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Caregiver burden among caregivers of mentally ill individuals and their coping mechanisms A facility based study

Ilavarasan Ilangovan, Balamurugan Sivasubramanian, Sangeetha Ananthapadmanabhan


 Problem:  Mental illnesses not only affect the individual concerned but also the caregivers. Caregiver burden is a complex phenomenon. Caregivers who perceive high level of burden are those who lack both family and social support. They require tireless endeavor, sympathy and energy. Mostly family members fail to recognize it and caregiver’s own physical, mental and social health is often ignored. Care givers adopt various coping mechanism. A Mechanism, adopted in a positive way would lessen the amount of burden.6 Mal adaptive strategy in turn would affect the well being.7The study was done to measure and analyze caregiver burden and factors associated with the burden respectively. The study was also intended to explore coping mechanisms adapted by the caregivers in response to burden perceived by them.  Approach: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted among 60 caregivers of patients with mental illnesses attending psychiatric medicine outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital, at Karur(India) between July 2022 and Dec 2022. After obtaining Institutional Ethics clearance and informed consent, study tool was administered. It consisted of 4 parts. Part 1 dealt with socio-demographic details of the participants. Part 2 enquired about clinical information of care recipient. Part 3 included the Burden Assessment Schedule. Part 4 was the brief COPE assessment scale. Data entry was done in Microsoft Excel. Entered data were exported to SPSS software version 20 for analysis. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics were done. Independent T test, one way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation and Chi square tests were applied. Findings: Among caregivers other than spouses, male caregivers perceive higher burden (mean score +/- SE = 28.75 +/- 2.272) than the female caregivers (mean score +/- SE = 26.25 +/- 2.192). Perceived severity of disease was higher among Care givers residing in urban area (mean score +/- SE = 8.0385 +/- 0.36577) than those residing in rural area (mean score +/- SE = 6.9118 +/- 0.28438). Among caregivers other than spouses, caregivers who had completed higher secondary schooling or diploma holders perceive higher level of burden (mean – 28.75) than those who completed primary schooling (mean – 24.75). Impact of chronic mental illness of care recipients on well being of caregivers was higher among spousal caregivers than the others. A Positive correlation existed between burden perceived among spousal caregivers and problem focused, emotional focused and adaptive coping. All these associations were statistically significant at p value 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001. Distribution of moderate to severe burden among caregivers other than spouses (52.3%) is slightly higher than that of spousal caregivers (50%) and the difference is not statistically significant (p = 0.876). Conclusion: Among various factors, gender, education, residence and chronic nature of care recipient’s mental illness were found to be significantly associated with either one or another component of burden or the whole. Mental health professionals should broaden their vision so that burden perceived by the caregivers would also be attended. Public health personnel should take measures to implement family as well as community level approach to attend caregivers along with their mentally ill care recipients. 


Wound healing activity of lepidagathis pungens nees

Vellankanni K, Kalaivani N, Subha S and Saravana Ganthi A


The use of plant based medicine has increased significantly in recent years due to the attraction of people towards to natural therapies. The herbal drugs traditionally used cure a variety of human aliments. The pharmaceutical companies are searching for new bioactive active compounds from angiospermic plants for a novel drug. The present study focused on the wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Lepidagathis pungens Nees. (Acanthaceae). Male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. Povidone iodine ointment was applied as standard drug. Sample at low dose (5%) and high dose (10%) were used to record the efficiency of plant extract. In excision wound model the potency of wound healing activity of the L. pungens ethanolic extract was found to be highly significant.


Impact of internet addiction on heart rate variability in young adults

Jagadamba A, Shobha MV, Manogna S, Himavarshini



For youth, the Internet presents a number of risks along with a multitude of opportunities. The primary implication of this study is to gain more information regarding HRV as it is an easy quick and Non-invasive technique used. As alteration in HRV is associated with a broad range of medical & psychological health problems, preliminary studies on the effectiveness of HRV assessing changes in related physiological parameters on internet addiction is warranted. The present study aims to study the effect of excessive internet usage with heart rate variability in young adults Materials & Methods: Cross sectional observational data was collected from 357 Professional students in the age group 18-25 years who are at least using internet for more than 6 months. Written Informed consent was obtained. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained .Demographic data & self-administered Young’s scale of Internet Addiction scale was administered which was developed by Dr. Kimberly Young, for evaluating internet addiction. Then classified them into mild, moderate & severe internet adductors based on the score.  A continous HRV recording for 5 minutes was performed in a quiet room by in-house built analogue ECG amplifier built by Dr Maruthy was used & raw data recording was done by Audacity software. Analysis of HRV data was done by KUBOIS HRV software. Linear parameters like Time domain, Frequency domain was analysed. Subjects who had been diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or neurological diseases or who are consuming medications such as beta -blockers or sedatives, psychiatric drugs & also who are smokers ,alcoholic addicts , that might affect the autonomic nervous system will be excluded from the study.SPSS22 version was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics & One way ANOVA was used to test the difference in the mean between the different groups of internet addiction score. Tukey post hoc Test was used to find the significant difference in between the group. & P<0.05 will considered statistically significant. Results: One way ANOVA for the  mean of internet Addiction score showed statistically significance different between groups (F [2,354] = 1474.745,P < 0.001.One way ANOVA for the  mean of duration of usage of internet showed statistically significance different between groups (F [2,354] = 327.16,P < 0.001.Tukey’s post hoc test showed that the mean of duration of severe internet addictors score is significantly higher compared to moderate & mild internet addictors which is statistically significant(P<0.001).One way ANOVA for the  LF/HF ratio showed statistically significance different between groups (F [2,354] = 11.934,P < 0.001.Tukey’s post hoc test showed that the mean of LF/HF of severe internet addictors score is significantly higher compared to moderate & mild internet addictors which is statistically significant(P<0.001). The difference between mean of LF/HF mild and moderate internet addictors was not significant. Conclusion: In internet addictors the sympathetic activity is higher with lower parasympathetic activity which is statistically significant. As youngsters are becoming more prone for this excessive internet usage,it’s an additional area requiring attention by the clinicians to provide appropriate interventions either in aspects of pharmacological or nonpharmacological.


Epiphytic Orchid species diversity of Mainpat, Surguja, Chhattisgarh, India

Ram Kumar Rajwade and D.K. Patel


The Mainpat lies between latitudes 22 0 81’9’’N and longitudes 83 0 28'2''E, spreading in an area of 407 km2, with an altitude range of 558.15 m to 1085 m above sea level. Extensive field surveys of Orchid surveys were conducted from January 2022–November 2022 in various parts of the Mainpat. In this study, 8 genera and 14 epiphytic orchid species were identified in the Mainpat. region of Surguja District, Chhattisgarh, India. The study represents the taxonomy-based study of epiphytic orchid species diversity and distribution throughout the region with botanical names, place of collection (occurrence), altitudinal range, associate host range, and flowering.


Original article High prevalence of hypo vitaminosis D among patients presenting with chronic diffuse Musculo skeletal pain at a tertiary care hospital in sub Himalayan region of India

Dr Jatinter Kumar Mokta, Dr Kiran Mokta, Dr Asha Ranjan, Dr Tripti Chauhan, Dr Ramesh


Problem: Hypovitaminosis D is thought to be rarity in India country because of abundant sunshine. It is an important differential diagnosis for patients presenting with musculoskeletal pains.  We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis-D in one sub-set of population i.e. patients presenting with diffuse muscular-skeletal pains. Approach: All adult (≥18 years) patients presenting to the out-patient department of general medicine, Indira Gandhi Medical College & Hospital (IGMC), Shimla, from May 1, 2008 through April 30, 2011 with diffuse musculoskeletal pain were included. Detailed history, clinical examination and biochemical investigation including vitamin D levels were done. Serum 25(OH) D was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).  Patient with vitamin D deficiency status were treated with oral cholecalciferol and later followed up. Statistical analysis was done using EpiInfo Software version 3.5.3 for windows. Findings: We surveyed 296 patients and 231 (78.0%) of these were women. Age of the participants ranged from 19-78 years with a mean of 45.6±13.9 yearsParticipants from rural areas were 218 (73.6%).The levels of 25(OH) D ranged from1.7 ng/mL to 64.4 ng/mL. Mean 25(OH) D level (ng/mL) was 18.4±9.0ng/ml (men: 18.9±9.7, women: 18.2±8.9).Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [25(OH) D < 30ng/mL] was 91.6%. 18.58% (55/296 patients) had severe deficiency of vitamin D. Of the 257 patients that reported at the end of six and nine months of treatment with cholecalciferol, 217 (84.4%) were symptom free.Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D should be considered at number one in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with diffuse musculoskeletal pain. Patients may be empirically treated with recommended doses of cholecalciferol where facilities for estimation of 25(OH) D are not available.


Evaluation of Surface roughness and flank wear in drilling of jute flax polymer matrix composites

Vinay Kumar R, Suresh Gowda M V , Aravind K U


The important applicational area of jute flax-based polymer composite being the automotive and wall panels. In comparison with the synthetic fibres used in the fabrication of composites, the jute flax fibres can be of great mechanical competent if treated properly with necessary chemicals modifications. In the application of automotive panels even though the jute flax based PMCs are manufactured to a near required shape, the secondary cutting process like drilling is essential for having a joint in an assembly. While performing the drilling process the composite undergo several types of damages including, delamination, cylindricity errors, fibre pull out, matrix cracking, surface roughness and also flank wear concerned with the tool etc. It is thus required to obtain the pure optimal set of parameters while performing drilling operation to control and reduce such damages to the composite as well as the tool. In this work an attempt is made to optimize the parameters involved in machining (drilling) of jute flax based composites in order to minimize the surface roughness and flank wear.


An Observational Analysis of impact of Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana on financial toxicity inflicted on patients and their family in Cancer Treatment: A study from the Kumaon region of India

Lalit Mohan, Jalaj Gaur, Aradhana Arya, Kailash Chandra Pandey, Nirdosh Kumar Pant


Background: Cancer treatment requires multi-modality and multi-specialty care. The expenditure of cancer treatment degrades quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients as well as their family. The Ayushman Bharat- Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) of Government of India bears the major part of the expenses of treatment of eligible patients. Objective: We planned this cross sectional study to measure the impact of this government aid in QOL of cancer patients and their family. Subjects and Methods: All patients diagnosed and treated for cancer with radical intension from 1st April 2019 to 31st March2022; visiting in outdoor patients department of State Cancer Institute, Haldwani, India were asked to read and fill questionnaire, inquiring the details of their expenditure on specialist consultation, cancer investigations, surgery, procuring drugs and undergoing procedures. Of the 276 patients eligible for this study visited in outdoor patient department during 1st Oct 2022 to 31st December 2022; 264 patients were analyzed. Results: Of the 264 patients analyzed in the study, 227 (86%) patients were eligible for AB-PMJAY. The median monthly income was ?5700 ($68.5). Grade I, II, III and IV financial toxicities experienced by AB-PMJAY beneficiary patients were 73%, %, 21%, 3% and 3% respectively and that majorly due to undergoing expensive radical surgery or procedures in private hospitals. Grade I, II, III and IV financial toxicities experienced by AB-PMJAY non-beneficiary patients were 31%, 28%, 32% and 11% respectively. Financial distress was severe in patients undergoing radical treatment e.g. Surgery or Radiotherapy in private/ corporate hospitals.  Patients undergoing all treatment in AB-PMJAY accredited hospitals experienced only grade I toxicity and the mean expenses on treatment under AB-PMJAY was ?2606. Conclusion: Financial toxicities inflicted on AB-PMJAY beneficiary patients were significantly low. Financially weak patients should be encouraged to undergo complete cancer treatment in AB-PMJAY accredited hospitals.


Psychological and Sexual problems in Breast Cancer Survivors

Jalaj Gaur, Lalit Mohan, Pragati Verma, Aradhana Arya, Kailash Chandra Pandey, Nirdosh Kumar Pant


Background: The word cancer in itself consider to be synonymous for something very dangerous or even death sentence; it is often associated with disruption of physical, psychological and sexual wellbeing of individual and near and dear ones especially the spouse. We carried out a survey to know the associated morbidity other than physical wellbeing and try  to find out what people often consider the causes for such dysfunctions.  Objectives: This cross sectional study was planned to know about aspects of life and problems faced by patient and spouse other than cancer itself. Subjects  and methods:100 female patients along with their husbands interviewed using open ended questionnaire. Questionnaires were prepared after literature review, expert consultations and patient’s usual concerns and finally 7 constraint areas were identified which include cosmetics, physical barriers, psychological factors, daily activities, social aspects, physiological sexual factors and religion. Results: Survey included 100 women of ages 28 to 74 years along with their spouses (husbands). Out of these 62 were sexually active while interviewed. All of them completed their treatment in form of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 17 females underwent breast conservation surgeries while 83 recieved mastectomy; 71 patient underwent radiotherapy while all of them received chemotherapy. Out of 62 females who were sexually active 14 females were less than 40 years and 39 patients between 40-50 years and all were premenopausal before initiation of treatment while 9 patients were above 50 and postmenopausal. The physiological reasons, spouse related factors and personal stress were found to be most common problems. Only 5 patients and their spouses reported no issues with their sexual life and all of them were post breast conservation surgeries. Conclusion: Present survey results shows very high psychosexual and behavioural changes in patients and spouses of breast cancer. The reason for such problems ranged from physiological barriers to personal stress and financial constraints. Loss of cosmesis and physical pain also found to be affecting sexual functions. A need is seen to emphasize on patient’s spouse and treating doctor communication which may help improve the sexual issues.


Frugal Innovation and Core Characteristics: A Systematic Literature Review

Y.L. Velananda, D.M.R. Dissanayake, C. N. Wickramasinghe


Making products that cater to the requirements of emerging and new markets may help businesses all around the world. The concept of frugal innovation has resulted in many successful products for various markets that save money, focus on the most critical aspects, and perform well. According to the literature study, organizations must have a frugal mindset to come up with frugal innovations. For this qualitative study, the SPIDER methodology was employed. Businesses must learn to think frugally to come up with innovative ideas on a limited budget. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken to identify the most important aspects influencing people's decisions on frugal innovation initiatives at work. The review of relevant literature yielded important parameters. The goal of this study was to establish an understanding of what frugal innovations mean to different researchers, and what characteristics are essential for launching and sustaining frugal innovations. The conclusions of this study have implications for academic research on frugal innovations and the frugal attitude, as well as for businesses seeking new ways to save money and expand their market opportunities while capturing an unserved market with frugal innovations. This paper examines the core characteristics of frugal innovation: Affordability, optimized for performance level, concentration on core functionality, simplicity, high quality, eco-friendly, and sustainability. The main research strategy used was the systematic literature review with some attention given to cases and practices based on the Sri Lankan context. The paper discusses different scenarios and cases guiding future research directions. It concludes research avenues by highlighting future research directions for extended studies.


Factors for the Adoption of Process Mining Technology in Indian Banks: Critical Review and Future Research Direction

Gyanesh Kumar Sinha


This paper discusses the importance and significance of process mining adoption in the Indian banking sector. In order to monitor business processes there, exist certain process mining  technological tools like, Celonis and Signavio. They give real-time feedback on any hindrances that arise due to an issue. One can query data in the process in order to get details about the event logs. Current research attempts to examine and review literature pertaining to various aspects related to the adoption of process mining technology. A review of literature has been conducted through which a conceptual framework has been developed. This has helped in identifying the factors for the adoption of process mining technology in Indian banks. These factors responsible for its adoption in the banking operations could prove beneficial to the banking operations and its systems. Important factors and finally the model that has come up in the current study will prove beneficial for further research as the published literature gives limited to no knowledge about the process of mining and its adoption in the banking sector. This is especially true in the Indian context.


Performance Evaluation and Ranking of Sites of Solar Power Plants Through Grey Relation Methods in Fuzzy Environment

S V V Ramana and M.L.S Devakumar


The purpose of this study is to develop a decision model for selecting solar farms. A MCDM model is proposed for the selection of a solar power plant site based on economic, technical, environmental, and sociopolitical criteria which contain 20 sub-criteria. For the purpose of determining the weights of the sub-criteria, the model utilizes the Relative Importance Index (RII) method. A four-stage procedure has been followed for this study, which involves the identification of criteria, the development of a questionnaire (survey), a confirmation factor analysis, the assessment of the degree of importance of criteria, and the ranking of alternative options using gray analysis in a fuzzy environment. An alternate site for a solar power plant is generated using Plackett-Burman Design and these alternatives are evaluated based on Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) and Grey Relation Projection (GRP) in a fuzzy environment.


Parameter estimation and fitting of life time distributions in the presence of competing risks

Talawar A. S. and Rangoli A. M.


In the present paper we consider the prostate cancer data to study the applications of life time parametric distributions such as exponential, Weibull and two forms of modified Weibull distributions in the presence of competing risks with three causes of failures. We found that all the four life time distributions give good fit to the prostate cancer data and in comparison, the modified Weibull-II distribution fits well. We have also calculated hazard for the causes  and seen that exponential and modified Weibull-I distribution show constant hazard rate. Where as Weibull and modified Weibull-II distributions have increased hazard rate. We have compared the survival curves of Kaplan-Meier and all four distributions and seen that modified Weibull-II distribution survival curve and Kaplan-Meier survival curve coincides.

Secured Data Transfer with Multi Layered Secured Encryption Standards Using Onion Protocol

M. Sumithra, B. Buvaneswari, Mohan Raj S, Jagadesh E, Ganesh N


Because of the increased reliance on technology and the internet. With so much personal and sensitive information being exchanged over networks, the risk for cyber assaults and data breaches is greater than ever. This paper aims to increase the security of data against various attacks in a network. A multi-layered secured encryption standard using onion protocol was pro-posed in this paper to improve the security of data. This model would first choose the optimum path to deliver the data. The data is first encrypted at the source end using the RSA technique, then it is sent to the subsequent node where decryption occurs, which finally goes to the destination. The result shows that for larger files, our model's decryption process is faster than the encryption process. Since multilayer encryption is used, even if one layer of encryption is broken, the data remains encrypted and secured by the other levels of encryption. So this model can be an effective approach to in-crease the security of data against several attacks  compared to other encryption schemes.


Screening and Characterization of Antibacterial Compounds from Some Marine Sponge Species

M. Duraipandian, Turibius Simon, M. Balasubramanian and S. Karuthapandian


Objective: The antibacterial activities were done by using of various solvents such as ethanol, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of various marine sponges like Callyspongia reticutis Dendy (C. reticutis), Thalysias vulpine Lamark (T. vulpine), Echinodictyum gorgonoides Dendy (E. gorgonoides) and Callyspongia diffusa Ridley (C. diffusa), Gelliodes cellaria Rao (G. cellaria) against gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 7002 respectively. Methods: The nutrient agar well diffusion method is used to find the antibacterialbial activities against various sponge extracts. The functional groups of the sponge extracts are specifically mitigate bacterial metabolic intermediates determined by FTIR. Results: The antibacterial activities of the sponge crude extracts were increased with different concentrations in the agar well plates to indicate the presence zone of clearance. The crude extracts were prepared from different solvents such as the n-butanol and chloroform extract was the most effective extracts. At this stage the gram negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) and the gram positive bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) appear to be most sensitive strain while and Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia. The Staphylococcus aureus indicate resistance to the various tested concentrations and have response to no zone of inhibition was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as ~50 -150 mg/mL indicated the potent antibacterial activity of above mentioned porifera sponge extracts. Conclusions: These research works results were find critically industrially important compounds from selected sponge extracts and the functional groups of plant compounds is responsible for great antibacterial activity.


Juvenile delinquency in Odisha (2003 to 2021): Understanding the trend and pattern of crime rate

Dr. Subhasmita Panda, Saswati Pragnya Sahoo & Sampad Mohapatra


Juvenile delinquency is an emerging social issue that has a deterrent effect on social law and order. It grabbed the attention of many educators, experts, and several law enforcement agencies. This research aims to explore juvenile delinquency in Odisha under different crime heads according to Indian Penal Code (IPC) and various percentage changes between the years 2003 to 2021. The basic motto of the present study is exploring the crimes committed by minors (Children in conflict with law). According to the statistical report by NCRB -The total cognizable crime rates are gradually spouting day by day. The crime rates for two decades of report showed that the significant changes have been reported from 2003 to 2021.  The total number of cognizable crimes recorded in 2021 had increased more than 5 times in the past 2 decades. The NCRB report of 2016 showed the drastic increase of juvenile crime rates in different crime heads. Several crimes committed by the juveniles have been added in 2016 as delinquent activities that were not mentioned in the previous reports. A clear distinction is found in the data of the 2008 report and the 2016 report of the crimes committed by the juveniles. The rate and severity of major heinous crimes have also increased than it was before like the rate of conviction in the crime of murder has doubled within the year gap from 2008 to 2016, crime of rape has been six times increased, and kidnapping has increased 5 times more than before. Theft, Dacoity, robbery and burglary rates in Odisha went up in a progressive manner in recent years.The study will help to find out in analyzing the type of crimes and rate of crimes committed by the children in conflict with law in Odisha. This study will also help to promote several awareness or intervention programs at the individual level or government level. 


Simulation of Double Gate TFET With Different Gate Oxides and Thickness

Chinnala. Pavan Kumar & K.Sivani


Transistors have changed the world. Everyday our world is progressing by making the electronic devices faster and efficient. Transistors are of two types they are BJT’s and FET’s. FET’s are used for their extensive advantages over BJT[1]. MOSFET’s are well known for their switching speed but compare to MOSFET tunnel FET has many advantages as it provides more switching speed and it performance well with low power applications and low threshold voltage this makes tunnel FET (TFET)  popular over MOSFET. Due to increase in power density it is difficult to continue MOSFET scaling due to sub-threshold swing (SS). One of the best choices to replace the MOSFET for the applications of low power is the TFET[4]. The operation of TFET, it works on the concept of band-to-band tunnelling (BTBT) of electrons. Double gate tunnel field effect transistor overcomes the limitations of leakage current and sub-threshold slope but it also has a drawback of ambipolar behaviour due to its symmetrical source drain architecture, the solution for this is to introduce some asymmetry between source and drain this is through the step channel thickness[3]. The more band-to-band tunnelling of electronics from source to channel it leads to more enhancement in on state current. In this paper different gate oxides, Thickness of oxide are tested, the simulation of double gate tunnel FET will be performed by using cadence software.

Quality of life and habitability of Katwa town, West Bengal: An analysis of residential satisfaction

Madhumita Sen & Toton Ghosh


The study aims to understand the quality of life and habitability of the town Katwa of East Bardhaman district in West Bengal, India. The main thrust for this is given to the residential satisfaction index which has been calculated on the basis of scores given by the respondents on ten variables under three aspects - public service (PS), social environment (SE), and dwelling unit support services (DuS). A total of 200 households were surveyed and the analysis of data reveals that citizens are more satisfied with dwelling support services i.e., garbage collection, water supply, and electricity. They are not satisfied with the accessibility of recreation facilities, health services, and sewerage and drainage conditions. Education facilities are not also reaching a satisfactory level. Municipal ward-wise data analysis and mapping help to identify the ward which has a lack of services provided by the municipality. The Center of the town i.e., wards no 5,6 and 17 have better serviceability in terms of PS, SE, and DuS while the periphery wards show a low satisfaction index. These findings may help the local administrator to take proper planning so that peripheral areas will be developed in near future.


Does corporate governance affect risk management : An empirical study on new generation private banks of India

Farhin Anjum & Professor. Mohd. Shamim Ansari


Purpose:Risk management and Good Corporate Governance go hand in hand, providing a means to investigate. The study aims to analyze how Corporate Governance affects the risks addressed by BASEL II standards on New Generation Private Banks of India. Research Methodology: Regression and panel data analysis was used to test the hypotheses and the proposed model.This study covered 7 banks for the period 2011 to 2020. Findings:The findings indicate that board size has a substantial impact on Market risk but a negligible impact on Credit risk and Operational risk. Additionally, we found that board independence has a negligible impact on credit, market, and operational risks. A similar finding was made for the Independence of the Audit Committee, which has a negligible effect on the risks of the Bank that exhibit distinct characteristics. Practical Implication: The study shows how Corporate Governance impact Risk Management of banks. Bank management can utilize this study to shape their Risk Management policy. Policymakers and the government may use the study's findings to create solid banking policies that can withstand future crises.Originality/ Value:In the recent past, several studies have been conducted to determine the effect of corporate Governance on risk management, but this is the first to examine all of the risks associated with BASEL II requirements for Indian banks.


Knowledge attitude and Practices about Dental care among Parents of children class 1-5 from a Rural School of Haryana.

Rahul Gandhi, Sukhdev Rathore and Pallavi Rathore


Aim The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices about dental health care amongst parents of children class 1-5 from a rural school of Haryana.Material and methods: The study was conducted in a rural school of Haryana district kurukshetra.The students of class 1 to 5 were the subjects. It was an online questionnaire based study which included 10 questions to access knowledge and practices amongst parents about dental care. The questions were sent via google forms to the parents .consent was obtained from the Principal and all the parents .125 responses were obtained. The duration of study was from July 2022 to august 2022 .All responses were recorded and diagrammatically represented . Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analysed and percentage was calculated .Results:66.9 % parents say their child brushes teeth two times a day. 62.9% children received treatment from dentists for tooth problems,13.7 % parents report that they have never visited dentist till 5y. 59. 7% of p ar e nt s sa y th e y r e gul arl y us e d bo t tl es f or fe edi ng t heir c hild, 15.3 % use d s om etim es a nd 12. 1 % us ed ra re ly. 29. 8% parents report their child smell foul from mouth some times. 40.3% parents say they have seen some cavities or black stains on their child’s teeth .4. 6 % use the right peanut size of toothpaste. 83 . 9% think sweetened & junk foods can affect the child teeth even if temporary .51.6% parents use any commercial toothpasteavailable in the market. Conclusions: The knowledge, awareness and practices about the dental issues in rural areas was found to be quite satisfactory. Oral health education programs should be conducted in all the schools and even parents should also be a part of educational programme. Teachers should also be given education so that they can impart knowledge Introduction Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood globally[1]. Caries levels have been declining the world over, the problem of early childhood caries (ECC)has remained unchanged in many areas of the world, especially the socially deprived.[2,3] Dental caries affecting the primary dentition of preschool children is referred to as Early childhood caries. [4] With changing lifestyles, a trend of having a single child and increased the cost of living, most of the parents are working with very less time left for performing day-to-day oral health care practices in their child's early years. Results Practices of tooth paste use available in the market 48. 4% use medicated toothpaste only as prescribed by dentist.( fig 1). Frequency of dental visits (fig 2).5 0 . 8 % children visit to the dentist only if any problem however 3 5 . 5 % visit the dentist regularly . P r e f e r e n c e o f d e n t i s t / p a e d i a t r i c i a n ( f i g 3 )8 4 . 7 % parents prefer to visit only dentists for any tooth problem while15.3% prefer their paediatrician. Frequency of tooth brushing( fig 4).6 6 . 9 % parents say their child brushes teeth two times a day however 32% parents say their child brushes teeth one time a day. Awareness about dental issues(fig 5).40.3% parents report their children have some cavities or black stains on their tooth Knowledge about junk and sugar rich foods (fig6).Most of the parents 83.9 %think sugary and junk foods affect the child teeth even if temporary . 195 | Scope Volume 13 Number 02 June 2023 and importance on oral health in parent teacher meeting. Oral. Oral preventive care should be included in school curriculum.

Terrestrial gamma radiation dose measurement along Yagachi river, Karnataka

Dr. Niranjan R S


Humans are constantly exposed to radiations emitted by terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources, as well as radiations produced within their bodies. An attempt was made in this study to detect ambient gamma radiation levels in the Yagachi river basin, Karnataka State. Ambient gamma radiation levels were monitored in 2022 with a portable radiation dosimeter (MICRO-R-SURVEY METRE NUCLEONIX UR705) at various sites both indoor and outdoor of the study region.  The study area indoor absorbed dose rate varied from 52.2 to 243.6 nGy h-1, with a mean of 113.1 nGy h-1. The research area outdoor absorbed dose rate varied from 43.5 to 139.2 nGy h-1, with a mean value of 68.771 nGy h-1. Indoor annual effective dose range from 0.256 to 1.195 mSv y-1, with a average value of 0.555 mSv y-1. Outdoor annual effective dose range from 0.061 to 0.195 mSv y-1, with a average value of 0.096 mSv y-1.  In this study area, the absorbed dose rate and annual effective dosage were lower than the global average limit 2.4 mSv y-1


Psychological techniques with proper discussion on entrepreneurs strategies to avoid stressful situations

Debajyoti Sarkar


The key responsibility of entrepreneurs is to build a successful business due to which the symptoms of mental stress can be seen in them .Entrepreneurs have to go through with a tremendous pressure for dealing with the entire business, therefore, they have to adapt entrepreneurial traits that include certain psychological capacity such as being optimistic, having full of self-efficacy. Primary quantitative data collection is found to be effective for the concerned research article by applying survey analysis through SPSS software. The result has shown that psychological techniques are not that important for entrepreneurs and also the stresses cannot affect severely the entrepreneurs as they have to stay strong and optimistic. However, innovation and advanced technologies are significant for entrepreneurs to have.   Entrepreneurs have to learn how to handle stresses in terms of any problems that arise in different parts of the businesses as it is a basic thing for today’s entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs must have innovative skills behind their business ideas and strategies. Also, they must include advanced technologies in different business processes so that they can achieve success in the business.


Trends in Global, Indian and Regional Marine Products Exports: A Comparative Study

D. Dhivya, & Dr. E.Thangasamy


Conventionally, any developing country or under developed country will make sincere attempts to boost themselves socially and economically. Economic activities will gradually lead to enhancement of the output of various goods and services in a country which will promote the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Besides, in the global market, as compared with the domestic business, the international business has a better scope to improve economic position. Exporting strategy has been a prominent one in international trade and commerce as it influences the GDP, inflation, interest and exchange rates and also promotes the foreign currency and revenue to the government. Amongst all the sectors, Fishery sector plays a key role, especially in the coastal areas of a country, as compared with other sectors.  Fisheries and Allied Sectors, including the aquaculture, contribute to livelihoods for the people substantially. India is a not an exception on this front. Keeping in view, a systematic scientific enquiry into the status of the marine products worldwide becomes the need of the hour, especially in the coastal regions. The present study has been undertaken to make a comparative trend analysis of Global, Indian and Regional marine product’s exports for ascertaining remedial measures.


A Novel Coupled Pyramid Inductor for High Figure of Merit VCO Design for Telemetry Transponder Applications

Murali Banoth and Nistala Bheema Rao


Problem:The improvement in the performance of VCO can be achieved by increasing the quality factor of the resonant tank circuit. Especially, the inductor quality factor affects the quality factor of the circuit and phase noise of the VCO.  Approach: This paper presents a compact coupled pyramid inductor for the design of VCO, amplifier, and filter applications. The inductor is designed using Sonnet software in a pyramid and coupled pyramid structure to reduce the capacitive parasitics and losses. Furthermore, the inductance and quality factor of the coupled inductor is enhanced by tapering the width of the conductor and stacking the metal layers to reduce substrate losses and eddy current losses. Findings:The effect of quality factor and inductance are validated by designing a VCO at 3.15 GHz. The simulated best phase noise for the VCO is -125 dBc/Hz @ 1MHz, and the figure of merit is -216 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. Conclusion: The proposed coupled pyramid inductor achieves better output power, tuning range, and figure of merit, which makes it a good candidate for applications in the design of filters, amplifiers, oscillators, and receiver circuits for various wireless communication systems and telemetry transponders.


Recommender system using personality traits

Shanu Saklani, Dr. Jogendra kumar, Dr. Jitendra Singh Rauthan


With the emergence of personality advancements in the field of science and research, recommendation systems are becoming an important and integral part of our daily life. A recommender system is a software application that examines user actions and preferences to provide recommendations for items that align with the user's potential interests. The aim of a recommender system is to offer customized suggestions that enhance the user's experience and satisfaction. Personality-centric recommender systems fall within the realm of recommendation systems that employ information regarding a user's individuality attributes to produce customized suggestions. These recommender systems have the ability to effectively tackle traditional challenges like the cold start problem and sparsity issues. The primary goal of this paper is to systematically conclude the methodologies employed in recommender systems and explore significant applications of personality-aware recommender systems. Personality computing is discussed in which big five model is described in more detail. Deep learning techniques are also included which defines the state of art of recommender system.


Design of F in FET based High gain Low Power Two Stage OTA for Biomedical Applications

Sarangam Kunamalla, and Bheema Rao Nistala


FinFET transistors are the most suitable alternatives to conventional bulk transistors in sub 45 nm CMOS technology because of its improved behavior of short channel and sub threshold which are associated with low leakage current. In this paper, a two stage operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is designed and implemented using FinFET devices employing composite cascode technique. In both input differential stage and output stage this technique has been used in biasing to make it operate in sub-threshold region to minimize the power dissipation and improve the gain of OTA. Moreover, frequency response and stability are achieved with indirect frequency compensation. The designed circuit is verified using cadence spectre in 18 nm FinFET technology. It requires 0.8V DC to provide an open loop gain of 100.43 dB, fT of 11.28 MHz with a 128 nW power consumption. The proposed circuit improved 36.25% gain, 82% UGB, 33% power efficient, and exhibits high figure of merit compared to conventional two stage OTA under same platform.


Development and Evaluation of Different Models for Urban Rail Capacity during Peak and Off peak Hours: A Case Study of Jaipur Metro in India

Manoj Mittal* and Anand Kishore Chaturvedi


The objective of this paper to develop the conceptual model for managing the carrying capacity of urban railway during peak and off-peak hours For this firstly focus on the influencing factors and interactive relations of the rail carrying capacity of a low and high speed mode rail. In this paper six different models developed for an urban rail by the ratio of tracking low and high speed trains. Taking Jaipur metro rail corridor-1 in India as a case study The proposed model proved to be valid for utilizing urban rail capacity by low and high speed train concept. This paper contributes the previous related researcher’s history by modifying the concepts and methods are applied to improve the carrying capacity. As the train types increase in a network than more interference increases and less capacity occurred in a network In this paper, a model for estimation of the capacity of a network is presented.  The model is helpful for railway planners for capacity planning of a network.


A critical study on wife beating and determinants of domestic violence among Indian women

Sangram Charan Panigrahi , Rabinarayan Patnaik & Durgamadhab Mahapatra


Problem: Men and women are equally responsible for running a social system and a family set up. In no context, the role of either should be taken as inferior or should be undermined. However, the attitude of men towards controlling behavior of women counterparts and use of power in case of objection by partner leads to create violence within households. Approach: This study examines the acceptance of wife-beating and prevalence of domestic violence in India from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015 to 2016. Women’s place of residence, household wealth quintiles, educational levels, marital status, and husband/partner’s employment status have shown significant association with women’s attitude towards wife-beating. Findings: The current study brings out the various dimensions of domestic violence (like economic, demographic, physical as well as culture driven) typically against the women in India. The uniqueness of this study lies in the fact that the very intrinsic factors behind an unwanted yet prominent phenomenon like domestic violence leading to wife beating has been explored and investigated empirically and illustratively with special focus on emerging economies like India. Conclusion: The findings and insights from this study can help the readers, researchers and policy makers alike to identify more critical areas for in depth understanding of the same and subsequently creating a healthy environment by changing attitudes towards wife-beating and violence against women from other similar situations and places.



Seismic Analysis of RC Building with Steel Bracing

Ajay kumar, Bikaram Nirala, Onkar Yadav, Keshav Kumar, Pappu Kumar and Md Faiyaz Alam


A multi-storey building that are made of RC frame, the greater importance is given to make structure safe against lateral load. Lateral load are produced due to wind, earthquakes etc. By providing steel bracing in RC frame building, these load can be reduced or transfer. The use of steel bracing system in RC frame is a workable solution for resisting lateral load. In this study a two different G+8 and G+10 storey building is analysed for different bracing system under seismic load in ETABs software. Building is located in seismic Zone-V.Four configuration of bracing (X, V, diagonal and Inverted-V bracing) is used. The parameters obtained in terms of Storey displacement and Storey drift. Compared these parameters for these two different Zone .It is seen that Inverted-V bracing system gives better result as compare to other two.


Megaliths: A review

Dr. Shuchi Srivastava


Megalithic monuments are the structures of large and roughly dressed stones, erected as sepulchral monuments or as memorials of notable events. These monuments have been built up by the people from various parts of the world living in several different periods. Megaliths in India represent a widespread phenomenon. Its types and geographical significance varies from place to place. The present review article is an attempt to provide the detailed information regarding various aspects of megalithic monuments, with special reference to India. The work is based on the secondary sources of the data. The description is illustrated through pencil sketches drawn by the author herself. The article is an important contribution to Archaeology, History and Anthropology. The students as well as other interested readers may get benefit out of this study and this would stimulate interest among them to conduct research on the various aspects of the megalithic monuments and culture, required for preparing database for megaliths in India to provide collective information for further analysis.


Usage of complementary and alternative medicine among pregnant women attending prenatal care setting in Abuja, Nigeria

Adamu Shehu Usman, Adamu Maryam Bappah, Mshelia Yahonna Godiya


Problem: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are sets of medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not commonly considered part of Conventional Medicine. However, literatures on the usage of CAM in many part of Nigeria particularly Abuja is scarce. The study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, pattern of use, and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the usage of CAM among pregnant women attending antenatal in Abuja. Approach: Combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to gather data based on the knowledge, altitude, and perception (KAP) framework. Quantitative information was collected through questionnaire-based interviews. Qualitative data was collected via open-ended questions for a period of four months with a total of 400 participants from six randomly selected general hospitals of Abuja. Results: The highest prevalence of usage was observed among the age group 18-30yrs (54.3%), low in-come earners (61%), secondary school certificate holders (41.4%), Married (48.1) and respondents from Abuja municipal area council (20.3%). However, low prevalence was recorded on pregnant mothers that used CAM in their third Trimester, high income earners (39%), Divorced (6.7%) below 18yrs (5.3%) and resides in Bwari Area Council (13.9%). Age followed by gender, were the most significant socio-demographic component related with CAM use among pregnant women. Oral ingestion, consultation of traditional birth attendants, as well as topical use, undergoing spiritual cleansing, and insertion into the genital canal were identified as pattern of use of CAM. Conclusion: Maternity care Clinicians, and Midwives in particular, should be familiar with CAM utilized by pregnant women for safe use of such medication.


Mucuna pruriens magical velvet bean the wonder plant A review

Zulfa Nooreen, Ankita Wal, Anuja Shukla, Anil Yadav


Popular Indian medicinal plant Mucuna pruriens Linn.Has been used for many years in traditional ayurvedic Indian medicines to treat illnesses including Parkinson’s disease. L-DOPA, an amino acid that acts as a natural precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine and is found in abundance in M. pruriens seed, is used extensively to treat Parkinson's disease. There have been reports of about 130 species from all over the world, including 15 species from India. Most of the species had been investigated for their potential as nutraceuticals, but there were just a few reports of their medicinal benefits. Pharmacological research on this plant has focused on its potential as an anti-diabetic, aphrodisiac, anti-cancer, anti-epileptic, and anti-microbial agent. This plant has produced a wide variety of phytochemical components that have been identified. In light of the numerous recent results on this plant that are significant, a detailed explanation of the morphological, phytochemical components, traditional usage, pharmacological actions, and analytical methodologies presented are given.


Improving Governance through Local Economic Enterprises: A Case Study in Bongao Tawi Tawi Government

Lorie Mae A. Castro


Problem: Local Government Units play a critical role in a locality’s pursuit of all-inclusive growth and self-reliance. It is mandated to protect and empower communities by building an enabling and sustainable environment where the citizenry would thrive and flourish. The same mandate is shared by the Local Government Unit of Bongao Municipality. It plays a key part in building local development linkages at the provincial and regional levels since it is the de-facto municipality of the province of Tawi-Tawi. However, LGU-Bongao is challenged with influences that call for outright solutions. These situations include growing population, proximity to neighboring countries, environmental delineation, devolution conflicts, and poor socio-economic situations. On top of these, the LGU is internally struggling with heavy dependency on Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) funds. Approach: This study adopted a case study approach and utilized the Problem Tree Analysis (PTA), Objective Tree Analysis (OTA), Decision Tree Analysis (DTA), and Stakeholder Analysis (SA) as analytical tools. Findings: This study derived three potential development approaches such as Local Development, Product or Service Development, and Organization Development. DTA was used to evaluate the profitability of these approaches. The Organization Development (OD) yielded the highest profitability with over 100M NPV and 511% IRR. As compared to Local Development with over 74M NPV and 384% IRR and Product or Service Development with over 5M NPV and 43% IRR. Conclusion: This study concludes that the LGU-Bongao shall employ the Organization Development approach as the primary modality in addressing the overarching issues and problems gauged from the environmental scanning. The adoption of Organization Development approach shall lead the LGU-Bongao to the institutionalization of LEE department and operationalize income generating facilities and service deliveries. Thus, the LGU-Bongao shall will be meeting the needs of the community while improving its financial health as an institution.



Classification Of Thyroid Nodules from Ultrasound Images using Residual Network (Res Net)

Gouthami Velakanti ,Gunjala Koushik Reddy, Adulapuram Nava Teja, Asnala Mythreya


Thyroid nodules, which are characterised as aberrant thyroid cell growth, is due to heavy intake of iodine, or thyroid degeneration or the inflammation, and some diseases. Despite the fact that thyroid nodules are mostly benign, the likelihood that they are malignant rises noticeably every year. The labour of medical practitioners are reduced and optional fine needle aspiration, surgical excision are avoided. Firstly, FNA results are occasionally ambiguous, which means they do not always say for sure whether a nodule is benign or cancerous. This can happen when there aren't enough cells in the FNA sample or when the cellular properties are unclear. Uncertainty and the need for extra testing or repeated biopsies can be brought on by indeterminate results, which can be expensive and stressful. A number of studies have been done to identify thyroid nodules with the use of image recognition analysis based on deep-learning.  A new deep learning architecture is provided in this study. It reliably identifies the benign and malignant thyroid nodules among given dataset. First, we have considered both Vgg19 and Resnet50 models and they were pre trained on the Image Net database and then trained using the thyroid ultrasound image dataset and tested with the testing dataset. In comparison, we have achieved greater accuracy using Resnet50 model rather than Vgg19. The trained model has now able to classify the thyroid nodules into different categories like normal, benign and malignant. A website is also developed which can predict the type of nodule using the accurate model. Overall, the proposed model demonstrated that ultrasound images and deep learning may be used to distinguish between benign and cancerous thyroid nodules with a 75% accuracy and


Loan Repayment Capacity of Small holder Cassava Farmers in Nigeria

Innocent Asuquo, Eucharia Ajah & Emmanuel Eyo


Purpose: Using a cross sectional dataset from cassava farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria, the purpose of this paper is to investigate smallholder cassava farmers’ capacity to repay loans. This is premised on the rising loan default rate among farmers, which has affected loan volume to agricultural sector. Approach: Regression analysis is use in estimating repayment capacity of the farmers and cash flow coverage gives greater insight to what percentage is committed to debt payment. Findings: Results reveal that with an average farm size of 1.2ha, smallholder cassava farmers used 60.60% of the returns in debt repayment. The regression result further shows that the size of the farm and gross returns are very key in boosting a farmer’s capacity Research implications/limitations: Many financial Institutions in Nigeria do not give flex loans to agricultural enterprises which directly or indirectly affects farmers’ capacity to repay loans because of the peculiarity of the sector. If more than sixty percent of gross returns is committed to debt, many farmers will certainly almost default. Therefore, rescheduling loan terms in line with production activities will strengthened farmers’net worth. However, this research is situated in Nigeria where these group of farmers may be markedly different from those outside the borders of the country and may not, therefore, apply outside the shores of the country. The use of cross sectional data, too, is limited with attendant decision problems, other datasets such as pooled may be applied subsequently. Originality/value: This paper investigates repayment capacity in the light of cash flow coverage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has done this since previous studies have only researched on repayment capacity determinants.


Learning how to learn Smarty using Innovation (TRIZ)

Dr Rupam Soti, & Dr. Ashish Soti,


Problem: Learning is a fundamental process, as technology continues to advance at an unprecedented pace, the ability to learn effectively and efficiently becomes increasingly critical. In this context, learning how to learn, or metacognition, emerges as a key skill set that empowers individuals to become lifelong learners. Approach: The ‘Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ)’ offers a structured and systematic approach to problem-solving, which can be effectively employed to improve the learning process. Findings: TRIZ principles into educational practices, educators can equip students with the necessary skills to navigate complex challenges and become agile, lifelong learners.  The main objective of this research is: “Learning how to manage contradictions and learn smartly with innovation thereby simplifying efforts for learning”. The research methodology adopted to conduct this research is unique focused group brainstorming sessions with faculty members of different educational institutions having more than ten years of teaching experience. Conclusion: The findings are that TRIZ-based learning can create an excellent teaching-learning ecosystem for society if understood and implemented with passion. Anybody and everybody can be made great learners and achieve desired goals in life. This research is highly valuable not only to the academic community but to all learners of society. An in-depth case study in various institutions is needed to validate and consolidated the findings of the research.


A study on reaction between chloroform aldehyde and acidified potassium iodide solution

Abhijit Mallick


The earlier study of the author shows that chloroform reacts with nitric acid to form chloroformaldehyde. The objective of the present study is to investigate the nature of chemical reaction between chloroformaldehyde and potassium iodide. It is a redox reaction where chloroformaldehydeoxidizes iodide ion in presence of acid to iodine and itself gets converted to 1,2-dichloro glycol. The reaction continues till chloroformaldehyde is available in the mixture. Preliminary studies show that the reaction is slow but it continues steadily as iodine is removed from the mixture. As reaction proceeds, chloroform gets converted to chloroformaldehyde, which ultimately results single aqueous phase. Detailed investigation clearly indicates that iodine is formed during the reaction between chloroformaldehyde and potassium iodide in presence of acid. Furthermore, the product mixture shows positive response to ammonium ceric nitrate test for alcoholic group. The NMR spectrum of the product sample shows a single broad peak presumably due to merging of two peaks.On the basis of experimental studies, a mechanism is proposed to explain the reaction between chloroformaldehyde and potassium iodide. The mechanism shows that iodide ion is oxidized to iodine and chloroformaldehyde is reduced to alcohol, which finally dimerises to 1,2-dichloro glycol.


Early Detection of Rice Leaf Diseases using Efficient U Net and Deep Learning

Gayathri Devi T, Rajkumar G, Srinivasan A & Karthikeyan S


Rice is considered one the most important plants globally because it is a source of food for over half the world’s population. Like other plants, rice is susceptible to diseases that may affect the quantity and quality of produce. Early detection of these diseases can positively affect the harvest, and thus farmers would have to be knowledgeable about the various disease and how to identify them visually. In this paper, a Deep Learning technique for the accurate detection and classification of rice leaf disease is proposed. The residual attention based Efficient Net-U-Net is proposed for the process of segmentation. For the detection and classification of the rice leaf disease, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is proposed. The performance of the proposed work is evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision, recall and F1 score. The proposed work obtains the highest accuracy of 89.35%,

Oral health and nutritional assessment among older adults An explorative study

Dr. Devika A B , Dr. Ramya Shenoy, Dr. Avinash B R, Dr. Praveen Jodalli , Dr. Dharnappa Poojary, Dr. Violet D’Souza


Background:Due to overall development of health care delivery system life expectancy of the population is getting better. India have predicted that the number of older adults is expected to grow to 173 million by 2026. Aging involves many physiological and psychological changes. Often, these may be related to their nutritional intake, oral manifestations of the systemic illness and their treatment, lack of oral care and limited access to dental care services. Studies have shown an association between a reduced number of teeth with the caloric intake.Objective:This study aimed to assess  uses Oral Hygeine Index- Simplified, Russel’s periodontal Index and DMFT Index to evaluate oral status. Mini Nutritional Assesment scale is used to evaluate the general nutrition status of the study population.Methods:This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among older adults living in the Mangalore city.The older adults having 60 years of age, community-dwelling and living in nursing homes, able to perform activities of daily living independently were selected.In this study a total of 66 participants were included out of which 30 older adults were from old age home and 36 were community dwelling.The oral status evaluation included Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Russel Periodontal Index (PlI), and DMFT index.The nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment(MNA) scale. Results:The mean BMI of study participants were 25.92 ± 3.90. The MNA assessment showed 38 participants [57.6%]  score fell within the normal limits, and only 4 participants [6.1%] were malnourished. Correlation with the mean number of missing teeth,no significant association between the two (r = 0.112, p = 0.403) for the community dwelling participants were observed.



On the Forcing Open Monophonic Number of a Graph

M. Mahendran & S. Karpagam


Problem: Let S be a minimum total (connected) open monophonic set of G. A subset T of S is called a forcing subset for S if S is the unique minimum total (connected) open monophonic set containing T. A forcing subset for S of minimum cardinality is a minimum forcing subset of S. The forcing total (connected)open monophonic number of S denoted by ftom(S) ( fcom(S) )is the cardinality of a minimum forcing subset of S. The forcing total (connected) open monophonic number of G denoted by ftom(G) (fcom(G)) is ftom(G) (fcom(G) ) = min{ftom(S)} (min{fcom(S)}), where the minimum is taken over all minimum total open monophonic sets in G. Findings: We determine bounds for it and characterize graphs which realize these bounds. Forcing total (connected) open monophonic number of certain standard graphs are found. Also, we proved that following results: (i) for any positive integers a, n with 0 ≤ an− 4, there exists a connected graph G of order n such that ftom(G) = 0 or 1, or 2 and omt(G) = a. (ii) for any integer b with b ≥ 6, there exists a connected graph G such that fcom(G) =  0 or 1 and omc(G) = b.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification 05C12,05C70.


Green Banking: Present Status and Prospects A Study on Bangladesh.

Md. Khalid Hassan & Md. Atiqur Rahman


Throughout the past few decades, the idea of "Green Banking" has gained popularity among both the general public and the financial and banking industries. This essay aims to illustrate the current state of green banking practice, its development, and many green measures undertaken by Bangladeshi banks to maintain environmental sustainability. The study finds that Bangladeshi banks are doing well in practicing sustainable baking with maintenance of the specific guidelines of Bangladesh Bank through content analysis of the annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (the Central Bank of Bangladesh), annual review report of green banking activities, and annual review report of Direct and Indirect Investment to Green Finance and Climate Risk Fund (CRF). Even though Bangladesh Bank launched the green banking efforts in 2011, it only took a short while for them to be successful.



Mentoring Skills and Practices: Perceptions of Mentors and Mentees of Nursing Colleges

Prabha K. Dasila, Ferganzia Jubilson


Introduction: Mentors are thought to be the torchbearers in the academic journey of students and mentoring is a meaningful commitment, which influences the personal, psychosocial, and academic progress of students. Skilled mentors are critical to teaching-learning activities. Little is known about the skills and mentoring practices. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional design was found most appropriate to assess the perceptions of mentoring competencies and feedback on ongoing mentorship practices. 223 nursing students (Mentees) and 20 teaching faculty (Mentors) participated. A structured questionnaire for feedback, Mentor Competency Assessment (MCA) skill inventory, and Mentee Motivation Scale was used. Ethical procedures were followed for data collection. Results: 90% of mentees were females with a mean age of 22.0 ± SD2.6. Though most mentees found the mentoring sessions motivating, there were 3 to 7% who never found it motivating. 86.55% communicate face-to-face to their mentors in the faculty office while 69% do during the clinical postings. Though most mentees found mentoring sessions motivating, there were 3 to 7% who were never motivated. 95% of mentors were females. 70% aged up to 40 years and 30% between 41 to 50 years. 80% were Post Graduate and 20% with PhD their as highest qualification. Mentoring competency overall mean scores of mentees ranged from 4.64 – 4.75 while mentors self-rated themselves higher with a mean score of 5.05 – 5.87 on a 7-point rating scale for six core competencies. The mean scores from both mentors and mentees were found between 4 - 6 which is interpreted as mentors moderately skilled Conclusion: Mentoring students contribute to the enhancement of personal and professional development. Strengthening the competency of mentors can definitely improve the perception, motivation, and satisfaction of mentors as well as mentees for the mentorship practices.


Size Dependence of Vortex Induced Vibrations Based Energy Converter Bluff Body cylinder

Kombo Theophilus-Johnson, Samuel O. Enibe & Chigbu A Mgbemene


Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is a well-known fluid flow phenomenon studied in multiple engineering disciplines and typically sought to be eliminated or minimized. This study aims to investigate the effect of bluff body cylinder sizes on VIV based electrical energy converter from low velocity flowing water. This study is particularly important because the VIV based technology explores the vast untapped new sources of clean and renewable energy from rivers and oceans with current velocities as low as 0.514 m/s to 1.8 m/s which were previously off limit. Computer model was created using solid modelling computer aided design an engineering software and exported to ANSYS for fluid-structure interaction simulation. Three cylinder sizes, 50 mm,75 mm, and 100 mm were tested at five different velocities of between 0.514 m/s, 0.7 m/s, 1.0 m/s, 1.4 m/s, and 1.8 m/s, respectively using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation result shows that the maximum heaving force amplitude of 28N emanates from the 100mm diameter at a current velocity of 1.8m/s.


Effects of Demographic Factors on Job Satisfaction Among Employees of Higher Educational Institutions in Central India

Raj Maurya, M. Sanjoy Singh & Sukanta Kumar Baral


This study explores the effects of demographic factors i.e., category, educational level, marital status, length of service, and job area, on employees' job satisfaction in higher educational institutions of central India among 640 employees. The hypotheses were assessed using simple statistical methods and tools such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, t-test, correlation, and regression. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.847, showing the scale has excellent internal consistency. Out of the 29 statements, 26 of high-reliability scores were found and assessed. 6 factors were found by factor analysis, accounting for 89.776% of the total changes in the variable set. According to the t-test, job satisfaction is significantly higher, in females, unmarried employees, ST and EWS categories, 39-49 years of age, employees working in urban areas and below 4 years of service. The study found that all the demographic factors were significant except the length of service on job satisfaction, was highly correlated with educational level, followed by job area, marital status and category. The overall job satisfaction of employees was moderate. The F-value is 8.923where the impacts value of the factors are category (β=0.083), educational level (β =0.147), marital status (β= 0.099) and job area (β=0.140) respectively

Role of Sensory Brand Experience on Customer Brand Engagement: Testing the Moderating Effect of Brand Love Towards Fast Food Brands

R.M.U.R.K.Rathnayaka, D.M.R.Dissanayake


The applications of sensory branding to result brand performance and customer engagements could be noted as a tremendous trend in many industries, yet researchers argue on its effectiveness across the markets and product scopes. Accordingly, this study attempted analyze the impact of sensory brand experience on customer brand engagement based on the theory of embodied cognition and the triangular theory of brand love. The concept of brand love has been identified as the mediating effect on the relationship between sensory brand experience and customer brand engagement and, four hypotheses were developed based on the relationships with the purpose of finding answers for the four research questions. Survey strategy was used to collect data through a self-administered questionnaire which the reliability was assured with the pilot test conducted prior to collect data for the master study. 420 complete responses from the consumers in the Western province who had a recent experience with the franchised fast-food outlet were received for the study based on the quota sampling technique. SEM technique was used to test the hypotheses and all the hypotheses were supported. The results of the data analysis revealed a positive and significant impact made from the sensory brand experience on customer brand engagement, sensory brand experience of brand love and brand love on customer brand engagement. Further, it was reported a partial mediated effect of the brand love on the relationship between sensory brand experience and customer brand engagement.


Measurement of Poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Olayinka Bobola Awopetu, Bosede Olanike Awoyemi and Oluwole Oladipo Aiyegbusi


Poverty and material deprivation has remained for a long time a subject of major
concern of many governmental and non-governmental organizations in both the
developed and developing nations. This study examined the measurement of poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria using the data generated from the primary sources. The study employed the composite methods of measuring poverty i.e Foster, Greer, and Thorbecke (FGT) and the Multidimensional poverty index (MPI)to assess the level of poverty in Ekiti State. The FGT measures the depth of poverty (Poverty gap), incidence of poverty (Headcount index), and the intensity or severity of poverty from the poverty line. The MPI assesses the simultaneous or “joint” deprivations poor people or households experience into a set of indicators. A total of 1,110 households from the sixteen local government areas were sampled. The result indicatesthat the level of poverty is high in Ekiti State. It also revealed that the likelihood of poverty increases with low level of education, unemployment, large family size, 58-65 yrs of age while it decreases with polygamous marriage, male gender, wage employment, higher levels of education, and a higher average monthly income. This study therefore recommends that government should try to create more employment opportunities for the people by encouraging local production of goods and services which will revive many industries.                                                 In addition, Nigeria government should design and implement policies like enlightening the households on the importance of modern family planning, and sensitizing them on the better choice of having smaller families. This will allow for a manageable number of household size and curtail the sporadic growth of the population thereby reducing poverty.


Porous Borders , Banditry and Insecurity in Northern Nigeria: A Human Security Perspective in the Country's Fourth Republic

Chimaobi Okorie (PhD) ,Otu Offiong Duke (PhD) ,Ujim Unor Agbo (PhD) ,Okon Bassey Bassey


The Nigerian Democratic fourth republic, which commenced on the 29th May 1999, greeted by Nigerians within and diaspora with a sigh of relief . Thus after many years (32years) of military rule with its colloraries of human rights abuse, the militarization of civil society, ban and embargo on many democratic tenets like  students union, workers union, suffocating the powers of the court, unlawful imprisonment and detention of persons, etc., hence the coming of democracy was to reverse the old shackles of military rule, where transparency, accountability, human security, human right, equality, safety, development would prevail. Ironically as the country journeyed into the fourth republic, the Nigerian society saw itself drowning in many trouble waters, mostly in areas of conflicts conflagration. This manifested in the Niger Delta Resources conflict, Boko haram, various ethnic cum religious conflicts, unknown, gunmen, Herdsmen, bandits, etc. The current nefarious activities of bandits in Nigeria have been a matter of serious concern due to the death toll, destruction of lives and properties, attack at military camps/bases, and carting away their weapons, etc. It is based on this, the paper set to interrogate the human security implication of bandits in northern Nigeria. The study proceeds by finding answers to questions such as: what is the connectivity between Porous Borders and banditry? How does banditry breeds human insecurity in the form of death of civilians and soldiers, food insecurity, employment and hunger as a result of attack at farmers, internally displacement? etc. To achieve this, the paper utilized the content analysis methodological orientation as data were mainly secondary sources: textbooks, magazines, internet materials, Journal publications, etc. the human security theory was was discovered that: poor border policing, easy manipulations of youths by criminal agents, poor internal security architecture paved way for prevalent of bandits and other criminal agents. the paper recommends: effective policing and security, adequate and judiciously utilizing of security votes.


A Study on User Acceptance of OTT Platform: An Extended UTAUT2 Model

Madhuri Yadav, Pushpam Singh, Sukanta Kumar Baral


The study is aiming to scrutinize the factors that lead customers to use and adopt OTT platforms in India using the UTAUT2 model. The study also intended to check the moderation effects of gender, education, and experience, and data was collected through primary as well as secondary data. In this study, education level was introduced as an additional moderate into the UTAUT2 model to understand the adoption forecasters suggested by Venkatesh et al., 2012. The primary data was collected by the structured questionnaire through google form, and the sample size was 135 OTT platform users and analyzed by SmartPLS 4 software. To test the model, the structural equation model was used. The study found that Effort expectancy, Hedonic motivation, and Habit are the main key drivers that affect the customer adopting and using the OTT platform in India.


Users Adoption of Mobile Financial Service (MFS): An Application of the Structural Equation Model (SEM)

Md. Abdur Rouf & Md. Asaduzzaman Babu


This study aims to figure out the constructs of mobile financial service (MFS) and examine the user's adoption of MFS by measuring the impact of individual constructs on users’ adoption. This study is quantitative, and it takes a deductive, positivist approach. SPSS version 25 and SEM-Amos version 24 were used to analyze the data. Based on the structural equation model (SEM), the study found that trust variables, financial variables, and information variables all have a significant positive effect on user adoption. On the other side, the hypothesis that usage and security would lead to greater adoption was proved to be false. This study helps policymakers and managers better understand their customers and offer products and services that meet their needs by creating a secure and effective usage policy. Besides the study, introduce some leads to conduct further study considering the individual service provider more specifically.


Examining the Evolution of International Reserves of Three SAARC Countries: Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan

Dr. Shaikh Mostak Ahammad , Mst. Sadia Sultana, Mst. Helen Parvin


This paper investigates the trends, cycles, and irregular components in the international reserves of three South Asian  Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) members: Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. These countries were chosen because their economies, remittances, FDI, exports, and foreign investment are all growing fast. In this paper, the international reserve of each nation is decomposed using the unobserved components model, and the relationship between each component and these countries is investigated. The years 1971–2021 have been selected as the time frame for the research, and the statistical dataset used as World Bank Development website has been examined. The model is estimated using a maximum likelihood approach and the smooth trend plus stochastic cycle method developed by Koopman et al. (2009). The model will primarily be evaluated by the residual diagnostics, which will show that it has a good fit. In addition, the diagnostics of normality, auxiliary, prediction, and forecast all point to the fact that there is not a defect in the model. In perspective of irregular components, empirical research shows clearly that Pakistan has a positive correlation with India but a strong negative correlation with Bangladesh. Lastly, a stronger correlation can be found between the three countries during shorter cycles than longer cycles.


Language Learning Styles of First Year College Students at Sulu State College

Mardiya Julkipli Balahim


Background: The process of language learning is intricate and multifaceted, encompassing the acquisition  and progressive development of linguistic skills, which in turn facilitate effective communication. Objectives: To examine and describe the demographic profile of first-year college students at Sulu State College, their language learning styles, and interrelationship of such variables. Methods: This study is descriptive-correlational research and focused on first-year college students (n=100) at Sulu State College who were enrolled in the academic year 2022 to 2023. A two-parts questionnaire which delt on demographic profile and a standardized adopted tool which measures college students' language learning styles which included their visual language, auditory numerical, social group, visual numerical, kinesthetics-tactile, expressive oral, auditory language, social individual, and expressive-written. Research Ethics Committee (REC) of the Sulu State College approves the conduct of the study and data gathered were analyzed and processed on SPSS version 21 utilizing the frequency, percentage distribution, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson r. Results: Most of the college students as respondents were young females enrolled from various course and with parents varied educational backgrounds. The students exhibit diverse learning styles across various categories, including visual, auditory, social, kinesthetic-tactile, expressive oral, and expressive-written styles. The study also revealed significant correlations between different language learning styles, emphasizing the interconnectedness of these preferences. Conclusion: This study on language learning styles among first-year college students at Sulu State College highlights the importance of understanding individual preferences and the impact they have on language learning outcomes. The findings of this research contribute to the existing body of knowledge on language education and provide valuable insights for educational practitioners, administrators, and curriculum developers in creating supportive and inclusive learning environments.


Religious Positions on Family Planning in Nigeria: Implication for Population and Socio-Economic Impact

John Arierhi Ottuh


The high rate of population increase in Nigeria arouses the question of birth control and one of the ways of achieving such is through family planning. This paper examines the positions of religious adherents on family planning in Nigeria using Effurun and Kano as samples. The broad objectives of the study include the exploration of the knowledge of family planning among religious adherents; finding the differences in the position of religious adherents with regards to family planning; finding the association between the knowledge of family planning and their socio-demographic characteristics; and investigating the association between the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent and their position on family planning. The study used the survey method in which data was collected through a structured questionnaire which was distributed among 450 religious adherents spread across Christianity, Islam, and African Indigenous Religion in Effurun and Kano metropolises. Out of this, 334 were retrieved from respondents. The result shows that 71.6% of religious adherents support family planning as an effective means of birth control irrespective of their religious affiliations and beliefs.  This suggests that religion may likely not be an inhibiting factor to the success of any policy of birth control in Nigeria. This paper contributes to knowledge on the aspects of religion and population problem in Nigeria and as such recommends strong legislation on birth control.



Traffic Flow Predication Using Machine Learning

Jogendra Kumar, Divyanshu Semwal, Mayank Mehra, Harshita Rana & Yash Bhardwaj


Traffic congestion is a major problem faced by cities all over the world, leading to increased travel time, fuel consumption and environmental pollution. Accurate traffic forecasting can play an important role in improving traffic management and reducing congestion. This article presents a non-plagiarized summary on the topic of traffic flow prediction using machine learning. The goal of this study was to develop a machine learning-based approach to traffic flow prediction, leveraging historical traffic data and other relevant factors. Various machine learning algorithms, including regression modeling, time series analysis, and deep learning techniques, are explored and compared to determine the most effective method. To do this, a comprehensive dataset containing historical data on traffic volumes, weather conditions, road infrastructure and other relevant features is collected. Data preprocessing techniques are applied to clean and convert the data set into a format suitable for analysis. Feature selection methods are used to identify the factors that have the most influence on traffic flow. Methods: Several machine learning models are trained and evaluated using the collected data set. The models are tested on unpublished data to assess their accuracy and predictive certainty. Performance measurements such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and R-squared are used to evaluate and compare the performance of the model. Results: The results demonstrate that machine learning techniques offer a promising solution for traffic flow prediction. The study identifies the most accurate and effective model for predicting traffic based on specific data sets and review metrics. In addition, the study provides insight into the important features and factors that affect traffic, helping transportation regulators and planners make informed decisions about management. Transport and improve infrastructure. Conclusions: Overall, this study contributes to the field of traffic forecasting by highlighting the potential of machine learning techniques in accurately predicting traffic patterns. The results highlight the importance of using historical data and related features to improve forecast accuracy. The models developed and the insights gained from this research can be used to develop intelligent traffic management systems that optimize the timing of traffic signals and aid in planning efficient transportation to reduce congestion and improve the overall urban mobility experience.


Gender and Federalism: Understanding Gender Budgeting



Federalism and its interaction with gender has been an important area of discussion for federal studies. The main idea is to understand whether federalism as a field of study, as a system of institutions and processes and as an idea is able to address the question of gender equality. This paper tries to draw an understanding of this interaction while analysing the role of gender budgeting in federations. Feminists and their interaction with the various levels of political systems has been important in identifying the issues of gender and politics. Gender Budgeting is one of these arrangements to address issues around gender equality within federal and nonfederal systems. However, the experiences of federations in this direction itself remains noteworthy which has been brought in this work. The example of gender budgeting in India has been discussed along with examples of few other federations.


Enhancing Betel Vine Leaf Disease Diagnosis Through Machine Learning Techniques

Rajkumar G, Gayathri Devi T, Karthikeyan S , Srinivasan A


Betel vine, known for its economic and cultural significance, is prone to various diseases that can severely impact its yield and quality. Traditional disease detection and diagnosis methods in betel vine crops often rely on expert visual inspection, which can be time-consuming and subjective. The study suggests machine learning based automated method for examining diseases in betel vines. The proposed work focuses on detecting and quantifying the impact of a disease on betel vine leaves using a Machine Learning algorithm. By leveraging a vision-based strategy, the proposed method effectively detects and analyzes external signs of illness. Machine learning techniques are used to locate the disease-affected portions of the leaves. Subsequently, the affected area is measured and extracted based on the collected data on plant features. Integrating modern advancements in machine learning has significantly enhanced the performance and accuracy of disease detection in betel vine leaves. This research aims to develop a cost-effective and efficient approach for studying diseases in betel vine leaves, catering to the needs of farmers and agricultural researchers. The results indicate a classification accuracy of 98.73 per cent for disease categorization.


In Agrarian Realms Selecting Crops Using Rough Set Based Decision Techniques

Vairal Kailas L


Rough Set Theory (RST) is innovative mathematical techniques for dealing with inexact, imprecise knowledge. RST was delivers powerful several interesting applications that can be used for a wide range of purposes. This paper studies strength, certainty factor, and coverage factor of the decision rule signifies a though flow the relevant branch. In this article used rough set based techniques in agrarian fields. A proposed task we sort out better sugarcane varieties for planting using rough set theory. Certainty factor of the decision rules and coverage factors of the decision rules to find out varieties. Using RST the outcome we got convinces that the agrarians used sugarcane varieties , , and .


The Growth, Challenges and Disruption in India within the Public Sector Enterprises in Post Reforms 1991

Roshan Baa & Dr. A.K. Chattoraj


On 24th July 1991 the economic reforms revolutionized the financial policies in India and establish a liberal business environment in India to escalate the opportunity of the country to avail the key beneficiaries of globalization and make open business deals with foreign companies. The public sector enterprises faced critical challenges and competition from the private organizations in the business environment of India. on the other hand, it has brought forth higher opportunities to avail financial, resource-based, and technological support from foreign companies. The study has been performed to discuss the growth, challenges, and digital disruption in India within the public sector enterprises in post reforms in 1991. Different quantitative and statistical information has been used within the study taken from the secondary data collection process. The study has found private sector has been availing a financial edge in India and enhanced technological infrastructure in today's business environment which escalates by the new economic policy introduced in 1991.



Enhancing Research Competency and Publication of the Faculty of College of Nursing, MSU Sulu: A Descriptive Correlational Study

Nursidar P. Mukattil, Analyn J. Jilah, Jara Nieca A. Abdurasul, Almalyn A. Najar, Marwida S. Abdulhan, Maryam A. Saradi, Hamdoni K. Pangandaman


Background: Research has been the basis of the efficiency, effectiveness, and commitment to innovation and development among higher education institutions and universities globally. This study aimed at reporting the research competency installed with the attendees as part of the evaluation and future basis for planning. Also, to predict their perspective on possible attendance in a future research workshop Method: Descriptive-predictive research design has been employed to faculty members (n=33) of the College of Nursing of MSU Sulu who attended the 4-days research seminar-workshop. A researchers made formative evaluation assessment tool with 28-statement items that deemed valid and reliable had assessed the faculty competencies and skills in research writing and publication. Results: Majority of the faculty as participants were female, undergraduate and masters degree holder, and young breed faculty workforce. The participants' feedback on the research seminar-workshop reflects a positive overall experience and satisfaction with the content and delivery. The participants valued the sessions on quantitative research methods, including different research designs and ethical considerations. Conclusions: The findings from this study contribute to professional development, highlighting areas of interest and satisfaction among participants in research-focused events and the institution's commitment to improving the faculty's research output. The insights gained can inform future seminars and workshops to meet nursing professionals' needs regarding research knowledge and skills. Further research can explore the long-term impact of such events on participants' research productivity and the translation of research findings into clinical practice.


A Review of Object Grasp Prediction Techniques and Grasp Net

Vickram karthick R, Dr. Sunil Sikka, & Nisu Sethi


This paper discusses about significance of object grasping research and its potential to bridge the gap between perception and ac- tion, enabling machines to perceive and understand their surroundings and perform physical interactions with objects. By advancing the state- of-the-art in object grasping, researchers aim to overcome challenges such as occlusions, cluttered environments, object variability, and uncertain sensory data. Effective object grasping algorithms and systems have the potential to revolutionize automation, robotics, and human-robot inter- action, leading to improved productivity, safety, and efficiency in various sectors.

Cost Effectiveness of Broiler Chicks Served Boiled Mango (MangiferaSpp) Kernel Composite Meal as A Replacement for Maize

Abang, Favour Bette Patrick, Anoh, Kevin Usman, Nsa, Essien Ekpenyong, Archibong, Emmanuel Ekpo, Kperun, Thaddeus Navevfa and Ebu, Jesse Terwase


Issues: Cost of feed and animal products’ have been a great source of concern; this is so because of the hike in conventional sources of feedstuffs. The incorporation of non- conventional feedstuff into animal nutrition will help ameliorate this problem.  Methods: A study was carried out to investigate cost effectiveness of broiler chicks served boiled mango (Mangiferaspp)kernel composite as a replacement for maize. A total of 180 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four (4) treatments (T1-T4), the experimental design used was CRD (completely randomized design). Each one of the treatments comprised of 3 replicates (fifteen birds per replicate).Findings: Feed cost was observed to have decreased as the levels of BMKCM increased in diets. Cost of feed intake was not significantly (p>0.0 5) affected across the treatment groups. Feed cost/weight gain (g) increased with heavy supplementation with BMKCM. Negative values were observed with feed cost savings per gram meat, for 20% and 10% inclusions, thereby revealing that no savings accrued with supplementation of BMKCM at these levels probably because of the poor conversion ratio. However, profit and RNI tend to increase with heavy supplementation maybe because body weight was not a price determining factor. Conclusion: The study concludes that, for profit maximization, 15% of BMKCM should be included in chicks’ diets.


Productive Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Supplemental Levels of Dry Guava (PsidiumGuajava) Leaf Meal.

Abang, Favour Bette Patrick, Archibong, Emmanuel Ekpo, Nsa, Essien Ekpenyong, Izuki, Ether Darlington , Attah, Sunday and Echeonwu, Ibezim Emmanuel


Issues: Potential side and residual effects of synthetic antibiotic growth promoter both in humans and animals have become a real public health concern globally. This scenario has triggered an explosion of interest in the use of herbs and spices and their products as supplements in animal rations.  These new class of natural feed additives are currently referred to as “phytogenics”; guava leaf fits into this class. Methods: The paper objective was to determine the productive performance of starter chicks fed diets supplemented with graded levels of dry guava (Psidiumguajava L) leaf meal (DGLM) as a phytogenic feed additive. The study was conducted at the livestock experimental unit of National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State. A total of 240 unsexed day old cobb broiler chicks were used for the study for a period of 4 weeks. The chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) comprising of 60 chicks per treatment. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 20 chicks of similar mean live weight per replicate using a completely randomized design (CRD).  T1 (control),  T2   ,T3 and T4  received 0g , 150g , 300g  and  450g of  DGLM per 100kg basal diets respectively. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric. The diets and water were served to the birds ad libitum. The research methodologies were carried out following standard protocols. Performance indices and cost analysis data were collected.  Findings: Results showed that, though the average daily feed intakes of all the treatments were the same(P>0.05), the final body weights of birds fed T4 diets were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and feed cost N/kg weight gain followed similar trend as in body weight gain. Conclusion: The study concluded that supplementation at 450g of DGLM per 100kg in chick’s diets results in impressive productive performance and could be used in place of synthetic antibiotics/ growth promoter.


Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Cost Effectiveness of Broiler Chicks Fed Varying Levels of Prosopis Africana Pod Meal Fermented With Rumen Fluid

Abang,Favour Bette Patrick ,Nsa, Essien Ekpenyong, Archibong, Emmanuel Ekpo, Kperun, Thaddeus Navevfa, Ozung, Pascal Ogar , Aondoyila, Paul


 Issues: Cereal grains form the basis of livestock/ poultry feed and as such there is stiff competition between man, industries and animal for these grains as food; hence hike in prices of cereal grains which translate into high cost of finished animal products. The use of alternative feedstuff that is less competed for and with similar nutritional value will bridge this gap.  Methods: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Prosopis africanapod meal (FPAPM) on performance, cost effectiveness and serum biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A four week feeding trial was conducted using 150 day old Ambor acre strain of broiler chicks. Five experimental diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% Prosopis africana pod fermented with rumen fluid were used to replace maize in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment was replicated five times with thirty (30) birds per treatment. All standard and management practices were strictly observed. Data was collected on performance, cost effectiveness and serum biochemical indices. Findings: Results revealed that mean weekly feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and, feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05) affected. Performance indices depreciate with increased levels of supplementation across treatment groups; the birds fed TI and T2 performed better.  Serum indices were not affected by the treatments.  Result revealed a progressive decrease in cost of feed (g) and cost of feed intake/bird (g) across treatments as the level of supplementation increased. The cost of feed/g weight gain was least with birds fed 25% FPAPM. Negative values were observed with feed cost savings per gram of meat, for 50%, 75% and 100% of FPAPM, thereby revealing that no savings accrued with supplementation of FPAPM at these levels. Conclusion: The study concluded that Prosopis africana pod fermented with rumen fluid could replace maize at 25% level in broiler chicks’ diets without compromising optimum productivity.


Government Health Expenditure, Health Aid and Under Five Mortality in Nigeria

Sakiru Oladele Akinbode, Mathew Abiodun Dada and Oluwatosin Juliana Oyetayo


Problem: There have been increase in the volume of Official Development Assistance (ODA) to developing regions of the world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa following the millennium declaration. Nigeria is the third highest receiver of ODA after Tanzania and Mozambique. Substantial part of these in-flows go to the health sector due to its importance. In addition, Nigerian governments’ allocation to the health sector has been increasing in recent years. Meanwhile the nature of the effects of spending these massive resources on the healthcare sector is not clear as there have not been concordance in the results of most past works. The study therefore examined the effects government health expenditure and health specific aid on infant mortality rate in Nigeria. Approach: Data on different variables for the study were from 1980 to 2021 sourced from World Development Indicator, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database. The data were analysed within the ARDL framework where short-run model, long run model and post estimation analyses were carried out   Findings: The bound test results indicated the presence of long run cointegration. The short run model results indicated that health aid did not have direct effect on under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) in Nigeria. Meanwhile, lagged under five mortality (U5MR), government expenditure on health (GEXH) (P<0.5) and its interaction with foreign aid for health (P<0.05), and GDP per capita (P<0.5) significantly reduced U5MR in the short run while GHEX (P<0.01) directly affected U5M outcome in the long run. It addition, GHEX’s interaction with foreign aid (P<05)reduce UMR significantly in the long run and the results suggested that the two variables were complement. Conclusion: The study concluded that health sector aid did not have any direct effect on U5MR while GHEX and its interaction with health sector aid improved U5MR and it was concluded that GHEX and AID were complementary. This study recommended improved government expenditure in the health sector while coordination and utilization of foreign aid for the health sector are specially monitored and guided in order to stimulate its effectiveness in reducing under-five mortality in Nigeria.


Detection of Mycotoxins from Bakery Food Samples by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Sowmya K. L & Ramalingappa. B


In mycotoxicology, TLC has developed into a very effective, quick, and in most cases, affordable separation procedure. This study involves screening of mycotoxins from some fungi like Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp, Mucor sp, Nocardia sp, Trichoderma sp, Curvularia sp, Bipolaris sp, Rhizopus sp, Alternaria sp, throughThin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique, an easy physicochemical laboratory process, to identify mycotoxins in bakery products. For the extraction of mycotoxins, various solvent systems were employed. The purpose of the further research on this work is to find out more about the specific mycotoxins present in the target fungal species.


Stress Evaluation in Veteran Population Using BRFSS Data with Machine Learning

Radhakrishnan, Dr Priyanka Vashistha, Dr Ashima Narang


Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and automated learning methods, this research intends to assess veteran stress. Veteran stress might be attributed in part to the specific difficulties many veterans encounter as a result of their military service. In order to create effective therapies as well as assistance networks, it is essential to get an in-depth knowledge of and approach to stress in this group [1]. The BRFSS dataset, compiled by the CDC, is a precious asset for this investigation because of the breadth and depth of the data it contains on a wide range of habits associated with health and disorders. This study analyzes the BRFSS data in order to learn more about the causes of veterans' stress via a variety of statistical methods, including descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, regression analysis, and classification techniques. Demographic characteristics including age, gender, ethnicity, degree of education, and length of military service are used in statistical analysis to provide a picture of the veteran community[2]. In order to get a better knowledge of the factors that may contribute to stress amongst veterans, inductive statistics are used to discover major relationships between parameters and stress levels. Algorithms that forecast stress levels are developed using the technique of regression analysis. Socioeconomic status, lifestyle decisions, health status, and access to medical care are just few of the factors that go into the models of multiple regression that are created. The study's primary objective is to determine what characteristics of veterans' lives are most associated with elevated stress. In order to further forecast stress levels according to multiple indicators, approaches to classification such as logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines are used [3]. These automated learning methods create algorithms that can predict an individual service member's stress level, which might help pinpoint at-risk service members and guide more precise treatment plans. Suitable parameters are used to measure the algorithms' effectiveness terms of their accuracy and dependability. The results of this research add to our knowledge of the causes of veterans' stress and may help in the design of more effective treatments and services for this population. The well-being and quality of life of veterans may be enhanced by determining effective techniques to treat stress in this group. Finally, the thesis suggests how machine learning approaches may be used to the assessment of veterans' stress.


"The Importance of Effective Doctor Patient Communication in Enhancing Quality Healthcare Outcomes: A Study on Cancer Patients in India"

Dr. Sundaresan Chellamuthu & Dr. Annie Rajiah MS OG


Introduction: The Problem: Effective doctor-patient communication is essential for delivering quality healthcare and achieving positive patient outcomes. the significance of communication skills in the context of doctor-patient relationships, particularly significant in the care of cancer patients. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a crucial role in cancer clinical trials, facilitating the communication of symptoms and emotions between patients and medical professionals. Expressive writing has been shown to have positive effects on physical and emotional well-being. Cancer patients face numerous challenges and changes, making it important to provide opportunities for them to express their experiences and assess the impact on their functional, cognitive, psychological, physical, and emotional well-being. The EORTC quality of life scoring system helps measure these dimensions and evaluate the effects of treatment. However, QoL studies in Indian cancer patients are lacking, and this study aims to assess QoL scores in various parameters at a hospital in South India. Methods: The Approach: Study population and setting- cancer patients attending the quarternary multispeciality hospital were recruited for the study, aged between 18-80 years, Data collection and measurement tools- EORTC QLQ- C30 [1] validated  Tamil translated questionnaire was  used a patient self reported tool , 186 patients were offered to fill up the questionnaire, 150  consented and filled the tool.  Statistical analysis- Pearson co-relation co-efficient was calculated between sub-parameters, p value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The findings: On the Global QoL front the mean score of our study patients  was  55, with increasing age there was fall in almost all the parameters of Quality of life, except for Emotional function, Females comprised 56.6% of the study population, females had better scores compared to males in almost all dimensions of QoL, Analysis of quality of life scores among cancer patients in India showed that though the functional scores were poorer compared to the EORTC study subjects, our study participants  scored better in symptoms scores with comparably better sleep pattern , fatigue scores etc Conclusion: The study found that 80.64% of patients completed the questionnaire, indicating good acceptability. Indian cancer patients had lower QoL scores than western counterparts, but showed resilience in coping with symptoms like sleep disturbances, fatigue, and pain. Women had higher functional scores but were more affected by nausea/vomiting and financial concerns. Increasing age was inversely related to QoL, with older age groups experiencing more pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. The study emphasizes the need for routine assessment of QoL and interventions to improve patients' well-being.


Ridge Spilt Technique With Immediate Implant Placement A Prospective Study

Dr. Reethu M.S. & Dr. Mamatha N.S


Background: The successful implant placement requires ideal amount of bone in vertical and horizontal dimensions. The deficient bone limits placement of implants of ideal size, length in prosthetically driven position. This study was performed to assess the use of ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement in the management of horizontally deficient alveolar ridges. Methods: The patients were selected with inadequate alveolar width of 3 to 4 millimeters and with adequate alveolar bone height. The cone beam computerized tomography was used to assess the alveolar ridge width and height. Ridge splitting technique was used to increase the width of the alveolar ridge with series of thin osteotomes and gradual lateralization of the buccal segment was followed by the simultaneous placement of implant. In the study 20 patients received 33 implants. Results: The mean pre-operative ridge width was 3.44 ± .33mm and mean post-operative clinical ridge width was 5.86mm. P value was 0.001 statistically significant. The mean bone gain was 2. 42mm.There was significant increase in the ridge width after the split. Primary stability was achieved in all the implants. The labial cortical plate was intact in 29 implant sites. The labial cortical plate fracture was observed in single implant placement in mandibular anterior region. In three patients in single implant placement sites the labial cortical plate was thin, it was successfully managed by grafting. The survival rate of implants was 100% at 12months follow up.


Continuity Sense of Place Before and During Covid 19 Pandemic in Heritage Urban Space Tangerang, Indonesia

Dedes Nurgandarum, Sarwosri Moertiningsih


A sense of place are important in maintaining the meaning and identity of urban landscape. However, external factors are often able to shift the meaning of a place. One of the elements related to the formation of meaning in a place is activity both at the level of diversity and density. The COVID-19 pandemic that is happening all over the world has changed the way people do their activities, due to restrictions on communal activities to limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Changes in the way of activities related to daily life will automatically change or shift the meaning of a place. This study aims to is to identify senses of place that can still be recognized or understood and to describe how far the meaning and sense of place change or shift as well as continue in a historical urban landscape, especially in the historical Tangerang Old Market, before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study shows, that there is a reduction in the diversity of sense of place. Sustainability of Sense of Place, which can be felt consistently before and during the COVID-19 pandemic are sense of community, economic, cultural, historicity, and sacrality or spirituality, which is strongly related to the level of place attachment and fulfillment of physiological, safety, as well as belongingness needs. The levels of human needs, thus affecting the existence of a sense of place and place attachment at the Tangerang Old Market. 

The Effects of Ethanol and Boiled Aqueous Extracts of Justicia carnea Leaves on the Male Reproductive Indices: Serum Testosterone and Seminalysis of Male Wistar Albino Rats

Oguaka Victor Nwabunwanne; Udedi, Stanley Chidi; Ubaoji, Kingsley Ikechukwu; Dike,Charles Chijioke and Asogwa,Kingsley Kelechi


Problem: Despite the therapeutic and nutritional benefits of Justicia carnea, some of its phytochemicals are antinutritional and harmful if consumed. Reduction in testicular weight, sperm count/motility, testosterone levels, and abnormal testicular histology have  been reported following administration of ethanol extracts of J. carnea (EJC). Nutraceuticals can utilize these negative effects to benefit mankind as these supposedly harmful effects can be harnessed in the current search for "ideal" male contraceptive. This study aimed at assessing the possible adverse effects of oral administration of boiled aqueous extracts of J.carnea leaves (AJC) and the EJC on serum testosterone and seminalysis (sperm count, motility and morphology) of male albino rats as possible candidate male contraceptive. Approach: Forty-two male Wistar albino rats (12-14 weeks old) in seven groups were used. The control was fed grower feed and water only. Test groups were in addition given 200, 400 and 600mg/kg body weight (BW) of either EJC or AJC for 21d(21 days). The first batch (drawn from each group) were sacrificed a day later while the second batch were continued on feed and water only for further 52d after discontinuation before sacrificing them. Serum testosterone was determined by ELISA and seminalysis done by mounting semen smear preparations on microscope and viewing.  SPSS version 25 was used for analysis of results while (P< 0.05) was regarded significant. Findings: After 21d of treatment, no significant change in serum testosterone was noted in comparison with the control for both extracts’ treated groups. However, 52d after discontinuation, the serum testosterone of rats administered 400mg/kg BW of both extracts were significantly higher than the control and other groups. There was no significant change in total sperm count of all the treatment groups when compared with the control after 21d of administration. But 52d after discontinuation, the total sperm count for the group administered 400mg/kgBW EJC was significantly lower than the other groups and the control. There was no significant change in sperm motility in all the groups administered both extracts after 21d compared to the control. By 52d after discontinuation, there was significant reduction in sperm motility in rats administered 400 and 600mg/kg BW AJC. There was no significant change in sperm motility in rats administered 200mg/kg BWEJC, 400mg/kg BW and 600mg/kg BWAJC. There was a significant increase in the abnormal morphology of the group that received 400mg/kg BW AJC compared to the other groups. This was noted to have reversed by 52dafter discontinuation. The group that received 400mg/kg BW EJC had no significant change in the abnormal morphology at 21dafter administration, but a significant increase in abnormal morphology was noted 52d after discontinuation.

Conclusion: Both extracts of J.carnea when administered for 21dadversely impact some male reproductive indices in albino rats, such as testosterone level and seminalysis at the doses used. This can be explored in the development of male contraceptive.


Analysis of Software Industry: Natural Language Processing Approach

Rameesa K. & K. T. Veeramanju


Background/Purpose: Natural language processing is an artificial intelligence subfield, through which human can communicate with computers in their own language either it is written, spoken or even drawn carelessly. Nowadays its effect is too much in our daily lives and world. The software industry refers to the redistribution of software among the software producers and software customers. A very less percentage of the overall computer programming activity is the software industry. NLP enables computers to interact with humans by using human language. Natural Language Processing also allows computers to scan text, hear speech, and interpret it. NLP relies on a variety of fields, including computational linguistics and computer science, to bridge the gap between human and computer communication. For the smooth communication between computers and humans NLP technique automates language recognition and generation. Problem: In this report, I analyse how Natural language processing techniques influences the software industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: The pertinent material and details for this case study on Natural Language Processing were collected from several research works published in various peer-reviewed magazines, conferences, and websites related to Information Technology. Further information have supplied by white papers. A theoretical concept can be developed based on model building and the model analysis can be done using ABCD listing framework. Findings/Results: The Natural language processing has a great role in software industry. Conclusion: The study of this paper focus on the relevance and importance of Natural language processing the present era of software industry.  Paper Type: Research Analysis based on the case study


Big Data Analysis: Big Way Forward in Dentistry A Review

Dr. Avinash B R, Dr. Rajesh Gururaghavendran , Dr. Aparna K S


Big data are those types of data that are so large, varied, and complicated that managing them and deriving value and hidden information from them requires new architecture, methodologies, algorithms, and analytics. Three things distinguish this data: it is large in quantity, it cannot be organised into conventional relational databases, and it is produced, collected, and processed fast. It uses a variety of data mining methods to find patterns and correlations in huge pre-existing databases, which may be described as the automatic extraction of meaningful, frequently undiscovered information from enormous databases. The objectives of data mining may be summed up as description, identifying relationships and patterns that can be understood by humans, and prediction, predicting a particular reaction of interest. Data mining pertaining to Public Health Dentistry involves the application of this to public oral health problem. Big data analysis might provide crucial insights to improve oral health in developing countries like India with limited resources, but with huge disease burden paving the way for effective oral health strategies and policies.


An Efficient Methodology for Brain Tumor Segmentation & Detection Using K means clustering & Fine Tuned Efficient Net model

A. Agrawal and V. Maan


A brain cancer or tumor is a condition occurred due to the expansion of unnatural nerve cells. Because tumors are rare and can take many different forms, it is challenging to estimate the survival rate of a patient who has been impacted. These tumors can be found using Magnetic Resonance (MRI) Images, which are crucial for locating the tumor placement; however, non-automatic recognition is a labor-intensive & difficult process that may yield inaccurate findings. Segmentation is also required to calculate the tumor's size and other prognostic parameters. Adopting computer-aided methods is crucial to assisting in overcoming these limitations. Various models of Deep learning are utilized in medical image analysis to detect brain tumor employing MRI images as artificial intelligence (AI) technology progresses. This paper presents a deep learning convolutional neural network fine-tuned Efficient Net baseline model and K-means clustering based segmentation are utilized to effectively detect and segment images of brain tumors, respectively. In order to boost the number of data samples for our suggested model's training, data augmentation techniques are used. The tumor is separated from the MRI images using K-means clustering. Brain tumor detection is carried out using fine-tuned Efficient-B0. The findings demonstrate that the state-of-the-art EfficientNet-B0 model, which has been suggested and fine-tuned, has obtained excellent classification accuracy, precision, and recall values, with final accuracy of 98.66% for overall segmentation and detection.


Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of Alginate and Alginate Substitute Material Driven Casts Used for Mounting An In vitro Study

M Asha , Shenoy V K ,Mehendale AV , Upadhya M , Shenoy R


Problem: One of the main driving force for use of alginate substitute driven opposing  models is the severe mismatch between modern bite registration materials, Vinyl polysiloxane impression material  and alginate driven stone models. Therefore the objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of alginate and alginate substitute material driven opposing casts in terms of reproduction of inter arch measurement and number of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation. Approach: A typodont tooth was scored with a round bur on the labial and buccal side on each maxillary and corresponding mandibular tooth on both the sides for inter arch measurements. Impressions of the typodont were made with alginate and alginate substitute material. Stone models were articulated in maximum intercuspation. Inter arch measurements were recorded using a Vernier digital caliper and number of occlusal contacts were registered using an articulating foil.Sharpico Wilk test was done for testing normality and data was found to be normally distributed. Continuous data was represented as mean and standard deviation. One way  analysis of variance was done and p value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.  Findings: No statistically significant difference was found in terms of reproduction of inter arch measurements and the number of occlusal contacts in both the groups.  Conclusion: Both alginate and alginate substitute driven opposing casts reproduced inter arch measurements and number of occlusal contacts in maximum intercuspation with comparable accuracy.


Comparative Evaluation of the Post Set Hydrophilicity of Commercially Available Elastomeric Impression Materials An Invitro Study

Kirti Bakale, Vidya K Shenoy, Sharanya Adhikari, Jalis Ayesha Khan, Abdul Ajees Abdul Salam, Blessy Bangera


Introduction: A clear understanding of the hydrophilic properties of elastomericim pression materials post setting, is of paramount importance to obtain accurate casts. Objective: The post set hydrophilicity of elastomeric impression materials has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the contact angle of three elastomeric impression materials with water after setting. Materials and method: The hydrophilic properties of set polyether and two vinylpolysiloxane (VPS) impression materials were analyzed with respect to their water contact angle measurements. Impression discs were made using a metal die and ring. Deionized ultra-filtered water was placed on each disc and contact-angle measurements were made at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 s using sessile drop method. Results: The data were analyzed using repeated ANOVA. A one way ANOVA was carried out to determine the comparison between the groups followed by post hoc Tukeys test. Repeated measures ANOVA was done for the comparison within the groups followed by a pairwise comparison using Bonferroni’s adjustment. The level of significance was set at P< 0.05. The mean values of contact angles for polyether were significantly lower than both the vinyl polysiloxanes (VPS) at all measurement times.There was no significant difference amongst the contact angle measurements of VPS materials. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, commercially available PE was more hydrophilic compared the tested elastomeric impression materials.


Human Resource Management Strategies Impact on Teacher Retention Intentions in Higher Education Management Institutions

J Aldrin Ph.D , Dr. P Ambika, Dr. S P manicka Vasugi


This study aims to investigate how faculty retention is impacted by human resource practices, namely the work environment, remuneration, training, and organizational support. With the use of the convenience sampling approach, a survey including 150 faculty members employed at higher education management institutions in Delhi, India, was carried out. 102 respondents submitted questionnaires that may be used for analysis. Descriptive statistics, categorical regression, part and partial correlation, and data analysis were all used. The main factor influencing faculty retention at the school was compensation. Training and development opportunities at work and intention to stay showed a favorable association. The study emphasizes the need for educational institutions to put more effort into offering a healthy work environment, competitive pay, and skill development for faculty members, leading to improved research and teaching, which would help institutions grow and advance in management education.


Saliva As A Diagnostic Tool In Diagnosing Monkeypox In India A Global Pandemic In Waiting A Short Review

G Kamala , Mithun Pai, Shweta Yellapurkar,Aishwarya Rai , Archith Boloor



Orthopoxvirus is a genus Variola of the family poxviridae and subfamily chordopoxvirinae.  Poxviruses are a large double stranded DNA genomes which are brick or oval shaped viruses. In humans, the infection usually occurs due to close contact with contaminated people or materials or animals. Monkeypox infection is the emerging disease which is transmitted by the virus to humans from animals, rodents and human to human transmission in people with  high-risk sexual behaviour  .

Materials and methods

A search strategy was designed using MesH terms and keywords specific to relevant topic.

The search included key words monkeypox virus, variola virus, saliva, diagnostic tool, oral symptoms, pox virus materials available only in English were retrieved

We employed in Medline (PubMed), google scholar, Scopus . Two original study regarding monkeypox were retrieved from google scholar,  fourreview articles from PubMed , one case report from PubMed , one comparative study from PubMed, four original study from PubMed


Salivary diagnostic tools are noninvasive and can be cost efficient when compared to other tools, easy sample collection method, self-directed approach and non-contagious. Hence further studies are required on development and utilizing of saliva as a diagnostic tool for diagnosing the diseases in this era of infections is the pressing priority


A Cross Sectional Study on Effects of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and Kidney Function in Adults in Endemic Fluoride Areas in YSR Kadapa District

Dr. Sirigala Lavanya & Dr. Prathiba Ramani


Objective: To explore the effect of water fluoride levels on teeth and  renal function  in the endemic fluoride areas in YSR Kadapa district Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in 6 villages of YSR Kadapa district . 659 people  were assessed in terms of drinking water fluoride levels and  dental fluorosis. Fluoride concentrations in urine and  creatinine  level in serum  were determined. Results: Water fluoride levels were ranging from 1.4mg/l to 4.2mg/l in the collected water samples in the study area in YSR district The study population consisted of 659 participants 363(55.08%)were with dental fluorosis and 296(44.91% ) were without dental fluorosis. There is no much difference in levels of  urinary fluoride and serum creatinine of dental fluorosis people and non dental fluorosis people residing in the study area. Serum creatinine  level significantly increased in the study population than normal reference range. Conclusion: Our study results, prevalence of dental fluorosis and higher serum creatinine levels than reference range in the subjects suggests that long-term fluoride exposure is associated with kidney dysfunction in adults. The damage degree increases with the duration of the drinking water fluoride content. Renal damage degree is related  to water fluoride concentration but not to the dental fluorosis suffering or not in the study population.  


A comparative study of the effectiveness of platelet harvest processing time, platelet yield, and ACD using Single needle vs. Double-needle procedure

Vikas Tiwari, Mahendra Kumar Verma, Sanjay Upreti, Jaishree Tiwari


Introduction: Technological developments in automated cell separators have significantly increased the productivity and quality of apheresis platelet collection. Several studies on automated Plateletpheresis have been performed to examine platelet concentrate quality and its relationship to the donor's biological contribution (platelet count and/or total mass). Traditional blood giving, on the other hand, involves taking a unit of whole blood from a donor and sending it to a laboratory to be separated into its four components - red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. The components are stored and, based on the medical need, are administered to patients following surgery, an accident, sickness, or chemotherapy. While the donor is still connected to the separation apparatus, apheresis separates the blood into these components. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out to evaluate the platelet collection from apheresis devices and compare the efficiency of platelet collection processing time, platelet yield, and ACD used. All Plateletpheresis procedures were performed following the departmental standard operating procedure using a closed system apheresis kit and ACD-A anticoagulant in the proportion of 1:12. The endpoint of each procedure was based on the target yield of 3x10¹¹ platelets per unit maintaining a blood flow rate for all collections at 50-80 mL/min. To measure the pre-and post-donation hematological values, whole blood samples were collected in EDTA vials just before and within 30 minutes after the procedure. Result & Observation: A total of 156 donors underwent apheresis, of which 147 (94.23%) were men and 09 (5.76%) were women. Majority of the donor 94.23% are male donor and very few 5.76% are female donor. The average procedure time required by SN was 86.41 minutes, while the average procedure time by DN was 70.79 minutes. According to mean values, the product yield in SN was 3.10 lac/L and in DN it was 3.11 lac/L. The difference in the end product count between the two was 8.82 lac/L in SN and 8.90 lac/L in DN. The amount of ACD used varied depending on the process, ranging from 220 ml to 460 ml on average in the procedure done on The procedure's duration was found to be significant with a p-value of 0.000, and the amount of ACD used was also found to be significant with a p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: The overall mean value of the different parameters in the study was analyzed, and the student t-test was used to determine the significance of the value. Of all the parameters, the time spent performing the procedure was found to be significant with a p-value of 0.000, and the amount of ACD used was also found to be significant with a p-value of 0.001. Product yield, total product count, and processing time for the DN procedure were all significantly better than for the SN method.


A Study on Employee Engagement Practices at Midbrains Technologies Pune

Dr Pranav Kayande


Problem: The main objective of the project is to study the existing process of Employee Engagement in a well reputed company, to explore the current trends in the industry in Employee Engagement practices. Approach: Detailed and exhaustive exploratory research is done over the net through relevant websites to delineate appropriate Employee Engagement methods to understand the current trends in the industry and to know the company profile. Findings: The overall satisfaction score for Midbrains is 94% according to the researcher. Therefore, it can be said that about majority of employees are actively engaged and like their work. Conclusion: Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of the business context and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. The paper concludes that the employee engagement is an antecedent of job involvement and the company should undertake various initiatives to make the employees engaged.


Contingent Analysis of Arch Family Models for Eccentricity Analysis in Human Tailored Portfolio: A Comparative Study with Respect to the Indian Stock Market

Mr. Abhijit Biswas, Professor Dr. Meghdoot Ghosh, Professor Dr. Surajit Das


Volatility analysis plays a crucial role in portfolio management as it provides insights into the risk and potential returns of investment portfolios. In this study, we conduct a contingent analysis of ARCH models for volatility analysis in a customized portfolio, specifically focusing on the Indian stock market. By applying ARCH family models to a customized portfolio consisting of Indian stocks, we aim to intuit performance and appraisea convenient model for volatility analysis in the Indian context and choose the best portfolio among a defined portfolios. To conduct the analysis, we have collected historical price data of selected stocks from the NSE, India. The results of our analysis provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of ARCH family models for volatility analysis in Indian bourse. This information will assist portfolio managers and investors in making informed decisions regarding risk management and portfolio optimization.


Evaluation of the Phytotoxicity of Premna Schimperi to the Invasive Weed Parthenium Hysterophorus

Zelalem Gizachew and Nagassa Dechassa


Parthenium hysterophorus (Kinche arem inAmharic) is one of the worst invasive weeds in Ethiopia. It is known for its toxic effects on plant germination and growth. It is estimated that this weed reduces crop yields by more than 25% in developing countries.

Previous attempts to curb the spread of weeds using synthetic chemicals have not been very successful. On the other hand, allelopathic plants are known to produce natural chemicals that inhibit weed growth. Many biological activities of Premna schimperi are reported, except for its herbicidal properties.  In this project, we tried to screen the phytotoxic properties ofPremna schimperi extracts and purified compounds against parthenium weed. Compounds with moderate phytotoxic activity have been isolated from leaf ethanol extracts of P. schimperi. Kaempferide (2) is an isolated compound with 87% growth inhibition. This is the first report of this kind.


The Phytotoxic Effect of Lead (Pb) and Arsenic (As) on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters of Trigonella Foenum-GraceumL Seedlings

Megha R. Chovatia


The biosphere is constantly polluted by accumulation of heavy metal contamination. Synthetic materials and industrial products lead to increase the heavy metals in environment. These contaminants also harmful for Agricultural crops. Lead (Pb) is extensively used in electronic and other industries. Arsenic is used in paper and textile industries.The present study was conducted to determine the phytotoxic effect of lead and arsenic on Trigonella foenum-graceumL. seedling. The different concentrations of lead and Arsenic ranging from 25ppm; 50ppm; 75ppm and 100ppm were used for 10 days. Effects of varying concentrations on germination of seed is taken into consideration. Various physio-biochemical parameters i.e., fresh and dry weights, water content and length, chlorophyll content is measured. The data suggested that lead and arsenic found to be toxic for germination of seeds.


On Optimization of Sub-differentiable Lower Semi-continuous Pseudo convex Functions on Banach Spaces Using Variational Inequalities

Ugochukwu Anulobi Osisiogu, Akachukwu Agashi Offia, and Theresa Ebele Efor


In this work, we extend the relationships between convex functions and corresponding monotone maps to pseudo-convexity and the corresponding pseudo-monotonicity of their sub-differentiable maps. We characterize the lower semi-continuous Clarke-Rockafeller sub-differentiable pseudo-convex functions  on convex subset  of infinite-dimensional real Banach spaces  with respect to the corresponding monotonicity of their Clarke-Rockafeller sub-differential operators  and obtain the optimality conditions, using variational inequalities.  


A Comparative Study on Mixed Biological Mock Samples with a Modified Differential DNA Extraction Method for Improved Recovery of Spermic DNA from Mixed Body Fluid

Rinkal Chaudhary, Manish Shandilya, Dinesh Parmar, Kamlesh Kaitholia


Problem: DNA analysis is a critical aspect of forensic investigations, aiding in the identification of perpetrators and exonerating the innocent. The proportion of male and female DNA in extracted DNA determines how individuals can be identified as suspects in sexual assault cases. The differential extraction method is frequently used for the separation of male DNA from mixed body fluid in sexual assault cases. Nowadays, an efficient and improved differential extraction method is required for the separation of male DNA from mixed body fluid evidence in sexual assault cases. Approach: We had evaluated three lysis buffers for differential DNA extraction with mixed saliva-semenmock samples. Mock samples were processed with buffers A, C and G2 with different incubation times. During the differential extraction method, each sample was separated into four fractionsi.e.,spermic fraction, non-spermic fraction, wash fraction and re-digesting the cotton swab. Findings: Maximum (77.77%) of male DNA recovery with minimum (6.44%) female DNA carryover was obtained in the spermic fraction with buffer C at a 30 min of incubation time. In the non-spermic fraction, the least (2.01%) male DNA loss was found with buffer C at 30 min incubation and the recovery of female DNA was 74.54% with buffer C at 45 min, followed by73.90% at 30 min. Moreover, the recovery of male DNA with lysis buffer A was 27.11 % at 45 min and buffer G2 was 39.16% at 30 min incubation time. The loss of male DNA in wash fraction was minimum with all buffers. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the maximum male DNA recovery with a low quantity of female DNA carryover in the spermic fraction and the minimum male DNA loss in the non-spermic fraction was achieved with buffer C at a 30 min incubation time. Thus, the modified differential DNA extraction method with lysis buffer C at a 30 minutes incubation time is useful in the separation of male DNA from mixed body fluid in sexual assault exhibits.


Relationship Between Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Educators in Kuala Lumpur

N.Z.M Saat, Siti Aishah Hanawi, Hazlenah Hanafiah, Nor M.F.Farah, Siti Hanisa Awal


Problems: Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD)are one of the most common health conditions in certain job area, and they have a huge effect on their health and quality of life all over the world. Leisure physical activity has been recommended as one of the strategies for improving musculoskeletal symptoms in adults.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of musculoskeletal symptom and its relationship with physical activity among educators in Kuala Lumpur. Approach: A cross- sectional study was conducted among educators in Sentul, Kuala Lumpur. The educators required to answer 3 questionnaires which were socio demographic, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long version and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Findings: This survey included a total of 105 school educators, with an average age of 36.72 ± 8.04  years. Musculoskeletal symptoms were identified by the majority of educators (88.6%), with the shoulders (51.4%), lower back (46.7%), and neck (46.7%) becoming the most common. 46.6% of the educators were moderately active while 26.7% were both highly and low active. Based on two way ANOVA there was significant difference of metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week between gender(p<0.05) and age group(p<0.05). Furthermore there was significant different in musculoskeletal symptom (MSS), MSS-12 score between age group(p<0.05).  According to logistic regression, there was no significant relationship between musculoskeletal symptom with socio demographic factors and physical activity(p>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion there was significance difference of musculoskeletal symptom between age group. However, there was no discernible association between musculoskeletal symptoms and levels of physical activity. An intervention study was suggested to raise musculoskeletal symptoms awareness among educators by incorporating other factors such as psychosocial aspects


Artificial Intelligence in Finance: Challenges and Opportunities

Dr. Kirti Ranjan Swain & Dr. Subhasmita Mallick


Manuscript Type: Conceptual Purpose: In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning have been widely used in many areas of the financial field, and their applications have had a significant impact on financial markets, institutions, and regulations. The purpose of this paper is to review the development and implementation of artificial intelligence and machine learning in financial systems, as well as their challenges and opportunities in the field of financial services. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper focuses on qualitative research. A literature survey of AI and financial services cannot ignore to study the application aspects and their implications. Findings: Financial institutions and governments around the world are embracing and expanding the use of artificial intelligence tools in the formal financial market. The research shows that the implementation of various artificial intelligence technologies in the financial services sectors greatly benefits towards flat performing of financial services to the clientele. Originality/value: This study is one of the qualitative studies in the field of management. It examines the impact of artificial intelligence on financial services through cross-border literature reviews. Practical implications: The results of this research can help regulators, policymakers, and companies develop artificial intelligence and financial strategies for future emergency preparedness and response.


Enhancing Financial Inclusion in Bihar Through Efficient Resource Allocation: A Slack- Based DEA Framework

Archila Kushwaha , Brajesh Kumar, and Jatin Kumar jaiswal


Problem: An inclusive financial system is crucial for a country’s economic development. To achieve this, every state must optimize the utilization of available resources for long-term sustainability. This study focuses on evaluating the input-output efficiency of financial inclusion in Bihar for a period of five financial years, starting from 2016-2017 to 2020-2021.This study aims to address the issue of resource utilization in financial inclusion and identify districts that employ more effective policies than others. Approach: This study proposes a framework to assess the efficiency of financial inclusion in Bihar using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and slack-based DEA measures. DEA is a non-parametric method that measures the efficiency and productivity of decision-making units (DMUs). The analysis considers 38 districts of Bihar as DMUs and evaluates their input-output efficiency in financial inclusion. By adopting data envelopment analysis and slack-based measures, this study goes beyond theoretical and conceptual approaches, allowing for a practical and empirical evaluation of financial inclusion growth. Findings: The empirical results reveal significant variations in the utilization of financial inclusion resources among the 38 districts of Bihar. Some districts demonstrate efficient resource utilization, whereas others follow ineffective policies. The study found that, while some districts demonstrated consistent efficiency, others showed room for improvement. Notably, districts such as Arwal, East Champaran, Gaya, Jamui, Kaimur, Rohtas, and Saran maintained perfect efficiency scores, providing an example for others to follow. However, the overall average efficiency of financial inclusion in Bihar was 23.68%, indicating considerable scope for enhancement. Data envelopment analysis helps identify districts that achieve higher efficiency in financial inclusion, providing valuable insights for policymakers to improve resource allocation and decision-making. Conclusion: This study’s unique inquiry into evaluating the efficiency of financial inclusion in Bihar contributes to the existing literature, which has primarily been theoretical and conceptual. By employing data envelopment analysis and slack-based measures, this study offers a practical assessment of financial inclusion growth. These findings emphasize the importance of optimizing resource utilization for sustainable economic development. Policymakers can utilize this study's insights to address inefficiencies in certain districts and develop targeted strategies to enhance financial inclusion across Bihar. Ultimately, achieving an inclusive financial system in Bihar is crucial for the overall economic development of the state and the country as a whole.


Knowledge, Attitude and Perceived Barriers Towards Evidence Based Practice Among Dentists In Kanpur City: A Questionnaire Based Study

Dr. Smriti Tripathi, Dr. Nidhi Pruthi Shukla, Dr. Rohma Yusuf, Dr. Divya Kashyap, Dr. Saumya Nandan, Dr. Raman Jayant


Background: Dentistry has undergone a number of new developments that have forced it to advance based on evidence. The finest available research evidence is gathered to support good and successful dental practice, not on isolated pieces of evidence. This strategy creates a link between research and routine patient care. Aims & objectives: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and perceived barriers toward evidence based practice (EBP) among faculty members associated with dental college and private practitioners in Kanpur city. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional-survey was conducted among 204 dentists (faculty members associated with these two private dental colleges and private practitioners) in kanpur city using a convenience sampling method. Data was collected through a validated, structured questionnaire which included demographic data, awareness, attitude, practices and barriers regarding EBD among the dentists. Results: In our study, based on the pre described grading for knowledge score, among the faculty members, 10(4.9%) showed poor knowledge, 17(8.3%) had fair whereas, only 67(32.8%) had good knowledge regarding EBP and for private practitioners, 66(32.4%) showed poor and 24(11.8%) fair knowledge regarding EBP and 20(9.8%) respectively. Among the participants, 55.4% of the participants showed positive attitude and 70(34.3%) practice EBD sometimes whereas, lack of access to full text articles was the most common barrier as reported by131(64.2%) and 19(9.3%) in the group 1 and 2 respectively. Conclusion The majority of the dentists in our survey had a good knowledge score but still understanding of the statistical terms used in EBP was limited whereas, dental professionals also showed a positive attitude towards EBP, but there are still some challenges to practice Evidence Based practice.


Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Scientific Research Among Dental Students in Kanpur City: A Questionnaire Based Study

Dr. Raman Jayant, Dr. Nidhi Pruthi Shukla, Dr. Rohma Yusuf, Dr. Surbhit Singh, Dr. Saumya Nandan, Dr. Smriti Tripathi


Background: Research is a systematic process that helps acquire new knowledge, science, or invention using standard guidelines. An improved understanding of scientific principles and methods is necessary for conducting research. The students should be acquainted with the research methods, enabling them as future doctors to practice evidence-based medicine in patient care. Aim: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards scientific research among dental students in Kanpur city: Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 121 undergraduate and postgraduate dental students using a convenience sampling method at a dental college. We used a validated self-report questionnaire to collect data and assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward scientific research. "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences is used to analyzed the data" (SPSS) version 23.0 for Windows Data were analyzed by using Chi-Square Test. statistically significant for a value of p≤0.05, were considered Results: Out of 121 participants, 45 (37.2%) were male and 76(62.8%) female students respectively. Subjects, stratified according to year of study, included students in the third year=25 (20.7%); final year=26 (21.5%); Intern=29 (24.0%); postgraduate=41(33.9%). The mean and standard of the knowledge score were 3.46±1.723, 83.5 % had a positive attitude 57.02% had practised scientific research. Conclusion: A high level of research knowledge was found among dental students. Attitude toward research was found to be positive among students. A low level of practice towards scientific research was seen.               


Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Antibiotic Usage Amongst Undergraduate, Interns and Postgraduate Dental Students in Kanpur City A Questionnaire Based Study

Dr. Saumya Nandan, Dr. Nidhi Pruthi Shukla, Dr.Vaibhav Bansal, Dr. Rohma Yusuf, Dr. Raman Jayant, Dr. Smriti Tripathi


Introduction: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rational use of antibiotics among undergraduate, intern and postgraduate dental students and make necessary interventions suitable to meet their needs and aspiration. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to the students of Rama dental college hospital & research centre to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice about the rational use of antibiotics. Data were analysed after entering into a Microsoft Excel sheet and using descriptive statistics.  Results: 135 dental students were included, with a response rate of 82%. Of the total participants, 120 (88.88%) know that Improper antibiotic use can cause antibiotic resistance. 56 (41.48%) participants agreed that antibiotics should be prescribed for all dental infections, while 79 (58.52%) denied this. Among all the participants, 48 (35.56%) participated in prescribing antibiotics because the patient expected it, while 87 (64.44%) said no. Conclusions: This study showed that most students had average knowledge of antibiotics. Their attitude could have been more satisfactory towards the rational use of antibiotics, and the same was true for the practice as well. Educational intervention is of utmost essential to improve their KAP regarding the sensible use of antibiotics.


Chemical Profiling, In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation, and Genotoxicity Assessments of Zanthoxylum Tessmanii Seed Coat: An Integrated Approach

Godwin Anyim, Aromolaran Remilekun Florence, Olokungbemi Tosin Ayomidele, Adeniyi Saheed Olalekan, Iwakun Ileola Ademoyeke, Akinpelu Bolajoko Ayinke


The seed of Zanthoxylum tessmanii is widely used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for the management of inflammatory-related conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and genotoxic potentials of Z. tessmanii seed coat, in order to validate its ethnomedicinal claim. The seed coats were air-dried, de-hulled, and pulverized. The resulting powder was extracted using 95% ethanol, and the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through erythrocyte membrane stabilization, anti-denaturation, and anti-tryptic assays. Genotoxicity potential was evaluated using the Allium cepa model. The levels of total soluble sugar, proline, and protein were quantified in A. cepa roots treated with Z. tessmanii extract. The results demonstrated that Z. tessmanii possessed anti-inflammatory activity, as evidenced by its ability to stabilize heat and hypotonic-stressed erythrocytes at low concentrations (0.5 mg/ml), with a gradual increase in percentage membrane stability as the concentration increased. Furthermore, Z. tessmanii exhibited favorable anti-denaturation and anti-tryptic activities compared to diclofenac, across different concentrations tested. Conversely, the mitotic index and total number of dividing cells in A. cepa root tips decreased gradually with increasing concentrations of the ethanolic seed coat extract. Notably, this reduction in mitotic index was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of total proteinand proline contents and decrease in total sugar in A. cepa roots following exposure. In conclusion, Zanthoxylum tessmanii seed coat contains anti-inflammatory constituents and inhibits the division of cells in A. cepa root meristems at high concentration. There was no genotoxicity potential on the chromosomal structure. The study demonstrated that Z. tessmaniiwhich has been used in Nigeria traditional medicine as remedy for toothache is a good source of anti-inflammatory compounds especially when consumed in moderate quantities.


Optimum Future Premiums and Discounts Using Utility Functions

Mallappa and A. S. Talawar


In this paper we try to determine discounted future optimum premium values for exponential and quadratic utility function using optimal control theory such as Hamiltonian- Jacobi Bellman (HJB) equation. We optimize level discounted future premiums for the annuity using some continuous and discrete analogues of continuous loss distributions. Comparisons are made to level premiums for these distributions using arbitrary values of force of interest.


Improving Students Attitude Towards Practical Chemistry Using Virtual Laboratory Package: Implications for Global Security Challenges

Lawrence Achimugu, Monday Damian Oguche, Nnonyem Ekene Igboegwu, Kingsley Ben


Problem: Among other things, the continuous failure of chemistry students in both internal and external examinations has been attributed to the students' negative views toward the subject. Using the virtual laboratory strategy may improve students' attitudes toward chemistry. In light of the possibility for virtual experiments to offer a solution for learning at home in an emergency situation made necessary by security concerns, it is necessary to investigate this element. There is, in fact, continuous discussion regarding the relative merits of the face-to-face laboratory approach vs the virtual laboratory strategy for improving students learning results. The key question is whether or not using a virtual laboratory can improve students' attitudes toward chemistry. Answering this question constitute the problem of this study. Approach: A quasi-experimental design pre-test, post-test control group was adopted for the study. The population of the study consists of all the public senior secondary school three (SSS III) students offering chemistry in Kogi State. One hundred and seventy-six (176) students were sampled from four co-educational schools using multi-stage sampling technique. A validated instrument titled: Test of Practical Chemistry Attitude Scale (TPCAS) was used for data collection with a reliability coefficient of 0.81 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The two research questions raised were answered using mean and standard deviation while the two null hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA at 0.05 level of significance. Findings: the results of findings showed that there was significant difference between the mean attitude rating scores of students taught practical chemistry using virtual laboratory strategy and those taught using face-to-face laboratory, in favour of virtual laboratory strategy. Additionally, the results showed that gender difference exists when virtual laboratory strategy are applied in favour of male students that had higher positive attitude toward chemistry practicals. Conclusion: implications of the findings of this study in relation to global security challenges were discussed and the study concluded that government at various levels should provide all the necessary facilities for virtual experiments in order to encourage students to carry out virtual laboratory experiments at home, which in long run will help to address the barriers posed by the global security challenges.


IR4.0 Skills Stability and Projection Index for Employability of Electrical Technology Graduates

Olojuolawe Rufus Sunday


The 21st century has come with the dynamism in the wave of doing things. This unstable scenario has resulted in instability and loss of jobs among varying classes of workers. The skills to match the existing and emerging jobs seems to be contrasted by authors and researcher. Therefore, this paper takes a deep look at the contrast in the opinion of the major players in the employability quest of graduates due to the emergence of IR4.0to determine the specific skills that will be suitable for sustaining 21st-century jobs. There seems not to be an agreeable skill for 21st-century jobs. Document analysis of the the literature was carried out for index stability. Skills domains were identified and analyzed using Excel Packages.  Thematic analysis was employed for the merger and exclusion of skills due to the similarity in purpose and meaning. The analysis revealed that 50% of the skills are less important for 21st-century jobs. The study recommends a broader and deeper study of IR4.0 on a discipline-difference basis.


Using Joyful Learning Approach to Develop Social Skills and Achievement of Visually Impaired Students

Dr. R. K. Parua & Dr. Syed Hayath Basha


The aim of the present study is to find out the effect of joyful learning on the achievement in of elementary school students. To serve this objective a sample of 84 students from elementary classes were selected by purposive random sampling. An intervention program of 7 weeks on activity base joyful learning was given experimental group students whereas learning on traditional method was given to control group students. The achievement test was administered on the samples after the intervention programme. The findings revealed that the after receiving intervention program on activity base joyful learning, the students had achieved academically. The overall findings suggest that the activity base joyful learning has significant effect on the development of social skills and achievement of elementary school students.

Graphne in Periodontology

Dr. Rika Singh, Dr. Sharmistha Majumder , Dr. Sohini Dingal ,Dr. Akanksha Singh


Purpose: Nanotechnology has made significant advancement in recent years in various fields of medicine including dentistry. Graphene, one of the nanomaterials posses distinctive properties due to small size, larger surface area and interaction with various biological tissues and cells. It possess antibacterial properties also due to which it is being explored in Periodontal disease management also. Approach: This review includes studies published in the English language on graphene and graphene derivatives and its uses in periodontology. Findings and conclusion: This review addressed recent research on the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activity of nanomaterials based on graphene as well as graphene's potential for promoting osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, which is essential for its prospective use in periodontal treatment.


Fund Accounting Practices in Public Universities of Bangladesh

Dr Shakhawat Hossain Sarkar


Fund accounting is a self-balancing set of accounts, emphasizing accountability rather than profitability, used by government and non-profit organizations, segregated for specific purposes following laws and regulations or special restrictions and limitations. This study endeavours to assess the compliance of fund accounting in public universities of Bangladesh. Mainly the study was based on primary data sources collected through administering semi-structured questionnaires among the top and middle-level officials of the accounts office of public universities. The dichotomous procedure is used to ascertain the fund accounting compliance practices. Statistical resultssignify that the Fund Accounting Compliance Index (FACI) is satisfactory (76.19) but not outstanding in the public universities under study. Agricultural universities securethe highest FACI,whereasscience and technology universities secure the lowest FACI under the survey. The regression model was an excellentfitted model since the model is capableof explaining 77.4 percent of total variation by R2 and 70.6 percent of total change by AdjR2 though financial activities and universities’ category are statistically insignificant at a 5 percent level of significance. More emphasisshould be given tofund accounting practices to ensure budgetary control, transparency, accountability, and fairness of universities’ financial activities.


A Perusal into Supremacy of Education in the Cascading Cognitive Pragmatics in Chronic Alcoholic Users

Girija P C, Nayana Narayana & Fathima Sisiliya


Purpose: cognitive pragmatics is an essential element for effective communication. Impact of alcohol of cognitive pragmatics is less researched. There are many factors that affect the decline of cognitive pragmatics in alcohol users, education being a favourable one. Investigating how education can prevent the decline in cognitive pragmatics is necessary. Method: A total of 40 chronic alcohol users in the age range of 50 to 70 years were divided into 4 groups based on education and AUDIT score. These participants were assessed on the cognitive pragmatic domain Findings: Both educated and lesser educated participants in low risk as well as high risk group performed worst on humour. Chronic alcohol users with higher levels of education did better on the domains of discourse, figurative language 1, and narratives, whereas those with lower levels of education did better on the domains of discourse, narratives, and figurative language 1. Conclusion: Irrespective of education, the overall cognitive pragmatics was impaired in chronic alcohol users. The impact of alcohol was most evident in domain humour as it required more sophisticated metal faculties. However, overall, the performance of educated group was much better than their less educated counterpart in all the domains. From this we can conclude that education somewhat limit the erosion of cognitive pragmatics by providing a scaffold.


Comparative Study of Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Versus Intravenous Midazolam in Prolonging Spinal Anaesthesia with Ropivacaine

Dr. Balaji J, Dr. Ravi. M


Problem: Spinal anaesthesia is the preferred choice of anaesthesia  for the surgery below the umbilicus mainly due to easy of administration, rapid onset, efficient sensory and motor blockage, minimal cost and safety. The study's aim is to examine the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine against midazolam on motor and sensory block duration, as well as analgesia, in patients having lower abdomen and lower extremities procedures using in trathecalropivacaine an aesthesia. Appoarch: Cross section analytical study conducted for a time period of 1 year 5 months from January 2020 to May 2021. Findings: A total of 70 participants were  listed in the study. The mean age (years)in the dexmedetomidine and midazolam group were identified as 45.17 ± 15.23 and 45.86 ± 15.9  respectively.  The average onset of sensory block was  identified as 3 (2 to 4) and 4 (3 to 4) in the dexmedetomidine and midazolam group. Whereas, the average onset of motor block  was identified as 9 (8 to 9) and 8 (8 to 9) in the dexmedetomidine and midazolam group. Duration of analgesia (mins) was high in the dexmedetomidine group with 173.89 ± 14.81 as compared to the midazolam group with 142.83 ± 17.31.         Conculsion: Our findings showed that intravenously administered dexmedetomidine and midazolam may both prolong the duration of sensory and motor blockade, but dexmedetomidine has a longer duration of analgesia than midazolam. As a result, we recommended it for use under spinal anaesthesia, albeit heart rate should be closely monitored.


The Impact of Socio economic Factors and Lifestyle on Chronic Illnesses Among Rural Households in Kerala, India

Dr. Biju K. C. & Dr. Joben K. Antony


The growing prevalence of chronic diseases poses a severe threat to the lives of rural people in Kerala. Lifestyle changes among rural households and the Corona-19 pandemic have further accelerated this trend. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence level of chronic ailments and the socio-economic conditions and lifestyle-allied risk factors contributing to chronic illnesses among rural households in Kerala using cross-sectional data. The result highlights that rural people have an alarmingly high prevalence of chronic disorders (43%), and most of them (70%) suffer from multiple chronic diseases. Lifestyle changes such as the transition from traditional to junk food, unhealthy eating habits, alcoholism, smoking, reduced physical activity, an over-inclination to social media and TV shows, and the Corona-19 pandemic have significantly contributed to this rising trend. Hence, the State Health and Food Safety Departments should collaborate to promote a healthy lifestyle among the people through their awareness campaigns and other effective interventions.


A Study on Emotional Intelligence and Religiosity of College Students

Dr. Binay Krishna Halder


The present study was undertaken to justify religiosity on emotional intelligence and to find out the level of emotional intelligence of college level students in relation to their gender, locality and stream. The study was conducted on 200 college level students out of 100 Hindu and 100 Muslim were selected through stratified random sampling technique from 3rdand 4th Semesters Under Graduate (UG) college students of general degree colleges situated within North Dum Dum Municipal area, Kolkata. The stratification was based on religion (Hindu & Muslim) and gender (Male & Female). The standardized structured questionnaire named “Emotional Intelligence Quotient Scale” was designed and developed by Professor N. K. Chadha and Dr. Dalip Singh (2001) was administered to assess Emotional Intelligence. The four hypotheses formulated in the study are tested using appropriate statistical tests like mean, S. D. and independent sample t-test to know the mean difference of emotional intelligence among college level students in relation to religion, gender, locality and stream. The results revealed that Hindu students were more emotionally intelligent than Muslim Students. Results of the study also showed that there is no significant mean difference in the level of Emotional Intelligence among college students across their gender, locality, and stream.


Socio-Legal Status of Rape Victims: A Comparative Analysis in South Africa and India

Annwesha Nayak , Dr. Rubi Talukdar


Rape is a concerning global issue that affects people worldwide. This article through a comparative analysis aims to shed light on the prevalence of sociolegal frameworks & health concerns that surround rape in South Africa & India. By examining the legal status relating the rape victims in the countries, the medical facilities that are available to them, and the structure of the societies we can identify commonalities and differences in the experiences of survivors, the challenges they face, and responses following them. The occurrences are influenced by systematic oppressions in history, socioeconomic disparity, gender inequality, and pervasive patriarchal beliefs. Rape occurrences in India & South Africa have attracted attention from the world, bringing to light pervasive social-legal problems. It will be evident through this study whether both countries need broad and multifaceted ways to combat rape. Legal changes and increased enforcement are important, but efforts are also needed to address social and cultural changes that challenge deeply rooted attitudes and behaviors. This paper aims at providing a detailed idea about the various attributes attached to the crime of rape, i.e. the governing laws; the medical care & various social stigma that surrounds the victims with special reference to both countries.