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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Systematic review on correlation between chronic mechanical irritation and oral cancer

Dr. Ashwin Chandraveni M, Dr. Krithika CL, Dr. Kannan A, Dr.Yesoda Aniyan K, Dr.Anuradha Ganesan.


Oral cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer that prevails world wide. There are about 3 lakh cases reported annually. This systematic review is aimed to assess the risk of chronic mechanical trauma leading to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Systematically evidences were collectedfrom Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Web of science. The review includes only case- control, cross sectional, cohort studies that done in comparison with chronic mechanical trauma and OSCC. Results: Only 124 articles described chronic mucosal trauma as risk factors for oral cancers and were considered in this review. Conclusions: The review shows that chronic mucosal irritation resulting from ill-fitting dentures may be considered a risk factor for the development of oral cancer, such cancers occur commonly over the lateral border of the tongue.


Assess Challenges and Prospects of Street Vending in Bale Zone.

Teshome Dejene (MBA) Melese Chala (MBA), Gosa Lema (MBA)


Street vending is one of the most visible activities in the informal economy and is found everywhere in the world, both in developed and developing countries. This study is designed to assess the challenges and prospects of street vending in Robe town. Street vending is an activity which takes place outside enclosed premises or covered workspace on street pavements, sidewalks, but also at bus stops and in other public places. The key players are economically disadvantaged persons such as new migrants, the poor, lowly educated, individuals searching for jobs, and those disadvantaged in different ways are included in the margins. Street vendors face many challenges such as lack of infrastructure, legal status, and limited access to capital, insecurity of places, being overlooked as economic ageing ents, hindered rather than helped by municipal policies, and economic challenges. The study has the following specific objectives; to identify the major factors leading vendors to street vending, to identify the major challenges that street vendors faced while operating their business, and to assess the economic opportunities of the street vending to the urban poor people of the study area. To collect all the necessary data the researchers have used both primary and secondary sources of data. Questionnaire, interview, observation and focus group discussion was used as tools for gathering primary data. Secondary data was collected from websites, published and unpublished documents and other related documents. Data collected from respondents was analyzed through descriptive statistics. Furthermore, the expected result of this research would identify the major challenges and opportunities of street vending in Robe, Goba, Ginir, Goro and Dello Mena towns.


The impact of microfinance services on the growth of small business enterprises in Jijiga and Degahbur cities administration

Abdi Mohamed Muhumed (MSc)


The main purpose of this study was to examine the impact of microfinance institution services on the growth of small business enterprises in jijiga and Degahbur cities administration. Small business clients have always had challenges in investing in business due to lack of capital, financial management skills, or the suitable ideas on viable business. This study adopted an explanatory method that aimed at finding the impact MFIs services on the growth of SBEs to identify the extent cause and effect relationship of variables. The study adopted cross-sectional survey. A sample technique that used by the researcher was simple random sampling the representation of total sample size 154. This study used both primary and secondary source of data with the research approach of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The researcher found that microfinance services had positive impact on the growth as revealed by the both descriptive regression analysis. The researcher concludes that After discussing with respondents about the involvement of microfinance institutions to the growth of small business enterprises in Jijiga and Degahbur and presenting the collected data in the form of description, percentages, statistical tables and frequency distribution, we discovered that the majority of the respondents confirmed that microfinance institution services had impact on the growth of small business enterprises. Regarding the impact of those services to the growth of their small businesses clients, the respondents revealed that all microfinance services from the Somali Microfinance Institution had  make a payment to the growth of small business by increasing their total sales turnover and capital. The recommendation of Microfinance Financial institutions, particularly Somali microfinance banks should be encouraged increasing their loans and training to SBEs workers. This can be achieved from side to side comforting the conditions of granting loan, flexible repayment period, reduction in the rate of interest and awareness through routine training and programs.


The Use and Implementation of Pareto and Ishikawa Diagram for defect minimization in manufacturing firms

Dereje Geleta Oljira & MisganaLamessa Dinsa


Many unavoidable challenges in the rejection of a large percentage of finished garment products after shipment owing to quality control failures in garment manufacturing motivated this article. Global competition, diminishing profit margins, customer need for products, product variety, and shorter lead times, among other factors, have a significant impact on the garment manufacturing industry. The need for higher quality products at a lower price is growing, and clothing manufacturers must enhance their operations by manufacturing right the first time. This paper examines how to enhance garment manufacturing quality and productivity by reducing the number of reworks that occur during the manufacturing process. Using Pareto analysis and the Ishikawa diagram effectively, this study enhances the process performance of a major operational process, resulting in higher resource utilization, less variances, and consistent quality of the process output. According to the Pareto principal of 80/20 of 80/20 rule, the up and down sections are rated top in the sewing process area, followed by broken stitch 27.20 percent, uneven stitch 9.44 percent, twisting 6.94 percent, and slip stitch 5.28 percent of defects. After identifying and ranking the primary causes based on the 80/20 principle, viable solutions were presented on how to tackle these issues and reduce the rejection rate to a minimum, as well as minimize costs and increase internal throughput time. This study provides a general summary of the development, stating that by decreasing faults, an industry can earn higher production and profitability.


Management of advanced gingival recession defects in mandibular anterior teeth using gingival unit graft - Case Series

Dr.Anupama Tadepalli, Dr. Swapna Chekurthi, Dr.Harinath Parthasarathy, & Dr.Deepa Ponnaiyan


Objectives:Gingival recession leads to exposure of the root surface of the tooth due to apical migration of marginal gingiva relative to the cement-enamel junction.The increased incidence of recession has become a major concern for clinicians as dentinal hypersensitivity, esthetic issues and root caries are often associated with root exposure. Free gingival grafts are commonly used to augment attached gingiva. Gingival unit transfer is a variant of free gingival graft that was used in this case series to increase  the width of attached gingiva simultaneously improving root coverage.Methods: This case series describes the clinical effectiveness of a gingival unit graft harvested from palate, in the treatment of RT2 gingival recession defects with respect to mandibular anterior teeth in three subjects. Clinical parameters such as recession depth (RD), width of attached gingiva (WAG) and keratinized tissue (KTW) were evaluated at baseline and post surgery. Root coverage percentage (RC%) was calculated at the end of each follow up period respectively. Results:At the end of the two-year follow-up period, patient 1 had 100% root coverage. At 18 months, patient 2 had partial root coverage ranging from 50 to 75% in different sites. Complete marginal root coverage was attained in patient 3 at 6 months without significant improvement in papillary height. KTW and WAG were improved in all individuals, along with gain in clinical attachment. Conclusion: GUT treatment resulted in improvement in KTW and vestibular depth with varied percent of root coverage in advanced mandibular recession defects.


Evaluating Delay Factors on Road Construction Projects in Ethiopia Using Relative Importance Index Method

Amare Tilahun Tessema, Getachew Asefa Alene, Natnael Melsew Wolelaw


The foundation of the economic and social development of many nations is the transportation infrastructure, particularly road construction. This paper investigates the major causes of road construction project delays in Ethiopia. The research approach was to identify the different types of construction delays, their causes, and effects from different perspectives, in order to determine the impact and the level of importance of the identified delay factors on road construction projects in this study. The data collected from the questionnaire survey was carried out to 154 valid responses and was analyzed with the relative importance index (RII) method to evaluate the impact of construction delays. A relative importance index (RII) method was used to rank the level of importance of the identified delay factors and to determine their individual impact on the overall project delay. The results indicate that cost-overrun and time-overrun factors have the highest delay impact on road construction projects in this study, with RII values of 0.781 and 0.764, respectively. Furthermore, the study found that each delay factor has a different level of impact on the overall project delay and that the most effective method to minimize delays in road construction projects in Ethiopia is the choice of a project manager with sufficient knowledge and experience relevant to project management and the use of appropriate tools and techniques for the project.


Assessment of Delay Factors on Building Construction projects in South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

Getachew Asefa Alenea, Amare Tilahun Tessemab , Natnael Melsew Wolelawc


Construction delays are widespread in the construction industry and seriously endanger the success of the project.Several factors contribute to construction delays.The intention of this study is to identify the critical delay factors on building construction projects in south Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. This study conductedon selected sites found in South Gondar Zone. For this purpose, 31 different delay factors were identified,and categorized into eight major groups namely, client related, contractor related, consultant related, material related delay, labourrelated, contract related, contractual related, and external related delay cause factor.Primary and secondary data were used forthe accomplishment of the study. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire. A total of 80 outof 90 questionnaires were filled by different members of the selected 10 project site from different construction industries in South Gondar Zone. Secondarydata collected through literature review from different books, and journals to discuss the type and causes of delay in building construction projects.The relative importance index (RII) approach was used to quantify the collected data.The results indicate that the following factors, Lack of fund to Finance the project, Frequent change orders during construction, Inflation/Price increase in materials, Shortage of construction material, and Corruptionwere the top five delay contributor in building construction projects. From delay categories, 20% of the delay factors is from the client related side, another 20% of the delay factors is from the materials related side, and the remaining 60% of the delay factor is from the remaining six delay categories. Although, the study is conducted building construction projects in South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia, but it can also use as a base point to other regions of Ethiopia and other countries and further study.


Investing in university education in Nigeria: who should pay?

Dr. (Mrs.) Okonta, Vinella, Dr. (Mrs) Osakwe, Nwamaka Grace


This study was carried out to ascertain if costs, benefits/returns and importance of university education have any influence on who should pay for education at the university level in the South South Geo-Political zone of Nigeria.  Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The descriptive survey method was adopted for the study.  The population comprised all nineteen (19) public universities in the six states of the federation that make up the South South Geo-political zone as at the 2021/2022 academic year; while six (6) universities representing 31.6% of the population were randomly selected and used as sample for the study.  From each of the sampled universities, ten respondents - five academic and five senior non-teaching staff (SNT), giving a total of sixty (60) respondents were drawn and used for the study.  An instrument titled, “Investing in University Education: Who Should Pay? Questionnaire” (IUEWSPQ) was used to elicit data for the study.Data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and rank order to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using z-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance.Findings showed that university educational costs have significant influence on who should pay; that benefits/returns on university education have no significant influence on who should pay for educational services; that the importance of university education to national economic growth and development indeed has a significant influence on who should pay and that government should bear the bulk of university educational expenditures while other stakeholders should equally contribute to investing in education at the university level.The study recommended that government and private individuals should critically consider the idea of reducing university education costs in order to make it accessible for the poor masses; that all stakeholders should be involved and committed to investing in university education; and that government should stop paying ‘lip service’ to education at this level.


Trends, Causes & Prevention Measures of Road Traffic Accidents in South Gondar Zone District, Ethiopia

Amare Tilahun Tessema , Natnael Melsew Wolelaw, & Yewlsew Akalu Aklilu, Getachew Asefa Alene


The trends, causes, and prevention of road traffic accidents in the south Gondar zone district are investigated in this study. The escalating patterns and causes of death, morbidity, and property damage from road traffic accidents in developing nations, particularly Ethiopia, are causing considerable concern because of their impact on low-income countries. This article is divided into three sections, the first of which looks at the trends in road traffic accidents in the south Gondar zone district. Second, it aims to determine the causes of traffic accidents between 2015 and 2019. Finally, based on the study results, it is suggested that the zone implement road traffic accident prevention measures.Furthermore, the findings revealed that road traffic accidents in the zone primarily affected people aged 18 to 30, regardless of gender, and that the rate of occurrence begins to decline after age 31. As a result, road traffic accidents disproportionately impact economically active people, such as youths and young adults. According to the data, road traffic affected 93% of human variables, 5% of vehicle factors, and 2% of road and environmental factors. In order to reduce fatalities and injuries on south Gondar district roads, the essay recommends that the district administration prioritize road safety policy and law enforcement, as well as capacity building, education, and awareness creation, as well as cooperation and integration between and/or among all transportation stakeholders.


The Effect of Work Environment on Employees Commitment: Job Satisfaction as a Mediator (The Case of Gondar Dashen Brewery)

Zerihun Kinde Aemu


The objective of this study was to investigate theeffect of work environment upon employees’ commitment and how the mediator variable – job satisfaction affects such relations. In doing so, data wascollected from 220randomly selected samples of the total population of 526 employees working in Dashen Brewery found in Gondar city. Questionnaires prepared for this purpose was used to collect the required quantitative data from selected employees. The data collected was entered to the SPSScomputer software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics that include mean, standard deviations, correlations and regressions including their significance levels. In addition, PROCESS macro of SPSS was conducted to evaluate the mediation effect.  Results werepresented using tables, graphs and texts. The findings of the study indicated that firstly employees of Dashen Brewery judge the conduciveness of their work environment, commitment and their job satisfaction at mediocre level –not bad or good. Secondly work environment as a whole or its parts (physical or behavioral) found to have significant effect on employee commitment as a whole or with respect to its dimensions (affective continuance and normative). The amount of variance of commitment or its dimensions explained by work environment and combinations of its parts ranged 49.7% - 67% and effect size (regression coefficients) ranged .497 - .818; all of which were significant beyond p .000. It was also noted that physical work environment has more effect compared to behavioral work environment upon commitment or its dimensions. Thirdly analysis of mediation process showed that the mediator (job satisfaction) controlling for work environment, was significant, b = .3959, t(217) = 5.487, p = .000. Based on this it was concluded that work environment or its component parts have significant effect upon employee commitment or its dimension and job satisfaction has significant partial mediating effect upon employee commitment. Finally, it was recommended for the management to improve the situation of work environment to increase employees’ commitment or job satisfaction.


Kindergarten Parents Capabilities, Roles, And ChallengesIn Home Supported Learning

Nederysiad L. Manuel, & Danilo S. Vargas


The primary objective of this action research was to determine the parents’ capabilities, roles, and challenges in home-supported learning.A descriptive-correlation type of research was used in this study. The respondents of this study were the 441 parents of kindergarten from forty-five (45) elementary schools in the Division of San Jose City for the school year 2020-2021.Random sampling method was used in choosing the respondents. The data of the study were gathered from the questionnaires utilized by the researcher.The majority of the parent-respondents were housewives, the middle age, have small size family, have enough knowledge in home-support learning, and live above poverty. Capable of engaging home-support learning. They perceived that they have roles in home-support learning and have positive perceptions towards home-support learning. The study revealed that the lesser the number of children the respondents tended to have a higher level of support for their capabilities and roles in engaging in home-supported learning and  thehigher the educational attainment, the respondents tend to have higher support in engaging in home-supported learningBased on the present study, the higher the monthly income, the respondents tend to have a higher level of support and in engaging home-supported learning


Teachers Relationship and Competency on the Academic Performance of Socially Disadvantaged Students in Higher Secondary Schools

Dr. Ujjwala Kakarla


The research paper focusses on introduction to the disadvantaged children, importance of education and review of attributes and factors linked to poor academic performance of socially disadvantaged students, the relationship and competency of teachers in exploring effective teaching strategies by means of adopting innovative beliefs or ideas and alternative models to impart quality and equity of education to improve the academic performance of the disadvantaged students and ultimately, the hiatus and the results drawn forth.


Phytochemical Screening and Anthelmintic Activityof Psidium guajava (L.) leaves Extract

Soumyaranjan Biswal, Anup Kumar Dash, Anupam Sahoo, Chandrika Kumari Bodala


As per WHO , there are very less anthelmintic drugs are used in Helminthes. For parasitic infection the anthelmintic from natural source may play an important role. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Psidium guajava (L.) leaves extract against parasites. Phytochemical screening was carried out on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava (L.) and then screened for its anthelmintic property against earth worm Pheretima posthuma. The effect of Psidium guajava leaves Extract and its fractions on the anthelminthic activity of piperazine citrate were also determined. PGE showed a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuman.Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava were evaluated separately with different concentraction on adult earth worm and compared with the standard drug piperazine citrate. The result found that extract exhibited, dose dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earth worm.



Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus: a prospective study

Rais Ahmad Bhat, & Aamir Yousuf


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension are related to life style, gender, age and are associated with hearing loss.Objective: To evaluate hearing loss in patients with diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study done for one year. The study was conducted on 60 subjects diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, 60 subjects diagnosed with systemic arterial hypertension and 60 subjects with both systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus and 60 normal subjects without systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Pure tone audiometry was done on all subjects.Results:  Out of 180 cases with systemic arterial hypertension or diabetes mellitusor both in the present study 166 were in the age group of 40- 60 and only 14 cases were between ages 20-40. Patients with systemic arterial hypertension were at a higher risk of developing sensorineural hearing loss with an incidence of 90% when compared to controls (0%). Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a relationship between diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension with hearing loss and the hearing loss of sensorineural type prevailed.


Review Paper Effects of Nomophobia A Theoretical Perspective

Radha K and Soni Kewalramani


People’s life changed drastically with the change in technology.  Internet is one of them which is connecting the global communities through which new ideas, knowledge being shared more easily than before.  Introduction of Smart Phones have made internet more accessible round the clock.  This has led to higher usage of Mobile Phones, especially in adolescent population.  Nomophobia means, ‘No Mobile Phobia’, feeling of missing out.  Nomophobia is indicating danger to the larger part of population.  Adolescents with Nomophobia experiences anxiety issues, impulsivity, sleep disorders, irritability, impacts learning and attention in class room, obsessions and compulsions and effects their eating habits and physical activity.  A systematic review of the literature in done to explore the effects of Nomophobia on adolescent population.  Effects of Nomophobia has been discussed in the research paper along with future directions of research and interventions that can help overcome Nomophobia.


A Case Study on Writing Difficulties Specifically Focusing on Product and Process-Oriented Writing Considering Undergraduate Students of Coxsbazar, Bangladesh.

J.D. Milton & Md. Azim Uddin


This study focuses on the observations and findings of a written test of eighty students of English language course at Foreign Language Training Center in Cox’s Bazar Government College. The test has highlighted two types of questions in case of writing considering creative type-“Process Oriented Writing”;e.g. Answering several questions of a paragraph on “Your Parents” and Preparing dialogues between two persons about the “benefits of learning English” and stereo type-“Product Oriented Writing”;e.g. Job Application with Personal profile and writing a composition on “Science and Technology”. The main target of this study is to find out how how many students follow the process and product oriented writing in a class.


Electro Cardiogram (ECG) Monitoring using Internet of Things and predict future in advance using artificial intelligence

Dr. G. Sasikala & G. Satya Krishna


An IoT Based Electro cardiogram monitoring system will continue monitor the patient health condition related to heart and update immediately if any abnormality found in the patient health viz Wi-Fi to things peak application in mobile phone. The doctor located at remote location will monitor the situation accordingly and take appropriate decision, so that life time of the patient will be increased. In addition to it we may predict the health condition in advance using artificial intelligence. Based on patient health data we may produce trainee set and compare it with test set to estimate the variation in the health status and based on variation observed it may alert the doctor to indicate the early deterioration of patient health condition, so that we may arrest the growth of disease in advance. Here we are using ECG sensor to take the patient health data and it will be processed using Arduino board, Arduino microcontroller will compare the patient ECG with threshold limits, if it crosses lower or upper value it may alert the doctor. After processing it will transfer data to smart phone using Wi-Fi.Patient data will be continuously logged and it will be taken as trainee set and compared it with available test set to estimate the patient health condition in advance.


A Matrix Study between Fintech and Financial Literacy

Professor Dr. C K Buttan & Pinky Mankani


Introduction: With the growth of information and communication technology there have been emergence new avenues in the form of fintech that are providing innovative ways to digital financial inclusion. These avenues are gaining popularity among the vulnerable and financially exclusive section of the society. Financial inclusion is enabled by the financial literacy and the fintech usage. However, both financial literacy and fintech usage are not two separate dimensions, there exist an interrelationship between them.Methodology: for the purpose of the study primary data was collected from the urban areas of the Bhopal region from 126 respondents through scheduled interview method. To analyse the data various statistical tools like correlation analysis and regression analysis were used and finally the interrelationship between the financial literacy and financial usage was studied in the context of important parameters.Results: Among the various demographic and financial behaviour related parameters taken in the study those found significant were age, sex, education, nature of account, average monthly income and number of bank visits.Conclusion: There is a need to adopt demographic segmentation approach in studying the financial literacy and fintech usage relationship on different positions.  The various policy recommendation moves in the short term includes organizing camps, customization and simplification of the mobile applications, leveraging peer group to promote the financial literacy. In the long-term policy must focus on bridging the digital gender gap and making financial literacy as an inclusive part of general literacy.


Analysis on Rice Production in Assam during 2011-2012 to 2020-2021

Kaushik Barman , Mahar Swrang Daimary & A. Ibemcha Chanu


 Rice (OryzaSativa) farming is the way of life for majority of population in the state. The study area spans with latitude 26.244156 and the longitude 92.537842 and the GPS co-ordinates of  26°14'38.9616" N 92°16'16.2312" E with the population of 3.12 crore which is around 2.58% of India’s population (as per 2011 census). The total geographical area of the state is 78438sq. km. Rice is the stable food of Assam; In this background, the paper tries to examine the growth of production of rice in Assam and to examine the significant relationship among the various factors like area of cultivation, rainfall and fertilizer used with the production of rice during the study period 2011-2021.The findings reveal that there is slight variation of rice production in the study period and there is significant relationship between ‘area of farming and volume of production’ as well as ‘rainfall and volume of production’, there is no significant relationship between ‘fertiliser used and volume of production’.


Video controlling using hand gestures using automation techniques in ML pipelines: A case study

Seema Sharma


In this modern age, the advancement in ubiquitous computing has made the use of a natural user interface very much required. The presence of computers and making use of the facilities of human-computer interaction in our societies will bring and mark a positive impact on our societies. Either it was the day when the technologies had not so advanced or today’s when the technologies have advanced so much that we spent most of our time communicating, playing, doing our jobs with the machines and many more, even then human beings had used and are still using a broad range of gestures to communicate or interact with each other. The human gesture is a mode of non-verbal interaction medium and can provide the most intuitive, original, and natural way to interact with computers. The objective of this paper is to make the interaction between humans and computers as natural as the interaction between humans. This paper is to recognize the static hand gesture images (i.e. frames) based on shapes and orientations of the hand which are extracted from an input video stream recorded in stable lighting and simple background conditions. We can use this vision based recognized gestures to control multimedia applications (like Windows Media Player, Windows Picture Manager, VLC Player, etc.) running on a computer using different gestural commands.



Synthesis and biological evaluation of metal based complexes with the medicinal drug paroxetine hemihydrates

Milind Nisargandha, Mohammad Mohsinb, Ayesha Durrani and Jagdish Bharada


Paroxetine is a medicinal drug used to treat various disorders. In the present investigation, Ni(II) and Co(II) metal complexes with medicinal drug Paroxetine has been synthesized and characterized using IR, elemental analysis and  magnetic susceptibility. Synthesized compounds were screened against the microorganism including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata using Agar well diffusion method. It has been observed that the metal complexes show moderate to higher microbial activities.


Optimization for the production of Indole acetic acid by Streptomyces sp. SDSRO-2 isolated from Rhizosphere soil of maize

Savita Durgappa Sandur , Dr. Rudrappa Onkarappa


The primary auxin family member generated by plants is indole-3-acetic acid, which is crucial for a variety of plant developmental stages including leaf creation, embryo development, root initiation and development, abscission, phototropism, geotropism, and fruit development. The current study focuses on the isolation, characterization, and optimization of IAA synthesis from such bacteria found in the rhizosphere soil of maize. The optimum conditions for IAA generation were tested at various pH levels, temperatures, and culture medium including a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources. One of the 18 identified isolates was evaluated as an effective PGPR based on several characteristics that promote plant development. The Streptomyces isolate SDSRO-2 produced IAA more effectively at pH 8 (3.16 g/ml) and 32°C (5.5 g/ml). The optimal carbon source for IAA synthesis (0.37 g/ml) was found to be dextrose (1%). From the current study, SDSRO-2 appeared as noble alternatives for IAA generation further which also resulted in root and shoot length in agricultural plants including Chilli, Wheat, Maize and Sorghum, therefore could potentially be employed as bio-inoculants for plant growth promotion.


Effectiveness of multisensory oral health education on oral hygiene among visually impaired children A prospective interventional study

Dr. Alaka Subodh Dr. Abhilash R Krishnan Ameesha, Anakha U S, Angelin Andrews, Amal Raj C G


Problem: Since visually impaired children could not acquire oral hygiene skills through conventional oral health education techniques, alternative modes of health education should be developed for them. Approach:150 visually impaired children from two blinds schools in Trivandrum district were included in the study. They were randomly divided to 2 groups (Audio group and Audio-tactile group) OHIS and BOP were recorded before and after intervention and was compared. Findings: More participants in Audio-tactile group (76.9%) showed good oral hygiene compared to Audio group (46.2%) during post intervention stage. Solution: A multisensory mode of health education will be beneficial for a vulnerable group like visually impaired


To understand the influence of metro rail on the urban fabric of a city case studies - Bengaluru

R. Hemasree & C.V.Subramanian


The migration of people looking for better economic prospects and their residential demands result in the sprawl of the city Most cities in the World look up to a Metro mode of Transit as a solution to ease congestion in the Core of the city and to outreach the city. One needs to conduct surveys to understand the advantages of Metro, frequency and the reason for the trip, mode of reaching the station, and private car data. On the other hand, selective case studies of other cities bring insights into Mass Rapid Transit Systems-MRTS use, the solution they brought forth, the problems they caused, and the way toward the future. The bustling economic activities demand foresight in ever-growing traffic transport problems forcing the city to have its own Metro network-Namma Metro next to Delhi and Hyderabad. 11 years after the inauguration of the first Line-purple line from Byyappanahalli to Mahatma Gandhi Road, it is important to study the influence of Namma Metro on the city. The survey with close-ended questions was conducted on riders, non-riders, and people living in the metro corridors, and data were analyzed. The Namma Metro in Bengaluru has several advantages, including a decrease in air pollution, time savings for passengers, a decrease in accidents, a decrease in traffic congestion, and fuel savings, all of which influence the socioeconomic position of commuters on the purple line corridor. The influence of Namma Metro can be summarised by location, neighbourhood, environment, and socio-economic conditions.


Life Writing and Asian Women Narratives

Jyoti Priyadarshini & Dr. Tanutrushna Panigrahi


 Life writing and its contemporary forms adopted by Asian women life writers in English is diverse in nature. It is a covering term for genres of biography, autobiography, memoirs, diaries, letters, i-novel, testimony and many other forms of life writing. This paper aims to examine the new literary voices of culturally, racially and religiously distinctive Asian women writers through the various forms of life writing genres which they have adopted to record their experiences. Authors like Y?ko Tsushima (1947-2016), Hitomi Kanhera (1983-), Chanrithy Him (1965-), Loung Ung (1970-) register their voice through the form of i-novel, memoir, testimony, graphic memoir as framework. Majority of the chosen representative texts, that the paper discusses, are produced in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. Here, this commodious term ‘life writing’ reflects the variance of personal narrative and how these writers adopt and negotiate with different forms of life writing to engage and invent the self. It grants women writers a scope for voluntary self-revelation and self-referentiality. As a result, they turned their back on autobiography and switched to life writing. Asian life writing encompasses various sub genres. As it progressed over time, these numerous forms of personal narrative gave freedom of speech and literary expression unveiling their silenced voices. Asian life writing brings womens’ life straight from reality to the pages and takes their narrative into the heart of others worldwide, where they somehow ultimately find a place to reside.


Synthesis of Novel 4 (2Chlorophenyl) 2,5 Diphenyl 3H Pyrrole from the ? Carbonyl Compound as Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2 Enzyme Inhibitors

R.Kamali and Dr. V.M. Mounnissamy


Pyrroles are nitrogen-containing five-membered heterocyclic rings which own biological andPharmaceuticals influence due to their various activities like antiviral, anticancer, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and analgesic. Novel compounds of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,5-diphenyl-3H-pyrrole were designed, synthesized, and undergo molecular docking, to calculate ADME properties. The designed compound has been evaluated In-Silico using Molinspiration, Osiris, and ADMETlab2.0 software to predict the physicochemical, ADME properties and toxicity. The synthesized compounds are to be characterized by melting point, TLC, IR, NMR, and MASS spectral data. The synthesized compounds are docked against Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) enzyme (PDB ID:6ADI) by using Autodock 1.5.7 software. The synthesized compounds act against the IDH2 receptor to predict binding affinity. These In-Silico studies signified that the compounds can act as a potent inhibitor of the IDH2 enzyme.


An Overview of Machine Learning Approaches for Airline Pricing and Fare Detection and Visualize the Insight

Amoolya J, Dr Yashpal Singh


In order to assist airlines set pricing that are both competitive and profitable, a method known as "airline fare detection" involves examining and recognising patterns in airline fares. It is now possible to examine vast volumes of data and acquire important insights into the factors that affect airline fares thanks to machine learning (ML) techniques and data visualisation tools like Tableau. Airlines may find trends and patterns in price data by applying ML algorithms, such as which routes are in high demand, which airports are busiest, and when people want to fly the most. By using this data, pricing tactics can be improved and clients can receive more affordable rates. Airlines may comprehend their price data better and decide on their pricing strategy more intelligently by integrating ML approaches with data visualisation tools like Tableau. By giving clients more reasonably priced and practical travel options, they can remain competitive in a market that is continuously evolving.


Review Paper: Cyber Bullying Through Smart Phones & Other Electronic Devices A Theoretical Perspective

Radha K and Soni Kewalramani


Smart phone usage has become very common among adolescents. The usage of Smart phone along with a lot of advantages including exposure to the worldwide knowledge, connectivity, safety, virtual classrooms, there comes cyberbullying which is a major concern in the life’s of adolescents. Cyberbullying includes bullying by use of technology such as email, Instagram messages, text messages and social media messages. Adolescents who is either a bully or a victim is experiencing some internalising and externalising problems affecting their mental health. A systematic review of literature is done to explore the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent population.


Non Uniform Strike Slip Fault Dislocation Model in a Monoclinic Half Space

Renu Tagra, Jagdish Nandal and Anil Kumar


Analytical expressions in closed form for displacements caused by non-uniform vertical strike-slip fault in a monoclinic half space with traction free and rigid boundary have been obtained. Two types of non-uniform strike-slip fault have been considered, i.e., Linear and Parabolic. Graphical calculations have been done with the help of Matlab software and it has been observed that the displacement does not exist when the distance from the fault is zero. We noticed that the displacement has non-uniform pattern in monoclinic medium and the magnitude of displacement due to parabolic slip profile is more as comparison to linear slip profile.


Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of Duplex Stainless Steel 2205: A Review

A.Y. Chaudhari, Nilesh Diwakar and S. D. Kalpande


Duplex stainless steel 2205 has proven to be the most acceptable material for marine and saline applications because of its superior corrosion resistance with good erosion and wear resistance.. This review article focuses primarily on the morphology, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance analysis of DSS 2205. Various microstructure characterization and corrosion testing techniques used by previous researchers are thoroughly overviewed and their results are discussed in the form of table. The effects of heat treatment and quenching time on corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of DSS 2205 are studied and critical observations are noted down. The examination of morphology carried out by previous researchers on heat treatment at several temperatures and different quenching media also comparison of with and without treated samples are studied and critical remarks have been presented. Mechanical features of DSS 2205 based on tensile test, micro-hardness test, etc. are discussed. This article includes exhaustive literature review of standard research articles which may become ready information for subsequent researchers to establish their line of action.


Study on the role of artificial intelligence and block chain in segments of the financial sector

Farha Anjum, & Veermanju K T,


Researchers have aimed at the question “Whether the demand for a growing financial sector is created by economic development that influences economic growth” for centuries. An economy section made up of firms and institutions that provide Financial Services (FS) to commercial and retail customers is termed the financial sector. A broad range of industries,namely banks, investment companies, insurance companies, and real estate firms is encompassed in this sector. The technology called Artificial Intelligence (AI) will transform the financial sector; thus, the chance for improved and more tailor-made services, cost reduction, and the enhancement of novel business systems will be offered. Block Chain (BC) is a technology that generates an impact in the financial industry by facilitating faster payments at lower fees than banks. With augmented security and efficiency, the BC could digitize the entire trade finance lifecycle. Thus, the financial sector, decentralized finance, the role of AI in enormous segments of decentralized finance, and the role of BC in various segments of Decentralized Finance (DeFI) are elucidated here. The AI application cases in the FSs industry are analysed in this paper from 2020 and the BC technologies in the financial sector (USD million) at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2015 to 2024.


Study on Indian Buyers Mindset in Context of Vocal for Local Using Sentiment Analysis

Beena Kapadia & Dr. Amita Jain


Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan or Self-reliant India is the campaign initiated by the Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi. Sentiment analysis is one of the Natural Language Processing Techniques, to understand and analyse the sentiment of the people which is used in finding the reviews of various products, places, or events. In this paper, the popularity of Indian Brands is studied using sentiment analysis techniques with respect to the trendy slogan ‘Vocal for Local’ given by our Hon'ble Prime Minister.The ratio used in the research is 70% data as training and 30% data will be testing. Two datasets have been used. One dataset consists of 696 respondents’sentiments collected across 49 cities of India for various products. To construct the new feature - sentiment score, VADER sentiment algorithm is usedto provide initial labelling of sentiment text. Also, some respondents have provided the Indian Brand name as the sentiment text. To tackle such responses,additional algorithm is combined along with VADER sentiment algorithm, and thus developed customised VADER sentiment algorithm.The other dataset contains text sentiments having 7215 rows of textto which customised VADER algorithm is applied. We achieved 88.75% accuracy on an average.


Advancement in gross motor and fine motor functions with quality of daily activities through brain gym exercise in down syndrome children: an interventional study

Dr. Rajesh Padnani, Dr. Grishma D. Zalavadiya


Background & need of research: Fine and gross motor skills need attention for children's development in growing age. children with Down syndrome can have difficulties with fine motor skills due to their low tone and/or hypermobility in their hands, wrist, or elbows. Brain gym exercise is an experience to facilitate new learning activities. Brain gym is a great source of personal development to rapid transformation and improves the quality of life. so, there was a need to find out whether brain gym exercisesaffect gross and fine motor functions in children with Down syndrome.  Methods: it was an interventional study in which 60 down syndrome children with age 5 to 12 yrs. were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A received brain gym exercise, and group B was a control group. Pre- and post-treatment datawere takenfrom the second edition Test of gross motor development and the functional dexterity Test for gross motor and fine motor respectively. quality of daily activities would bemeasured usinga functional independent measure scale and results correlate with the motor functions of children with Down syndrome. Results: Data were analysed by using SPSS 26. Pre-treatment and post-treatment comparison of TGMD-2 and functional dexterity Test scores between the group and within the group were done by unpaired t-test and paired t-test respectively with a CI level of 95%. The correlation between motor functions and the quality of daily activities wasanalyzed by a persons correlation test. The result shows a significant difference in p-value (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that there was a more significant effect of brain gym exercise on gross motor and fine motor functions with improvement in the quality of daily activities of children with down syndrome.


A Comprehensive Analysis of Societal Changes with the Invent Of Internet of Things and Robotics

Adiba S. Shaikh, Vaishali A. Chavan, Prapti D. Deshmukh


The term "Internet of Things" describes how data gathered by embedded sensors and actuators in machines and other physical objects are used to power intelligently connected devices and systems. IoT is anticipated to grow quickly over the upcoming years, and this convergence will open up a new realm of services that enhance consumer quality of life and business productivity, demonstrating the impact of IoT on society.The robotics revolution, on the other side is rapidly accelerating, as fast-paced technological advances in automation, engineering, energy storage, artificial intelligence, and machine learning converge. The outcome will change robot capabilities and their capacity to take over duties formerly performed by humans.This article highlights the societal changes that bloomed after the IoT and Robotics invention. It proposes a change to the Internet of Things (IoT) impact on society in light of the IoT and Robotic rising popularity and the devices' ongoing technological advancement.


Locus of Control and Its Relationship with Age, Gender, Education and Experience: A Study on Select Private Sector Banks of Kolkata

Binay Krishna Halder


The bankingindustry in the world has become complex financialorganizations and its play an important role in the economic system. The present study is undertaken to find out the relationship between locus of control with the age, gender, education, and experience of sales executives of private sectorbanks (HDFC, ICICI and AXIS bank) of Kolkata, West Bengal. The sample consists of 200 sales executives. Simple random sampling is used for collection of data. The standardized structured questionnaire named“Locus of Control Scale” was developed by Julian Rotter (1966) was administered. Mean, SD, ‘t’ test and ANOVA were used to test the five hypotheses formulated in the study.The study concludes most of the sales executives are having an internal locus of control. The result reveals that there is no significance mean difference between locus of control and demographic variables like age, gender andeducation except the experience of the sales executives. Result also exhibits that locus of control influence the experience of sales executives of selected private sectorbanks.


Anticancer and Antioxidant activity of Cobalt (ii) and Nickel (ii) complexes containing Benzimidazolyl Terpyridine

M. Kiruthika and G. Krishnaveni


Benzimidazole based terpyridine ligand has been prepared and cobalt and nickel complexes containing benzimidazolyl terpyridine have been synthesized. Spectral techniques such as UV-Vis, FT-IR and ESI-MS were employed to characterize the compound. Electrochemical behavior of the metal complexes has been studied using cyclic voltammetry method. DPPH free radical scavenging activity showed the complex with nickel atom shows better activity than that of the one with cobalt atom. In addition, the MTT assay was carried out to investigate the anticancer activity of the compounds with MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Compound containing nickel atom showed the best activity than the ligand and cobalt compound.


Team building and performance of manufacturing firms in Nigeria

Onoriode, Omorho Humphrey (Ph.D) Ibegbulem, Andreas Brutus (Ph.D)


Cybercrime is no longer a crime that needs to be introduced as it has an impact all over the world in many aspects. It is a daily fight and new ideas, proposals, and suggestions are welcomed to overcome that issue. Every day, people, and organizations are a victim of cyber-attack despite de efforts that have done. During a cyberattack, most of the time, the hacker utilizes a VPN to hide their identities such as IP address and location details and this makes tracking difficult. Having a method for having their details will help us to track them and this will lead the concerned organization to catch them, make legitimate moves against them, and will stop their fraudulent activities. One of the main reasons behind a cyberattack is money, therefore, financial organizations are mostly targeted and are likewise confronting an immense impact. In this paper, we propose a framework that is going to prevent a request that comes from a VPN or proxy server. Our work can be implemented in many areas like banking, social media, organization, and so forth.

Microscopic authentication of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Thumari (Securinega leucopyrus [Wild.] Muell)

Suresh J, Vellankanni K, Saravana Ganthi A


Traditional healing arts are generally based on a single medicinal plant drug or multiple drugs. The formulae used in some Ayurvedic and Siddha drug preparations are taken even from palm – leaf manuscripts. In such circumstances, the medicinal plant used for the preparation of a drug should be authentic and genuine. The evaluation or standardization of a crude drug involves classical microscopic methods. For the better quality control and standardization processes, the present study attempts anatomical authentication of Ayurvedic plant Thumari. Transverse section of leaf shows adaxial palisade cells consists of circular chambers possess single large calcium oxalate druses. The petiole consists of thick and prominently papillate epidermal layer of cells.  In root the xylem fibres are mostly gelatinous type having thin mucilaginous inner secondary walls. The investigations recorded in the present study provided the basis for microscopic authentication of Ayurvedic plant Thumari.


Perception and utilization of service quality in customers

Dr. P.T. Rajkumar


CRM is a business strategy to select and mange customers to optimize long-term value. CRM requires a customer centric philosophy and culture to support effective marketing, sales and service processes. CRM applications can enable effective customer relationship management, provided that an enterprise has the right leadership, strategy, and culture. CRM extends the concept of selling from a discrete act performed by a salesperson to a continual process involving every person in the company. It is the art or science of gathering and using information about your customers to build customer loyalty and increase customer value. With the current state of information technology, and high customer service expectations, it’s practically impossible to consider these process issues without addressing technology, but it’s important to remember that customer relationships-human relationship- are the ultimate driving force. CRM is about developing and implementing business strategies and supporting technologies that close the gaps between an organization’s current and potential performance in customer acquisition, growth and retention.


Biological treatment of solid waste management in ULBs

Dr. C. Jayachitra


In India, MSWM is governed by MSWR. However, majority of ULBs do not have appropriate action plans for execution and enactment of the MSWR. Unfortunately, no city in India can claim 100% segregation of waste at dwelling unit and on an average only 70% waste collection is observed, while the remaining 30% is again mixed up and lost in the urban environment. Out of total waste collected, only 12.45% waste is scientifically processed and rest is disposed in open dumps. Environment friendliness, cost effectiveness, and acceptability to the local community are major attributes to achieve efficient solid waste management system. Environmentally benign practices are the need of the hour to cope with the almost exponential growth of MSW. For this, appropriate technological solutions through PPP are required. However, lack of competency and insufficient financial support are major threats to ULBs for development of MSW infrastructure. There is need for PPP to implement management and handling with the latest technology/ know-how with the subject experts firms and companies. Establishment of the good public governance in compliance with secured regulatory framework and appropriate financial support and strict contract implementation is required for the success of PPP. Capacity building and availability of skilled labor, familiarity with new and as well as best practices available for SWM, financial incentives for identifying new techno-feasible solutions, appropriate and quick decision at ULBs level for smooth implementation are real challenges. India is still struggling to make waste-to-energy project a success story.


Type of article: Original Title of the article: Evaluation of different root canal filling materials in Endo Perio lesions: An Finite element analysis study

Dr. Kranti Konuganti Dr. Pragya Patak Anupam Purwar


Background: Dental problems are mostly multifactorial in nature and, thus difficult to diagnose and treat. Another fact which makes these problems complex is that it is difficult to restrict the disease progression to one particular structure if not checked at an initial stage. Endo-perio Lesion (EP) is a complex disease entity which involves the tooth structure as well as the supporting periodontium Aim: This study was conducted with an aim to assess the effect of different root canal filling materials viz. gutta-percha, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine on EP Lesions using computational modeling. Thus, enabling the clinician in making an informed decision for treatment planning of EP Materials & Methodology: In the present work, mandibular molar human tooth with lesion has been precisely modelled in consultation with a clinician. Then, four different finite element models representing different filler materials were developed. Next, the finite element models were validated with experimental data for a normal tooth under a defined (300N) masticatory load. Highly refined structured mesh with high fidelity second order elements was generated and ANSYS was used to perform the structural analysis Results: It was observed that stresses at the peri-apical area changed with change in filler material type with best result on usage of biodentine. To the best of our knowledge, Biodentine as the filling material has not been investigated for its performance in a simulated study. However, Biodentine was suggested as an alternative to MTA and was reported to have significant regenerative capacity.  Conclusion: In this perspective, our study intends to provide clinical inputs to dentists regard-ing use of Biodentine as filling material. The insights from this investigation can be used for therapeutic purpose by clinicians.


Correlation between Pain and Kinesiophobia in Desk Job Workers with Non specific Chronic Neck Pain

Aditi Bajirao Shinde, Dr. Aishwarya Kanhere


Background and purpose: Neck pain is one of the debilitating conditions that can impair the ability to perform regular activities, decrease productivity and adversely affect life quality. As nowadays many companies/ offices etc. require working on computer for prolonged period. They demand working on computer for 6-8 hours/day or more and may be at risk of developing neck pain (due to combination of postural strain, desk setup, monitor setup, seating and stress etc.). Working for long duration may cause chronic neck pain. Kinesiophobia is an extreme irrational and enfeebling fear of movement or physical activity. The fear of movement is associated with a feeling of vulnerability to injury in response to movement. In re-injury in chronic cases due to pain, functional impairments may be associated with severity and cognitive responses to pain. Person having kinesiophobia believe that some movement may cause re-injury and additional pain therefore it can be one of the risk factor for persistent pain.Hence this present study is done to find correlation between pain and kinesiophobia among the desk job workers with non-specific chronic neck pain. Methodology: 100 desk job workers between 25-40 years of age from different areas of Pune were included who were working on computer for minimum 6-8 hours/day. Kinesiophobia was examined by TAMPA scale and pain was examined by numerical pain rating scale. Result: Statistical analysis using Spearman’s correlation test showed that pain had significant moderate positive correlation with kinesiophobia in desk job workers of 25-40 year of age. Conclusion: The study concluded that there was moderate positive correlation between pain and kinesiophobia in desk job workers with non-specific chronic neck pain.


Original article: Role of argon laser peripheral Iridoplasty in primary angle closure plateau iris configuration

Dr. Dasari Gayatri


Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of Argon Laser Peripheral Iridoplasty in Primary Angle Closure / Plateau Iris Configuration Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in 10 patients with Primary Angle Closure/ Plateau Iris Configuration, with uncontrolled IOP (despite maximal medical therapy and patent Peripheral Iridotomy), in whom Argon Laser Peripheral Iridoplasty was performed. Post procedure, IOP reduction and gonioscopic changes, anterior depth Analysis, observed for a follow up period of 1 year. Results: In this prospective study, out of 10 eyes, there is significant IOP reduction in 8 eyes, with open angles and increased anterior chamber depth except in two cases which had peripheral anterior synechiae. Conclusion: Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) is a safe and effective procedure to reduce IOP, halt the optic disc changes, delay surgical intervention in primary angle closure / plateau iris configuration with uncontrolled IOP (despite maximal medical therapy and patent Peripheral Iridotomy).


Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel treated with two antioxidants an Invitro study

Dr. Divyashree D Dandavati, Dr. Madhu Pujar


Background and objectives: As there is a saying “The principles of true art is not to portray but to evoke”, esthetic dentistry is nothing less than art. Vital bleaching has received widespread arena of possibilities in the field of cosmetic dentistry. In order to avoid waiting period of 1-3 weeks for composite restoration after bleaching, antioxidant application can be done. Grape seed extract (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin) and green tea extract are beneficial in removing the free radicals, thereby increase the shear bond strength of composite resin. This in-vitro study evaluates bleaching with application of grape seed extract and green tea extract followed by composite build up done immediately and after a delay of 1 week. Materials and methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were divided into 3 groups. Group1(n=20)Bleaching,no antioxidant treatment.Group2(n=20)-Bleaching followed by treatment with 6.5% proanthocyanidin.Group3(n=20)-Bleaching followed by treatment with 5% green tea extract. These groups were further divided into subgroups based on composite build up done immediately (subgroupA) or after a delay of 1 week (subgroupB). Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under universal testing machine. Statistical analysis: Data were analysed using One-Sample-Kolmogorov-Smirnov test,One way ANOVA,Tukeys multiple posthoc test. Results: The mean bond strength of Group2B2 was significantly higher(168.7±16.4) which indicated that application of proanthocyanidin showed higher bond strength(P<0.05). Conclusion Within the limitations of this study,it can be concluded that application of antioxidants on bleached enamel reversed the compromised bond strength of composite restoration. The application of proanthocyanidin proved superior followed by green tea extract.


Hermitage to Premier Monastic site: Saranathas Tale, an Epigraphic Account

Chirantani Das


S?ran?tha, a monastic site of world renown had a rather sluggish growth from a humble hermitage at the exterior of the historic city of V?r??as?. Its name been abbreviated from S?ra?gn?tha, meaning the lord of the deer implied to both ?iva and the Buddha, a place, a fair abode of animals and particularly deer offered a perfect solitude for meditation and contemplation. Its growth as a Buddhist monastic site was determined by two incidents. While the Buddha chose it as the place for his first preaching or Dharmacakrapravarta?a, immediately set a Buddhist overtone to the place. It again slipped into oblivion until A?oka, built a stupa here as a part of his programme to propagate Buddhism. The site gained a steady momentum of growth with an eclectic patronage from varied agencies. Epigraphic sources reflect kings, queens, sages, traders and merchants as well as lay people contributed as per their means. Votive st?pas, pillars, statues, railings, lamp posts and even the oil to keep those lamps lighted were all funded by charities of different degrees. Having a solid base of followers, S?ran?tha assumed the form of an organized and structured monastic establishment.


Ensemble techniques for mental stress prediction

Sri. S. Naga Raju 1, Dr Nandam Gayatri2,Sameer Mohammed3, Sumana Sree Dandigam4 ,Harsha Vardhan Adluri5, Vijay Komma6


Mental stress became a social problem and may contribute to functional impairment at regular job. Chronic stress may also be a factor in a number of psychophysiological illnesses. Stress, for instance, raises the risk of heart attack, stroke, and depression. According to the most recent research in neuroscience, brain is the ultimate target of the stress since how the brain perceives a situation affects how harmful and stressful it is. In this situation, a measurement that is objective and takes into account the human brain could greatly reduce the negative impacts of the stress. A machine learning (ML) framework using the ECG and EMG of participants who are stressed is therefore suggested. The task performance and subjective feedback supported the induction of stress. The framework for suggested ML included feature selection, extraction, and classification The findings demonstrated that the suggested framework increased the accuracy of stress recognition. The suggested approach may contribute to the creation of the computer-aided diagnostic tool for stress prediction.


Knee Osteoarthritis Grading using Osteo HR Net Model

Dr Nandem Gayatri Mohammed Meran Naveed Siri Chandana Anumandla Sangepu Nagaraju Jyothi Chandupatla Hari Priya


Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a fatal joint condition affecting the lives of many people around the world. This deadly joint disorder is determined by inflexibility of joints, severity and poor functioning of joints. One of the common risk factors of the disability include age. And these are detected by assessing visible syndromes, clinical data and also through many joint examining reports such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), radiography reports and computed tomography images. These imaging tests show the disease progression and provide information about the internal structure of our body. However, the traditional way of treatment is difficult as identifying the disorder at an early stage is impractical. Handling this dispute, a deep learning-based model is proposed to assess the severity of Osteoarthritis in scales of Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades automatically. The main novelty of the proposed model is that it is based on  the combination of a top-most current deep learning models which is the called High Resolution Network ( HRNet ) and an attention module called CBAM(Convolutional Block Attention Module), which records multiple resolution representations of knee joint X-ray images. This proposed model is referred to as OsteoHRNet in this paper. This model is a convolutional neural network (CNN) which maintains high-scale representational features. Our proposed framework attained an accuracy of 71.74% and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.31 with the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) dataset which contains train, test and validation sets of five grades ranging from 0 to 4. This proposed framework gains best remarks over the existing models.


Orginal Research: A Correlation of Quality of sleep with Physical fitness, Balance, and Attention among young adults

Dr. Pooja Cheta, Dr. Grishma Zalavadiya , Dr. Hiral Vala


Problem: Adequate sleep is utmost necessary and important for normal physical growth and emotional stability.30% of adults suffer from sleep issues as estimated by The National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research estimates. So, the aim of the study was to find relationship between sleep quality, physical fitness, attention, and balance among young adults.Approach: A cross-sectional study of 130 young adults with age group of 18 to 24 was conducted at various colleges and individuals responded to Pittsburgh sleep quality index for quality of sleep, Trial making test for attention and performed Flamingo test for balance and Queens College step test physical fitness. Finding: Spearman correlation co-efficient was used for analysis which showed that the quality of sleep had a correlation with attention and balance with p value <0.01 but not with physical fitness. Conclusion: Sleep quality affects the balance and attention of the young adults and thus sleep quality should be a part of physiotherapy assessment and rehabilitation and young adults should be made aware about the importance of quality of sleep and its effects.


A mathematical approach of CKD under Fuzzy environment

Amir Barhoi


Abstract: Purpose of this paper to introduce new four parameter related to CKD. Validation and some properties of these parameters are also shown. Extending this parameter into Fuzzified form using Zadeh extension rule and developed a new approach for computing improverate of kidney using these parameter under fuzzy environment


Concealed anatomy revealed in routine endodontic treatment: two case reports

Dr. Varsha Sharma Dr. Priti Shukla Dr. Ravinder Singh Bedi Dr. Shivesh Acharya


In-depth comprehension of the dental anatomy and its variation of the human teeth becomes an essential prerequisite for the forensic science. Studies have documented a plethora of variations in canal configurations of the mandibular incisors and bicuspids. . Anatomical variations have a major role in the identification of individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. Teeth can act as positive identification for an individual by keeping the accurate dental records. The current cases illustrates the peculiar morphology serving as a reminder that these variations can occur, which can add value to forensic science experts.


A review on: security challenges and applications of cloud computing

Francis k. Mupila & Dr Himanshu Gupta


Cloud computing has become increasingly popular due to its scalability and cost-effectiveness, but its adaptability and flexibility can lead to security challenges when examining failed policies or malicious activities. Using the network, cloud computing has the ability to offer users more adaptable and cheaper services. Cloud computing has expanded dramatically over the past several years thanks to the resources' scalability, giving the impression that this area of the IT industry is growing quickly. Cloud computing has increased the number of security challenges, leading to users losing faith in it due to a lack of security. There are many security concerns with cloud computing, including multi-tenancy, elasticity, security performance, and optimization. This paper provides a thorough analysis of the cloud computing architecture, including deployment tactics, service level agreements, cloud components, and security. It also covers the security issues associated with transferring data to the cloud and provides a practical solution to mitigate any potential risks. It dynamically increases the organization's capacity without spending money on new hardware, personnel, or software licenses. We shall talk about a few clouds computing issues in this paper. It also examines some of the security measures now in use for cloud computing security, educating researchers and professionals about various security risks. This paper seeks to advance our understanding of cloud computing techniques. This paper's main goal is to act as a reference and manual for ongoing research initiatives. In-depth applications that have already benefited from cloud apps are investigated in the paper

Fetal brain abnormality classification from 2D ultrasound images

Sridharan K, Gokul N, Giridharan L, Akash deep V


Ultra soundimaging processing technology has been employed for more than 50 years. Although it has developed quickly, it has some advantages and particular challenges. It is crucial to establish the fetal survival rate, gestational age, and other factors early on,from the standpoint of ultrasound picture analysis. In a bid to better understand the fetus's continuing growth, fetal anatomy ultrasound image analysis techniques have recently been studied and have emerged as anessential tool for prenatal anomaly diagnosis. The moment has come to thoroughly analyse prior efforts in this area and forecast future directions. Thus, this article discusses cutting-edge methods along with fundamental concepts, theories, and advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound picture technology for the entire fetal along with different anatomies. It begins by summarizing the ongoing issues and introducing the widely used image processing techniques, such as classification, segmentation, etc. The benefits and drawbacks of current methodologies are reviewed

IoT based Sensor Networks using Self Organization algorithm for Precision agriculture

K. Muruganandam, Usha Chauhan


The movement toward mechanisation of agriculture, the tendency toward redesigning agricultural systems, the preservation of the agricultural environment, and the advancement of computer technology may all be used to increase agricultural productivity. The sensor network contains a high number of nodes since there is a wider region of agricultural produce that is being monitored, while this also keeps the network's overall cost low. To ensure a thorough surveillance of agricultural fields, the nodes will be dispersed over diverse locations. The likelihood of node failure is quite high since the energy available to the sensor node is restricted. In this research, the use of sensor networks with Self-Organizing Algorithms has emerged as a promising technology to increase agricultural productivity. By collecting real-time data on several parameters such as soil moisture, humidity, temperature, and light intensity, and processing it using Machine Learning algorithms, farmers can make informed decisions that optimize crop yields, reduce costs, and ultimately contribute to global food security. This technology is low-cost, low-power, and scalable, making it suitable for use in remote or developing regions than the Duty Cycle Algorithm. The integration of sensor networks with self-organizing algorithms with other technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) can further enhance its effectiveness in increasing energy and the total power consumption in the network is minimized. Thus, the sensor network’s efficiency is increased for the betterment of the agriculture environment.


A review of novelistic method used for formation pharmaceutical Cocrystals and Marketed available formulation

Manish Kumar Saxena, Kaushal Kumar, Sobhna Singh


Pharmaceutical cocrystallization is a potential method for improving the solubility of BCS Classes II & IV drugs that are poorly soluble. The majority of scientists are ignorant of this method and the advantages of cocrystallization on the stability and pace of drug dissolution. Approach: Evidence was systematically and concisely gathered from a variety of publications using Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. This study covers cocrystallization technologies, goods that have been sold using this approach, and issues related to these procedures. Finding: The novelistic or current techniques used for the production of cocrystals are hot melt extrusion, spray evaporation, super critical fluid dynamic technology and laser irradiation which is the most trending and effective method for cocrystal formation. This paper also includes the various in-vitro evaluation parameters that are carried out for evaluating the cocrystals and their drug release. It also defines the reasons for the interest of cocrystals by a researcher and pharmaceutical industries, various novelistic and traditional method of manufacturing of pharmaceutical cocrystal. Conclusion: Pharmaceutical crystals are now seen as a significant medicinal or research need. This is evident in the numerous reviews and research papers that have been published in different publications over the previous ten years. Various pharmaceutical businesses have been enforcing patents internationally in recent years. These businesses are expanding quickly as a result of the legislation and intellectual property connection. Pharmaceutical crystals are a crucial and effective method for increasing a drug's bioavailability, stability, and melting point.


Original Article Adherence to All India Ophthalmic Society (AIOS) guidelines in cases of cataract surgery in a tertiary care hospital of Dehradun

Dr. Tarannum Shakeel Dr. Vatsala Vats


Problem: Asepsis is a pre requisite for any intraocular procedure especially cataract surgery which is a common procedure. Although our set up has a flexible protocol for cataract surgery, we wanted to ensure our adherence to basic guidelines issued by All India Ophthalmic Society (AIOS). This study aimed to ensure our adherence and to address the recommendations. Approach: Comprehensive departmental protocol with incorporated AIOS guidelines were prepared in the form of a detailed questionnaire and were marked as per the execution of those points. Those points which were not brought into action, as well as those which were executed but failed to make it to the documentation, were considered missed, and not ticked. Findings: In the present study, there was no significant association between age and adherence to protocol (p Value=0.438) There was also no significant association between gender and adherence to guidelines of cataract surgery (p Value=0.427) Conclusion: There has been a good adherence to AIOS guidelines, with no case of post operative endophthalmitis (POE) during the period of study. However, the study revealed some lacunae related to infrastructure, and compliance on human level. Such issues need a strategic approach and proper planning to ensure long term results.


A review on solubility enhancement by liquisolid technique as a novel approach

Neha Kumari, Saurabh Mishra


Problem: The pharmaceutical industry has significant hurdles today in creating innovative formulations with adequate solubility and bioavailability. Nowadays, 40% of all newly discovered pharmaceuticals are poorly soluble in water, making drug development a huge difficulty due to low solubility. As a result, developing new pharmaceutical formulations for the pharmaceutical industry has significant solubility and bioavailability challenges. Approach: The solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs has been improved over the past few years using a variety of techniques, including micronization, solid dispersion, complexation, hydrotrophy, cosolvency, surfactant use, particle size reduction, microemulsion, nano suspension, cryogenic techniques, and liquisolid. The different in-vitro evaluation parameters used to assess liquid-solids and their drug release are also discussed in this paper. These evaluation parameters include Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy, Solid-State NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), Dissolution Study, and Stability Study. Conclusion: Liquisolid technique are increasingly recognised as having a critical role in medicine or scientific study. The countless reviews and research articles that have been published in various periodicals over the preceding 10 years are enough proof of this. In recent years, some pharmaceutical companies have begun worldwide asserting patents. These companies are growing fast as a result of the regulations and relation to intellectual property. This technique is an essential and efficient way to raise a drug's melting point, stability, and bioavailability.


An investigation on the scour of bridge piers having various geometry and length width ratio on a non uniforms and bed

Abhijit Saha and H.L. Tiwari,


In this study, the scour depth and dimensions of the scour depth around different shaped piers were compared. Maximum and Minimum scour depth were found out.Sharp nose, elliptical, oblong, and rectangular piers were used in the experiments to compare the various scour hole geometries under the identical flow conditions. In a rectangular flume (25.0 m long, 0.95 m wide, and 1.00 m deep) with a bridge pier having a length to width ratio of 2 and 4, numerous tests were carried out. The 20 cm thick flume bed is made of unevenly graded material with a d50 value of 0.65 mm. The studies were conducted in clear water. Also, the equilibrium scour depths at the downstream and lateral sides of the piers were measured. Based on the experimental results, the shape factor values were also examined, and the results were matched with those found in the literature. Using the sparse experimental data that was published in the literature, the effectiveness of the empirical relation that was developed for circular piers was evaluated. The rectangular pier with sharp noses had the smallest scour hole. Sharp nose, elliptical, oblong, and rectangular piers saw the greatest rise in the scour hole dimensions for the other cross-sections.


Network security used to detect behaviour bases malware

Sridharan K, Gokulan N, Arunkumar R, Harish J


Traffic examination has many purposes, for example, assessing the exhibition and security of organization activities and the executives. Thusly, network traffic examination is viewed as crucial for further developing organizations activity and security. This paper examines different AI approaches for traffic examination. Expanded network traffic and the advancement of man-made consciousness require better approaches to identify interruptions, examine malware conduct, and order Web traffic and other security perspectives. AI (ML) shows viable abilities in taking care of organization issues. Traffic characterization using stream estimation empowers administrators to perform fundamental organization the executives. Stream bookkeeping strategies, for example, Net Flow are, be that as it may, considered insufficient for arrangement requiring extra bundle level data, have conduct examination, and specific equipment restricting their common sense reception. This paper intends to conquer these difficulties by proposing two-staged AI order system with Net Flow as information. The singular stream classes are determined per application through - implies and are additionally used to prepare a C5.0 choice tree classifier. Besides, the computational presentation and precision of the proposed system in examination with comparative AI methods lead us to prescribe its augmentation to different applications in accomplishing exceptionally granular continuous traffic order.


Emotion Detection using Convolutional Neural Networks

Dr. B. Buvanaeswari, A. Abuthahir Rasicj, R, Jayaprakash, N.. Gopinath


Emotion detection using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is a growing subfield of natural language processing that aims to classify the emotional state of individuals based on text or speech. The input data is typically preprocessed by encoding words or phrases as numerical vectors, which are then fed into a CNN. The CNN learns to extract relevant features and patterns from the data, and has been successfully applied to tasks such as sentiment analysis, sarcasm detection, and depression detection. However, challenges still exist in accurately detecting emotions in noisy or ambiguous text, and in addressing issues of bias and fairness in emotion detection models. Emotion detection using CNNs has potential applications in various fields such as customer service, market research, and mental health. Emotion detection using CNNs is a powerful technique that enables machines to better understand human emotions, which can have practical applications in many areas. Some of these applications include analyzing customer reviews and feedback, identifying and addressing negative customer experiences, measuring customer satisfaction and sentiment towards products and services, detecting mental health conditions in patients, and assisting with online communication and chatbots.

Robustness Analysis and Classification of Lung Opacity using Deep Learning Algorithm

Dr. B. Buvaneswari, Bhuvanesh Babu S , Gandhiraj J B , Harshan Krishna J


Deep Learning (DL) based classification algorithms have shown excellent results in clinical diagnosis, especially with lung cancer datasets. However, due to the limited availability of training datasets and the complexity and opacity of the models, there is a need for explainable modelling techniques that can interpret the outcomes. To address this, our research proposes a novel interpretability approach, which we apply to a lung cancer DL classifier to assess its stability and consistency even when trained on a small number of image examples. This approach also provides valuable insights into the clinical significance of the algorithm's results by identifying the most relevant areas of medical images for the classification. We compared the explanations of ten different models on the same test sample, which demonstrated the consistency of our methodology and the algorithm's attention to the same image regions.


Strategies to combat New Delhi metallo ? lactamase where do we stand?

Shailaja S and Susweta Das Mitra


Antibiotic resistance to carbapenems is an emerging threat in global health care settings and poses a significant menace to the treatment of diseases spurred on by the multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDR). New Delhi-metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) was recently found and grouped into the broad-spectrum B1-subclass of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The ability of the NDM-1 to hydrolyze diverse array of β-lactam antibacterial agents, notably carbapenems, has received a lot of interest. In general, NDM-1 offers a broad range of substrate binding affinity owing to its shallow active site and distinct electrostatic mechanism. In recent years, numerous NDM-1 inhibitors with different chemical structures have been found. Despite considerable progress in structural and mechanistic knowledge, it remains difficult to develop an effective NDM-1 inhibitor that will be approved for therapeutic use. This may be because NDM-1 has a flexible hydrolysis mechanism and many variants, that impede advent of clinically effective NDM-1 inhibitors. In-depth knowledge of the nature of inhibition and the structural relationship of the NDM-1 enzyme would be beneficial for the identification, synthesis, and development of biologically active inhibitor and would make it a promising drug candidate. In this report we summarize and categorize the significant recent progress in the identification and subsequent development of numerous NDM-1 inhibitors, along with their mechanism of action.


Thermal radiation effect on MHD non Darcian boundary layer flow and heat transfer past an exponentially vertically stratching sheet

Ambuja Joshi


The present work considers the effect of thermal radiation  on MHD Non-Darcian boundary layer flow and heat transfer past an exponentially ,vertically stretching sheet. The effects of various physical parameters, such as, Magnetic field parameter Thermal buoyancy parameter Gr,  Prandtl number Pr, heat source/sinkparameter  , on flow and heat transfer charecteristics., are computed and represented graphically.


Approaches for IoT Cyber security Analysis Using Various Machine Learning

R. Karthigaichelvi, Dr. B. Balakumar


As a result of recent scientific breakthroughs, new technologies are often developed and presented. Since managing and overseeing systems like these can be challenging for humans, our society has turned to machine learning for assistance. New ideas and methods are brought about by new technologies, and new techniques are used to circumvent existing cybersecurity measures. Three alternative Internet of Things (IoT) cyber security algorithms are currently in use in business for malware and intrusion detection: K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Support-Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF)and. Training and testing were conducted on each algorithm. For malware detection, the highest accuracy of the KNN, SVM, and RF was 90.81%, 84.51%, and 93.37%. For intrusion detection, the highest accuracy was 92.58%, 87.33%, and 93.97%.

Top Journals on Metals and Alloys: Scientometric based review analysis with Scientific mapping

A Smitha Kranthi & Anil Kumar Matta


Material science requirement is growing rapidly in Society today. Our research goes on all the metals and alloy journals in Scopus data base during 2018 to 2022.Methods and Materials: The data is exported from Scopus data base on 30th jan 2023. The keyword used is ‘Metal and Alloys’. The analysis is limited to open access engineering journals with a total of 215 journals. Finally we suggest 31 top Springer Nature journals and Beilstein journal based on SNIP and SJR which contribute the best in Metals and Alloys area based on sjr ranking.


Design and implementation of an ultra-compact high performance prefiltered cascode5 ghz LNA in 90nm CMOS using a novel double split on chip IPD inductor for 5G Communications

Venkata Raghunadh Machavaram and Bheema Rao Nistala


Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a major performance decider for any wireless receiver RF front end electronics (RFFE). Optimized system on chip (SOC) 5G LNA designs, primarily focus on minimal chip area via happy integration of low cost CMOS process and high quality IPD passives. Approach: This paper reports the fabrication of constant width and a novel double_ split multilayer (ML) IPD inductors designed to implement a compact 5 GHz LNA circuit in 90 nm CMOS for 5G applications. The LNA is designed with a three stage a cas code topology with an input 50 W matching pre filter, inductive source degeneration (ISD) stage followed by an output buffer. On chip CMOS inductors in an LNA were replaced with two proposed off chip IPD inductors. Three 5 GHz LNAs are simulated using Advanced Design System (ADS) software tool. Findings: The PCB inductor measurement results showed inductance and quality factor improvements of 232.14% and 55.78% over the CMOS inductor. The simulated 1.8 V LNA with double_ split inductor had exhibited outstanding performance by achieving: very good input matching S11of -33.85 dB, very low S12 of -45.15 dB, high gain of 28.4 dB, very low Noise figure (NF) of 0.8 dB, higher IIP3 of 5.6 dBm, very low dissipation of 1.4 mW, excellent stability of 6.08 along with the least on chip area (OCA) of 0.08 mm2. Conclusion: All these superior parameter enhancements clearly prove that the proposed LNA with 4 layer double_ split IPD inductor is highly suitable to realize a miniature high performance sub-6 GHz LNA for a 5G communication receiver.


Bus Identification and Detection system for Disabled People

Gowtham, Ponsankar, Boopathy , & Kaviyarasu


In order to let blind persons move from one location to another easily and independently, this research presents a bus detecting system. The project aims to bridge the gap by creating a system specific to transportation via buses such that the visually impaired can avail these services without being dependent on another individual or the sympathy of the fellow passengers. To operate a public bus system successfully, securely, and independently, people with visual impairments must become familiar with their physical surroundings as well as the visible information that shows at bus stops and terminals, such as timetables, routes, etc. Our transportation system places a strong focus on safely and promptly dropping off those with physical and mental disabilities as well as older citizens. As a result, our system may be a tremendous helping hand for such individuals to assist them gets at their destinations on time. Due to the fact that the route numbers in the bus transportation system are only visible on the number plate, a visually impaired person must rely on sighted help, which increases their dependency on others and diminishes their sense of self-worth.


Benzimidazolederivatives and its biological significance a review

A. Aruvisal Hananth, M. Durgadevi, S. Saveena, A. Vijaya lakshmi, K. Hemalatha, K. Girija


The heterocyclic aromatic chemical benzimidazole is created by joining a six-membered benzene ring with a five-membered imidazole ring. It has a variety of biological and therapeutic uses. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that different substituents placed all around the benzimidazole nucleus produce therapeutically valuable molecules that are pharmacologically active. This moiety is a preferred option of interest in the design and synthesis of novel medicinal compounds due to its variety of pharmacological characteristics. The benzimidazole core, which is present in many different biological agent classes, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, CNS stimulat and depressants has served as a crucial framework for the creation of countless newer therapeutic compounds. Understanding the synthesis and related functions of compounds produced from benzimidazoles in various disorders is crucial.Therefore, in this study, we make an effort to explore several benzimidazole nucleus derivatives with a variety of pharmacological actions.


In Silico Design of Novel Quinolone Derivatives against Targeted Enzyme for its Anti Microbial Activity

Konda Reddy Girija, Hemalatha Kuppan, Vassou Angelin Esther


Quinolone  antibiotics are broad-spectrum antibiotics that work against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as anaerobes and mycobacteria. This prevent bacterial DNA replication and transcription by prohibiting bacterial DNA from unwinding and duplicating, interfering with DNA replication, and resulting in cell death. Staphylococcus aureus Gyrase B is one of the most investigated and validated targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. Its absence in the mammalian organism and its crucial role in the bacterial DNA replication cycle make this enzyme a suitable target for the development of anti-bacterial agents. This study involves the designing of novel quinolone derivatives and study of its molecular properties to investigate the interaction between the designed derivatives and amino acid residues of Staphylococcus aureus Gyrase B using Auto Dock software. All the designed compounds were shown good binding energy than binding energies of standard drug Ciprofloxacin. Compound (3b, 3c, 3d, 3e) substituted with sulphonamido group were shown to produce higher binding affinity towards the target enzyme compared to the standard. Molecular properties of designed compounds were screened using Molinspiration software and the results were according to the Lipinski’s rule of five properties.


Building Shadow detection using Aerial Imagery: Review

Mohamed Naajim, Dr. Ashima Gambhir, Dr. Aarti Chug,


Aerial images are widely used in various remote sensing tasks and research to improve remote sensing in unmanned aerial vehicles (uav). Building and shadow detection is an important task for urban planning, disaster response, and environmental monitoring. Aerial imagery is a valuable source of data for building and shadow detection due to its high spatial resolution and ability to capture large areas. In recent years, machine learning-based methods have shown promising results in detecting buildings. In this review, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques for building and shadow detection using aerial imagery, with a focus on machine learning-based methods. We discussed the datasets for aerial imagery used for building shadow detection for different machine learning based methods and its applications. We also highlight the challenges and future directions in this field.


Computation of Optical Energy Band Gaps of Double Alkali Tetraborate Glasses Containing Alkaline Earth Oxide

Sarap Krishnaprasad, Md. Shareefuddin, and Gokarakonda Ramadevudu*


The main object of the present work is to compute optical energy band gap valuesusing various methods, find plasma frequency, evaluate excitation energy for electronic transitions (Ed) and dispersive energy (Eo) of alkaline earth oxide containing double tetraborate glasses. The glass samples  (‘x’ changes from 0 to 60 mol%) aresynthesized using melt quenching procedure. These glass systems are characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy.The optical constants of these glasses are determined over a spectral range. The optical band gap energies evaluated by ASF method varied from 3.19 to 3.45 for MZLK glasses and 3.36 to 3.43 for CZLK glass samples. The ratio of average carrier concentration to effective mass for CZLK glasses increased with increasing mole% of Li2B4O7 in the glass matrix.The enhancement in reflectance (R)is attributed to an increase in refractive index value.ZnO containing glasses show good optical properties. Alkaline earth oxide modifies the glass network. Hence alkali tetraborate glasses undergo significant structural changes and give better physical, optical,and electrical properties. The optical band gap energies can be tailoredby varying any one of the alkali tetraborates in the glass composition.