Health Emergencyin Karaikal, Puducherry

Dr. Shashank Reddy Srinadham, Dr. Pagadpally Srinivas, Dr. Mohammed Abdul Raqib, Dr. Mythily Srinivas


Back ground: Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death among children younger than five years globally and is third commonest in India. There is a worldwide documentation of increased diarrheal disease outbreak in coastal areas which are more prone for natural disasters like cyclones and floods, that could alter the regular water supply, sanitation and sewage system. Karaikal one of the four districts in the Union territory of Puducherry in South India, having a long coast line is more vulnerable for various kinds of natural disastersand exacerbation of infectious diseases. Recently in July 2022 a public health emergency was declared by the health and family welfare department of union territory of Puducherry in Karaikal district, south India, in the wake of an out-break of acute diarrheal disease and deterioration of drinking water supply. The care-givers of the affected children play a crucial role in minimising the burden of such paediatric diarrheal disease. Aim: To assess the knowledge about diarrhoea among care givers of under five children after the acute diarrheal disease outbreak and declaration of public health emergency in Karaikal, Puducherry. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 150 participants was conducted between January and July 2023 in the department of paediatrics at VMMC Hospital Karaikal. A standard and structured questionnaireadapted from UNICEF guidelines on LQAS household surveywas given to the care givers. Each questionnaire was reviewed for completeness and consistency after collecting the data. The responses were entered into Epi Info version 3.1 and analysed using SPSS software. The descriptive statistical analysis was used for frequency, percentage of the findings. Results: Of the 150 participants, majority (70%) of the care givers were mothers and 22% were grand-mothers, 38.7% and 23.3% of them had primary and secondary level of education respectively. The source of drinking water for 47.3% was through pipe line and 52% of the participants were aware of boiling the water for purification. 77.3% of children in the study suffered from diarrhoea in the preceding month and 67.3% of the respondents believed that contamination was the cause of the disease. Many of the study subjects have knowledge regarding feeding practices, clean drinking water, maintenance of good hygiene, hand washing and also the use of ORS or home-made fluids during diarrhoea.  Conclusion: Though majority of the care givers in this study have the knowledge about diarrhoea and its preventive measures, a few were insufficiently knowledgeable. Hence this targeted population are in need of continuous health education and an insight regarding improving sanitation, hygiene and feeding practices to prevent and manage paediatric diarrhoea.


Intervention Package for Tribal Students with Adjustment Problems in Model Residential Schools

Dr. Bijumon George


The purpose of the study was to find out the adjustment problems of tribal students in model residential schools and develop an intervention package to deal with it. The result of this study will provide professionals, policy makers and administrators a perception about adjustment problems of tribal students in model residential schools. The intervention package will be helpful in the future too to deal with the adjustment problems of the next generation of tribal students. The intervention package which is developed can also be used in other model residential schools in various parts of Kerala.


Nanomaterials in Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Maxillofacial Defects: A Review

Dr. Swati Sangani, Dr. Jinal Patel, Dr. Vilas Patel, Dr. Sareen Duseja


Problem: The maxillofacial material has some limitations. The main problem with the currently maxillofacial material is its reduced clinical longevity of the prosthesis. Because of its colour instability and material deterioration, for example, it exhibits modified texture, poorly fitting edges because of reduced tear strength. Approach: To review the impact of nanoparticle incorporation into maxillofacial material on its hardness, tear strength and colour stability. Findings: Several nanoparticles added at a concentration ranging from 1% to 3% improved the hardness, tear strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and colour stability. Nano?ceo2 improved the colour stability at 1% concentration and at 3% improved the hardness and tear strength. Nano?zno and Tio2 at a concentration of 2% and 2.5% improved the hardness, tear strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and color stability. Conclusion: With the available evidence in the literature, it can be concluded that addition of nanoparticles at various concentrations may improve the physical and mechanical properties and colour stability of the prosthesis made from the silicone elastomers.


A Study on Statutory and Non-Statutory Labour Welfare Measures in Sugar Mills at Thanjavur and Nagapattinam Districts of Tamil Nadu: An Indian Scenario

E. Thangasamy & P. Buvaneswari


Globally, all countries are always striving very hard to boost their economic growth and development. For achieving their broader goals of economy, it becomes very essential and inevitable to accelerate the process of industrialization. In addition to the development of all the sectoral growth, industrial growth may have to be paid due attention by the policy makers of a nation, While the wheels of industrial engine are lubricated, the output of the goods and services can be anticipated to rise gradually. Obviously, it will entail the higher rate economic growth in terms of GDP national income. Needless to say that there will be certainly an increase of new employment avenues commensurate with the increase of industries irrespective of their size, micro, small, medium, and so on. As a result, the level of income and standard of living amongst the people are likely to increase during a giving period of time. Thus, it is a continuous process for achieving the broader goals of economy in order to compete with each other in the world and to grow socially and economically. Keeping in view, there are several industries being setup throughout the world for attaining a balanced economic growth and development of innumerous industries. Sugar industry is one of the significant industries in terms of its contribution towards the higher economic growth, employment, income, standard of living etc. Simultaneously, sugarcane is also one the cash crops which largely yields better income to the cultivators.  Based on this theoretical backdrop of the concept, the present study was carried out with three objectives viz. (i) To study the statutory and non-statutory labour welfare measures in sugar mills at Thanjavur and Nagapattinam Districts of Tamil Nadu, (ii)To examine the welfare measures in force for the employees of sugar mills and measure their level of satisfaction, and (iii) to sugg

A Case Report on Steven Johnson Syndrome

Akash Jayaraman, Subiksha Sekar, Ramesh. V, Shreya Singh Beniwal, Rishabh Arun Vashisht, Sriram. A


Steven-Johnson syndrome is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction which causes toxic epidermal necrolysis throughout the human body, it typically involves burning rash that develop into papules and into ecthyma, lesions can be found in both limbs and in face which is bullous in nature. intake of certain types of drugs which includes anti-biotics, epilepsy medicines and Nsaids are the class of drug which trigger SJS/TEN. It has high morbidity and mortality rate than compared to any other dermatological conditions and it is a rare condition. case presentation: we report an eventful case of a 16-year-old girl who developed SJS induced by drug Carbamazepine. The patient was prescribed with Tab. Carbamazepine for the treatment of depression and low mood later the following week upon the intake of medication patient started to develop high-grade fever along with severe rash and lesion has been found all over the body. Skin-punch biopsy studies revealed patient had SJS and symptomatic treatment has been started for the patient. Clinical discussion: carbamazepine and other ant-psychotic drugs are well known to trigger SJS/TEN. Carbamazepine plasma concentration values differ from person to person and have a latency duration up to 15 days which could trigger SJS. A special approach should be made for the management of drug-induced SJS and early finding of the disease symptoms are the key for the management of the symptoms. Conclusion: Fever and other FLU like symptoms should be noted has they are signs of SJS after the intake of carbamazepine. Treatment should be approached by prompt treatment. Proper counselling to patient should prevent the further development of this condition and approach of carbamazepine in the treatment of depression should be revised.


State of the Art: Nipah Virus

Shaheen Hayat & Romana Ishrat


The Nipah virus (Nv) is a newly recognised zoonotic virus that has been linked to numerous outbreaks characterised by significant mortality rates, primarily occurring in regions of South and Southeast Asia. Nv is known to cause encephalitis and systemic vasculitis, and in certain cases, it is also associated with respiratory illnesses. Fruit bats serve as the primary reservoir of Nv, which can be spread through zoonotic means either directly or through an intermediary host, such as a pig or horse. Numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the viral mechanism behind illness progression and its broader pathophysiology. Nevertheless, it is imperative to comprehend the pathophysiology and dynamics of the disease in order to facilitate the development of treatment interventions and vaccinations. Therefore, this review aims to present a thorough and up-to-date analysis of the evolving comprehension of the pathogenesis of Nv.


OTT or Over-the-Top Profanity ? A Study on Language and Young Adult Perceptions

Preeti Dash & Suhasini Dash


Streaming services, often referred to as Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms, have revolutionized the landscape of media engagement, particularly for younger demographics. This research scrutinizes the pervasive incorporation of expletives in such platforms and assesses their repercussions on the younger population. Utilizing an interdisciplinary framework, this inquiry amalgamates insights from sociolinguistics, geolinguistics, and theories of both Politeness and Impoliteness, addressing two central questions: To what degree do these shifts in language on OTT platforms affect the language of young adults, and is the standardization of foul language on OTT services justified? Data was collated through questionnaires disseminated among emerging adult students nearing graduation to gauge their perceptions, beliefs, and actions in relation to the profanity prevalent in OTT content. Initial findings suggest that the routinization of such language is considerably influenced by sociocultural and context-dependent variables and prompts intricate ramifications on the linguistic practices and societal viewpoints of young individuals. Contributing novel insights into the role and implications of vulgar language in the digital epoch, this investigation enriches the extant corpus of academic work on language dynamics within media ecosystems.


A Study on Climate Change and Increasing Natural Disaster in India

Tanmoy Mondal, Biplab Tripathy, Subhechya Raha


Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. It has a significant impact on tropical and subtropical countries, especially in coastal regions. It is also a global threat to water and food security, agricultural supply chains, and many coastal cities worldwide. According to the 2021 IPCC report, flash floods, high temperatures, droughts, cyclones, and rising sea levels will continue to devastate regions in South Asia, including India. This paper examines the relationship between climate change and disasters in the context of India, along with the country's disaster profile and the increasing trend of such events. The Indian subcontinent is one of the world's most disaster-prone areas, with approximately 85% of India's territory vulnerable to one or multiple hazards. Erratic weather patterns, rising sea levels, glacier melt, and other factors have heightened the risks in the Indian subcontinent. Tackling the challenge of climate change and the increasing disaster risks holds particular significance for India. This paper aims to identify the causes of climate change and its impact on disasters in India. The study is based on secondary data, including satellite images and photography, as well as primary sources. Additionally, the study area map has been prepared using QGIS.


Sexual Dimorphism in Facial Dimensions of Crania

Dr. Preeti Singh


Problem: Craniometry holds an important place in anthropology especially physical anthropology, where it is helpful in gaining perspectives about population and individual variations and also racial classifications. Approach: The present study represents the data collected on a total of 64 (32 male and 32 female) crania from different institutions of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, with no deformities, to study the various facial dimensions in the two sexes.  Findings: The study shows the results for dimensions of facial parameters of male and female crania, and it is seen that sexual dimorphism does exists between the two sexes studied and is also in accordance with the works of other researchers. Conclusion: The present study shows that the two sexes differ in the facial dimensions and this could be helpful in forensic science investigation, ethnic and other personal identifications in various spheres.


Social Media Technology's Impact on the Food and Beverage Industry in Bangalore: A Comprehensive Analysis

Dr Supriya M


Social media technology has undeniably triggered a revolution in modern communication and information sharing, transcending traditional boundaries and gaining unparalleled acceptance across an array of sectors. From connecting individuals to influencing global events, the pervasive influence of social media is irrefutable. However, it is in the realm of the food and beverage industry that the transformative potential and the concomitant challenges of social media technology are particularly pronounced. This study embarked on a crucial mission - to comprehensively assess the profound impact of social media technology within the purview of the food and beverages sector. Its overarching goal was not only to recognize the extent to which social media technology has reshaped this industry but also to identify and analyze the multifaceted challenges it brings to the fore. The researcher adopted content analysis unveiled patterns and trends related to how social media technology has impacted various aspects of the food and beverage industry. It allowed for the identification of recurrent themes, the assessment of consumer sentiments, and the exploration of how businesses have adapted to the evolving digital landscape.


The Effect of Letter Case of Logotype on Consumers’ Perceptions of Luxury Fashion Brand

Wang Zheng, Louis Ringah Kanyan, Musdi Bin Shanat


Across the annals of human history, the consumption of luxury goods has consistently held a pivotal position. In the contemporary era, notably over the past decade, the sales of luxury fashion commodities have experienced a remarkable surge in China, attributable to the overarching economic expansion. The present study undertakes a comprehensive examination of the discernible effects of uppercase and lowercase lettering in luxury fashion brand logotypes, discerning their influence on the brand perception held by Chinese consumers. This investigation encompasses a cohort of 236 respondents, engaging in two distinct inquiries: the application of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) and the scrutiny of conspicuousness. The findings unambiguously demonstrate that the choice of letter case significantly impacts the perception of luxury fashion brands. Specifically, logotypes rendered in uppercase engender a heightened sense of competence associated with luxury fashion brands, simultaneously rendering them more conspicuous compared to their lowercase counterparts.

Questioning the Need for Lymph Node Dissection in Post-Neoadjuvant Ovarian Cancer Cases

Dr. Adnan Saeed; Dr. Nischal Raj L; Dr. Avinash T R; Dr. Sumalatha A;


Background: Ovarian cancer is a formidable gynecological malignancy with high mortality rates and global implications. While advancements in surgical techniques and the introduction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have influenced its management, the role of lymph node dissection (LND) remains a subject of ongoing debate. This study critically examines the necessity of LND in post-neoadjuvant ovarian cancer cases, considering its historical significance and its impact on surgical and survival outcomes.  Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted, using data from the electronic medical records of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological data were assessed to determine the effect of LND on surgical morbidity and survival outcomes. Subgroup analyses explored the influence of molecular subtypes and clinical stage. Results: The study revealed no significant differences in age, disease stage, or histological subtypes between patients who underwent LND and those who did not. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly reduced surgical morbidity, the omission of LND did not compromise overall survival. The Neoadjuvant + LND group exhibited longer median overall survival, albeit without clear clinical significance. Additionally, a higher incidence of surgical complications was noted in the LND group. Conclusion: The study questions the necessity of extensive LND in post-neoadjuvant ovarian cancer cases. It highlights the need for a personalized approach, considering patient characteristics and molecular subtypes. The results emphasize the evolving landscape of ovarian cancer management, emphasizing a tailored, patient-centered strategy to optimize outcomes.


Advanced Microstructure Characterization and Analysis of Naturally Occurring Boron-Rich Silicate Material: Tourmaline

Sneha Dandekar, Dilip Peshwe


The boron-rich silicate material (BMS)/tourmaline isa technologically important material in pressure devices. In the present work, the BSM was extracted from the tailings of an alumino-silicate treating plant using extractive metallurgy processes. The material was studied in detail using different characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) along with petrographic studies. EBSD analyses give information about crystallographic orientation in the microstructure and dislocation structures produced by deformation. However, it also deals with the various application of tourmaline, depending on the particle size of the material in the electrical, chemical as well as medical industries.


Effect of Presowing Treatment on Seed Germination of Adenanthera Pavonina

*Anandhi, S, Lokesh. V, Srinivetha. M, Seetha. P, Gopinath. M, Sanjay. R


An experiment was conducted at SRM College of Agricultural Sciences Vendhar Nagar, Baburayanpettai, Chengalpattu District,Tamil Nadu to study the ““Effect of presowing treatment on seed germination of Adenanthera pavonina”. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The experiment involved seed scarification method. There were nine treatments, viz.,T1- Conc. Sulphuric acid (5 min.)  + 12 hours water soaking, T2 - Conc. Sulphuric acid (5 min.)  + 24 hours water soaking, T3 - Conc. Sulphuric acid (10 min.)  + 12 hours water soaking, T4 - Conc. Sulphuric acid (10 min.)  + 24 hours water soaking, T5 - Hot water + 12 hours water soaking, T6 - Hot water + 24 hours water soaking, T7 - Water soaking (12 hours), T8 - Water soaking (24 hours), T9 - Control (Without treatment).The observations were recorded for the seedling characters like Days for germination (Days), Germination percentage (%), No. of leaves, Root length (cm), Shoot length (cm), Vigour index. Soaking the seeds in water for 24 hrs was the most effective for inducing better seed germination in Adenanthera pavonina.


Effect of Training Practice on Employees’ Job Performance at Deposit Money Banks in Kano State, Nigeria

Maryam Ma’aruf Yakubu, Hadiza Saidu Abubakar, Cross Ogohi Daniel


The study examined the effect of training practice (proxied by on-the-job training and off-the-job training) on employees’ job performance at Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Kano State, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. The population used for the study comprised 1382out of which a sample size of 372 (including the attrition rate) was determined using Yamane’s (1967) sample sizes determination formula and a convenient sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The study utilized an adapted questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. The data collected for the study were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) in determining the measurement, structural models and hypotheses testing through Smart PLS 3.0 software. The study found that on-the-job training has a positive and significant effect on employee’s job performance at Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Kano State, Nigeria, while off-the-job training has a positive but insignificant effect on employee’s job performance at Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Kano State, Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study concludes that on-the-job training positively and significantly influences employee’s job performance at Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Kano State, Nigeria, while off-the-job training positively but insignificant influence employee’s job performance at Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Kano State, Nigeria. The study thus recommended among others that The management of DMBs in Kano State, Nigeria should design off-the-job training directly to the employee’s tasks at work to allow the employees to learn more about their jobs and improve employees job performance.


Immunostimulatory Potential of a Non-cytotoxic Exopolysaccharide

Vidya Prabhakar Kodali , Ramkrishna Sen


A novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from a probiotic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans RK-02. In vitro proliferation studies showed that the EPS stimulated both the splenocytes and thymocytes. The nitric oxide induction of the EPS was tested on peritoneal macrophages. It was observed that the EPS induced macrophages to produce NO. The immunostimulatory studies of the EPS was also tested in vivo. The results indicated that the EPS stimulated splenocytes, thymocytes and induced the macrophages to produce NO significantly. The toxicity of the EPS was evaluated in both the in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicity studies of the EPS clearly indicated that the purified EPS was non toxic.



Empowering Community Mothers on Asthma Prevention: Assessing the Impact of Structured Education

S. J. Keerthana, S. Subbulakshmi K. Harikrishnan, and C. Mounika , R. Joe Immanuel


Context: Asthma disproportionately affects children and represent the most prevalent childhood non-communicable illness.Objective: Assessing the impact of organized education regarding knowledge of prevention of asthma among mothers and to find the statistical significant association between knowledge score of prevention of asthma and selected demographic variables of mothers. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at  Poonjery village, Chengalpet District, Tamilnadu, the study was designed in Quasi experimental manner. Materialsand Techniques: 100 mothers were chosen for the sample using a purposeful sampling strategy. The knowledge on asthma prevention was evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: According to the mother’s pre-test knowledge score, 76% of mothers had insufficient information, while 24% of women had moderate information. The mother’s post-test knowledge score showed that, 69% of mothers had adequate knowledge, and 31% of mothers had moderate knowledge. According to the study finding, the pretest’s mean knowledge score was 7.67 ±4.46 and the  posttest knowledge score was 18.71 ±1.51, and the t value was 21.72. The results revealed that the mother’s family type (p=0.0373), and awareness on asthma prevention (p=0.04) had a significant association. Conclusion:  The researcher concluded that structured education on prevention of asthma is statistically improving the mother’s knowledge and awareness promotes health seeking behaviour and prevent complications pertaining to asthma.


Photoprotector and anti-inflammatory roles of Achatina fulica snail slime extract in sunburn model mice

Ismiralda Oke Putranti, Eman Sutrisna, Nuraeni Ekowati, Prasetyadi Mawardi


Problem. This study was conducted to find the antioxidant properties and its roles as photoprotector and anti-inflammatory agent in sunburn model mice. Approach. Biochemistry with spectrophotometer was conducted to trace the content of flavonoid, phenols, saponin, tannin, steroid (qualitative). The snail slime was divided into 4 concentration 20%, 50%, 70% and 100% that were applied onto the back of the mice 1hour prior UV radiation. This experimental study with test only control group design was conducted to study photoprotector and anti-inflammatory role a by using 75 Mus musculus BALB/c sunburn model mice were divided into 15 groups. The photoprotector effect was measured semi-quantitatively from the histopathologic changes 24 hours after radiation, meanwhile the anti-inflammatory effect was determined by using immunohistochemistry of anti-Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leukocytes count of peripheral blood. Findings. The A. fulica snail slime extract was proven to contain flavonoid (+++), phenols (++), saponin (+++) and steroid (++). Snail slime application prior UV radiation showed significantly (p<0,000) prevent the histopathologic changes of the skin in sunburn effect from the lowest concentration 20%, it showed to prevent sunburn cell formation, crust formation, ulceration and dermal inflammation. The result of immunohistochemistry of anti-IL-6 also showed the snail slime also prevented the release of IL-6 in sunburn significantly (p<0,01) and decreased the leukocyte count of peripheral blood (p<0,000). Conclusion. The A.fulica snail slime contained antioxidant properties such as flavonoid, phenols, saponin and steroid, and potentially played role as photoprotector and anti-inflammatory agent in sunburn


A Study of Metacognitive Skills of Secondary School Students

Dr. Asha Yadav & Manu Goswami


Through planning activities like learning tasks, monitoring comprehension, and assessing progress toward task completion, metacognition involves active control over the mental processes involved in learning. It is significant for both students and teachers and plays a crucial role in successful learning. The main goal of the current work is to examine secondary school students' metacognitive skills levels. A sample of 240 secondary school students from the Haryana district of Kaithal was randomly selected for this study. The data was obtained using the metacognitive skills (MCSS) scale developed by Madhu Gupta & Suman (2017). The findings indicate that the majority of students 26.25% had average metacognitive skills, followed by above average metacognitive skills at 24.6%, and high metacognitive skills at 16.25% and there is no significant difference in metacognitive skills of students based on their gender and locale.


Clerics Involvement in Nigerian Politics: A Case Study of the Obidient Movement

Benedict Agbo (Rev Fr), Donatus Uchenna Ajibo (Rev Fr) & Fidelis Asogwa (Rev Fr)


The 2023 election straddles some particularities in relation to previous elections in Nigeria, including Youth Involvement, Active Clerical Participation and most spectacularly the new Electoral Act. This study investigates and problematizes the involvement of clerics (especially of the Roman Catholic denomination) during the 2023 general elections in Nigeria. It pays closer attention to the dynamics of the OBIdient Movement as a new political force in Nigeria by investigating the role, modalities, cause and effects of clerics’ participation in Nigerian politics. As a result of this new development and following an observational, survey and analytical approach, we lay claim to a number of paradigm shifts in Nigerian politics and have provided inside information on the intricate dynamics of what transpired during the 2023 general elections in Nigeria.


Language use and the Spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Igbo Culture Area

Crescentia Ugwuona (PhD)


During the time of COVID-19, indigenous people and speakers in the Igbo region often use inappropriate and obstinate language – koro ad?gh? n’ala Igbo (Coronavirus is not in Igboland) and its various forms to assert that ‘Igbo people are not vulnerable to COVID-19’. In consequence, their misuse of language and the linguistic perception about the COVID-19 are seriously influencing the peoples’ behaviours negatively in terms ofobserving the COVID-19 protocols. This study explores inappropriate language use about COVID-19 in Igbo culture area and the impactsin the area. The researcher drew data from the Igbo culture area especially the rural communities which enough light of scholarship has not been shed. Data through open ended questions, semi-structured oral interview, casual conversations,and participant observationare analysed descriptively. The study employs Sapir-Whorfian (1921) and Wardhaugh’s (2006) theory of language use – how language use/structuresinfluencesocial behaviours in a given society.The research shows that Igbo speakers creates diverse obstinate language use and frames about COVID-19 pandemic in different contexts during the COVID-19 era, and how they functioned to influence the people’s behavior negatively during the pandemic.The study has potentials for important source of information for language use and coronavirus research.


Quality of Life of Cervical Cancer Patients in the State Tripura Following Chemoradiotherapy

Dr. Partha Sarathi Sutradhar, Sarada Sutradhar,* Dr Satish Kumar Gupta,


Objectives: Cervical cancer is the prevailing tumor of the female genitals and represents a significant public health concern in emerging nations. The initial stage in designing control measures and treatment facilities involves examining the sociodemographic  characteristics and risk factors of patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and its associated factors in individuals who have received a diagnosis of cervical cancer and undergone chemoradiotherapy. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken at the Atal Bihari Vajpayee Regional Cancer Centre in Agartala, focusing on patients diagnosed with cervical cancer who sought medical care at the hospital between the years 2018 and 2022. A group of 400 individuals diagnosed with cervical cancer participated in a survey where they were administered a standardized questionnaire to assess their quality of life (QOL). The questionnaire used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), together with its specific module for cervical cancer (EORTC QLQ-CX24). The analysis of quality-of-life categories, socio-demographic characteristics, and risk factors was conducted using the Mann-Whitney test on SPSS version 16. Result: The study findings revealed that patients diagnosed with Cervical cancer had a mean overall quality of life and global health status of 64.67±2.68, suggesting a moderate level of well-being. The findings of this study indicate that a significant proportion of the sample, particularly 53% (n=213), demonstrated a positive global health status.  A significant proportion of the participants (67.5%) received their diagnosis between the age range of 40 to 60 years, with an average age of 50.90 ± 2.41.Correlations (p < 0.05) were analysed between the functional domains and the variables encompassing demographic parameters and risk factors. The study revealed a significant impairment in sexual functioning with mean value 15.15±3.83. The results of this study suggest that younger patients demonstrated enhanced functional scores in comparison to older age groups.


Exploratory study on consumers purchases intention of Organic Foods.

Mr. Pritam Lanjewar Dr. Sujit Metre, Dr. A. D. Gedam,


The concept of Organic food is not new, it has been in the existence for a very long time, even for that matter many researchers have rightly claimed that the organic food has been the integral part of our life. In the last eight to ten years the importance of organic food and its utility is gaining the momentum, as awareness towards organic food has increased immensely especially in tier-01 city, and slowly in tier -02 cities. The notion behind this study to identify various factors that serves as a influencer for igniting purchase intention towards organic food (products).  The  focal point of the study is to evaluate nexus between purchase intention and purchase attributes such as Availability, Price Premium, Trust Factors, Relative Utility Factor & Social media influence. A close ended questionnaire was created and subsequently distributed among consumers among 320, out of which 284 responses were positively collected. The data were tested with the help of Exploratory factor analysis using SPSS 25. The result reveal that all the considered attributes such as Availability, Price Premium, Trust Factors, Relative Utility Factor & Social media influence had a significant impacts in igniting purchase intention for organic food.


Exploratory study on Factors motivating Female Consumers to Buy Cosmetic Products

Dr. Hetal Gaglani & Dr. M. G. Dhote


Purpose: The main aim of the study is to identify the factors that affect the online buying intentions of female consumers. It tries to identify which factors of social media produce positive effects on female consumers purchase intention. Design approach: The analysis was carried out using the data collected through structured questionnaire for female consumers using cosmetics. The responses to a structured questionnaire from a sample of 270 female consumers indicated that campaigns endorsed by social media influencer, ease of shopping and attitude of the influencer are the factors that have a positive impact on buying intentions. Data were recorded in SPSS 23 and analyzed by using descriptive statistics.  Findings: The analysis suggests that to survive in today’s competitive market it’s the need of an hour for cosmetics companies to prioritize their marketing through social media which will enable them to sustain in this booming industry. Practical implications: During pandemic where we had not stepped out of our home for months together most of our time was spent on social media. We all become more comfortable with online shopping during this new normal. Now, it has become crucial for beauty companies to understand the impact of social media marketing on buying intentions of female consumers.  This study may help the companies as well as female consumers to know the factors that affect purchasing decision of female consumers.


Ferrohydrodynamic of a Rotating Disk with Vertical Motion

P.Gayathri, N. Nithyadevi, M. Gowri & C. Udhaya Shankar


The numerical investigation of lowly oscillating magneto viscous flow above a non electrically conducting heated rotating disk subject to vertical motion of the disk(both upward and downward movement) is performed.   The ferronanoparticles (Fe3O4) is incorporated into the fluid flow  and the corresponding ferrohydrodynamic equations of motion along with the magnetization equation are framed using Shliomis theory. This pumping flow problem governed by partial differential equations are regenerated as non linear ordinary differenatial equations using von Karman similarity procedure. The computational analysis based on finite difference collocation method was utilized to obtain numerical values of fluid motion components.  It was found that the vertical movement of the disk with its parameter shows an increasing velocity and temperature profile. Moreover, the increase of ferrofluid concentration with respect to the magnetization parameter has a positive impact on reduced skin friction along tangential direction and heat transfer coefficient.


Experimental Work on Process Parameters of Hybrid Electric Discharge Machining

Ajit, Sanjay Sundriyal


Electric discharge machine(EDM) is used for manufacturing purpose. It is used to cut the hard materials in machining by the non-conventional process, to remove the material from work piece by the fusion, ablation and evaporation which caused by the heat energy developed through electric spark when the electric energy supplied on it. It has more advantages on the machining the products such as performance and characteristics. In the present study, to improvement the performance and characteristics like Micro hardness, Material removal rate(MRR), Surface finish and Residual stresses, The Additive gaseous and powder mixed near dry EDM is used. By using this method good surface quality of product is achieved. In this study, it is found that less surface roughness(SR 1.121 µm) when helium gas is combined with graphite powder as a dielectric medium  and more material removal rate(3.489mg/min) is obtained by the combining of nitrogen gas with graphite powder as a dielectric medium. And also found the minimum residual stress(RS) is229MPa and largest micro hardness(MH) is 821.32(VHN) which obtained when helium gas is combined with zinc powder as a dielectric medium.


A Novel Approach as Post Endodontic Restoration With Metal Endocrown

Dr. Roma M & Dr. Shreya Hegde


Introduction: All the teeth undergoing pulp space therapies require a good form of post-endodontic restoration to rehabilitate the teeth back to functionality. Root canal treatment is a procedure which removes the part of tooth structure during access and canal shaping, removes vital contents of the pulp space, which in due course leads to increased fragility of the remaining tooth structure due to dehydration and loss of elasticity of dentin. There is increased prevalence rates of tooth fractures in endodontically treated teeth due to diminishedfunctional architecture. Full coverage restorations further weakens the tooth. Preservation of maximum tooth structure with conservative tooth preparation contemplates as the standard measure for restoring teeth. Case Description: Recently, endocrowns have been introduced as conservative modality of treatment as post-endodontic restoration. This case report delineates the treatment aspect of endodontically treated left mandibular 2nd molar with metal endocrown. Clinical significance: Treatment of severely mutilated teeth with conservative mode of treatment plays a great role of clinician’s assertiveness and capacity to rebuild the lost tooth structure with minimal approach. Minimal invasive dentistry is the new norm and preservation of remaining tooth structure is the key to success.


Synthesis, Structural Parameter Determination and PL Characterization Sm3+ Doped Mgb8o13 Phosphor

V. R. Kharabe, Pooja A. Zingare


A series of Sm doped MgB8O13 phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction method and their photo luminescence (PL) properties were systematically investigated. The synthesized materials were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) for confirmation. The emission and excitation of these materials were measured at room temperature by spectrofluorophotometer. The PL emission spectra of Sm3+ doped MgB8O13 were observed at 565 nm and 607 nm in yellow and orange region respectively for 401 nm excitation near UV range. Emission at 565 nm and 607nm are assigned to 4G5/2 6H5/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition of Sm3+ ions, respectively. The effects Sm3+ concentration on the emission spectrum and luminescent intensity of MgB8O13:Sm3+were investigated. The photoluminescence properties of MgB8O13:Sm3+ shows that the phosphor emits orange 607nm light and yellow 565nm under excitation 401 nm. Consequently, these materials are promising phosphors for white LEDs


Impact of Multifaceted Intervention on Medication Adherence and Quality of Life of Post -Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

Shinu C, Midhun M Nair, Shirin, and Mohammed Shamil


Problem: How does implementing comprehensive patient education and medication support strategies impact medication adherence and the quality of life in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Approach: A prospective interventional study with a 6-month duration was conducted among 196 post-ACS patients, in a tertiary care hospital in Malappuram, Kerala state, Indiato evaluate the effectiveness or impact of multifaceted intervention on medication adherence and quality of life among post-ACS patients. Findings: No statistically significant difference in medication adherence was found between the intervention and non-intervention groups during follow-up 1 (p = 0.537, Z = 0.772). However, during follow-up 2, there was a significant difference in medication adherence between the intervention and non-intervention groups (p = 0.002, Z = 0.001). Significant associations were observed between quality of life in both the interventional (p = 0.01, T = 11.658) and non-interventional (p = 0.01, T = 11.018) groups, indicating significant improvements in quality of life in both groups. Conclusion: The study found that a multifaceted intervention improved medication adherence and quality of life (QOL) in post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Patient counseling and the use of a patient information leaflet (PIL) were effective. Sociodemographic factors did not significantly affect medication adherence. The study also highlighted the positive impact of the intervention on QOL. Overall, the findings suggest that a multifaceted intervention enhances patient knowledge, medication adherence, and QOL in post-ACS patients, by which we can prevent the recurrence of ACS.

ICT Usage, Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Ikubor Ofili Jude , Imide, Isreal Onokero, Abraham Umola Ojih, Abdul Mary Yusuf & Haladu Gambo


The study examines the impact of ICT usage and fiscal policy on economic growth in Nigeria from 1986 to 2022. The data used for this study were secondary data that were sourced from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin in all the variables including capital expenditure, recurrent expenditure, external debt, and information and communication technology. The study conducted stationarity test with Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) Unit root test and the result shows that all the variables were stationary at first difference. The co-integration test carried out using Johansen co-integration test also shows that there is long run relationship amongst the variables. The study further employed the vector error correction model (VECM) to estimate the parameters of the model. The result of the vector error correction model presented shows that error-correcting term have the right sign, and is also statistically significant at 5% level. Capital expenditure and external debt has a direct and significant relationship with economic growth at 5% levels. Recurrent expenditure has an inverse relationship, but significant with economic growth at 5% levels. Information and communication has a direct relationship with economic growth but not significant at 5% levels. The study therefore recommends that concerted effort should be made to ensure that digital economy serves as a veritable means of achieving economic growth and at the same time provide effective monitoring mechanism to ensure that government recurrent capital is effectively utilized for the growth of the sector.   

Cosmetic Dentistry: A Boon or a Bane?

Dr. Seema Bukhari, Kaja Sai Ragesvari , Jigyasa Gupta , Juhi Singhla , Kadambari Harit


Dentistry is a science-based, notably structured healthcare career that serves steadily extra traumatic patients. The purpose to searching for dental care used to be entirely for traditional redress and sufferers consulted dentists solely when there was once an apparent need. As the instances have modified human beings trust that a profitable cure depends on aesthetics of treatment. In this era, social media has the strength to alter people’s way of thinking. It does no longer solely exhibit a photograph of splendor however has quite a few passive effects too with elevated price of socialization and with a world platform to take part human beings are a lot influenced through many actors and idols.The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices amongst the general population of Faridabad regarding Cosmetic Dentistry. The data was collected using a structured interview questionnaire. This questionnaire was shared with people on an online platform via Google forms and a total of 159 responses were collected from people of Faridabad randomly. Though lot of people had knowledge of esthetic dentistry very less people knew when was it essential and the most common cause for getting a cosmetic procedure done was idolization social media peer pressure extra. The result showed an increase influence of social media on teenagers towards esthetics as being the prime concern and their will to get esthetic treatment done even when there was very slight need for it being done.


Airway Evaluation Using Ultrasound for Predicting Difficult Intubation

Dr Vishma K, Dr Nagesh B, Dr Prithi J, Dr Sunil B V


Difficult intubation is one of the main challenges in anaesthesiology . There are many clinical criteria that were  introduced with regard to evaluation of the patient’s airway before induction of anaesthesia, including Mallampati classification, mouth-opening, thyromental distance, neck extension, jaw protrusion, upper-lip bite test etc. Prospective Observational study conducted with 84 patients posted for elective surgical procedure. Airway was examined by both clinical and ultrasound. This study found that the correlation between the ultrasonographic parameters and Cormack-Lehane grade were weak or very weak, and can be assumed to have limited clinical significance.


Clinical Pharmacist Intervention in Abate of Drug Related Problem and Emerging Antibiotic Resistance in Intensive Care Unit

Dr. T.N.K Suriyaprakash, Dr. Sai Keerthana, Amulya Diya M R, Fathima Resmin, Nesma C H, Samna Nazee


Problem: To assess the rate and incidence of medication error and antibiotic resistance. To develop the monitoring and minimization programme. To promote cost effective treatment.  To develop strategy for reducing the risk of medication error. Approach: Conducted a prospective observational study over 6 months in a tertiary care hospital’s ICU. The patients meeting specific criteria were included in the study. Microsoft excel was used for data compilation. Statistical analysis through SPSS software revealed significant findings. Findings: We have collected a total of 375 drug related problems including medication errors, adverse drug reactions and also include patients for antibiotic stewardship programme. During the study, Distribution of medication error in according to age and gender shows that medication errors repeatedly occur in the male patients (66%) compared with female patients (34%). While considering ICUs, the highest number of medication errors was found in the department of NMICU with 38%. The Department of MICU consists of 29.3% errors and Department of SICU consists of 26%. The Department CICU consists of 6% errors and In the Department of MDICU, least number of medication errors were occurred with 0.7%.Amongthe 150 subjects in the study 59.3% were occurred by the Doctors. 40% of Medication errors were made by Nurses and 0.7% of Medication error was due to the Pharmacist. 60% of the reported errors were Prescribing errors, 37.3% of the errors were Drug administration errors and 2.7% were Dispensing error. Among the 75 subjects reported with adverse drug reaction in the study 54.7% were females and 45.3% were males. Among the 75 cases, 81.3% subjects recovered from the adverse drug reaction occurred and 18.7% subjects were recovering from the adverse event. The result of antibiotic stewardship programme shows that among the 150 subjects in the study, 57.3% were males and 42.7% were females. The stewardship programme was carried out in 5 different ICUs. Out of this 38% was taken from MICU, 26% was taken from SICU, 20.7% was taken from MDICU, 10% was taken from NMICU and 5.3% was taken from CICU.  Conclusion: Comprehensive analysis of medication charts of IP patients across five major intensive care units including MICU, MDICU, NMICU, SICU and CICU revealed spectrum of drug related problems spanning from medication errors to adverse drug reactions. Employing various interventional tools, pre and post ward rounds , and distinct inclusion criteria we categorized subtypes of these issues .The study underscored the pivotal role of clinical pharmacist in mitigating the rate of medication errors, show casing a significant reduction through direct reviews of medication charts and collaborative interaction with nurses and physicians .This emphasizes the vital contribution of clinical pharmacist in enhancing patient safety and overall quality of health care delivery in intensive care settings.