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Patronage of Street Food Vendors and Its Implications on Consumers Health in Nigeria: Study of Ekpo Abasi Community Calabar, Cross River State

Samuel Etim Ndem, & Ekong Aniebiet Okon


Problems: Inspite of the perceived poor food safety and hygiene practices among street food vendors and the efforts made by government, health workers and non-governmental organizations through health education, sensitization campaigns and other workshops to create awareness on the dangers associated with patronage of road side foods including exposure to foodborne diseases, it was observed that there is still high patronage of street vended foods in EkpoAbasi Community especially by students of Cross River State University (UNICROSS) who are the major occupants of the study area. Food borne diseases remain a serious public health challenge, especially in rural communities where standard of sanitation and the general level of hygiene is poor. It is the second leading cause of illness and death among vulnerable groups namely infants, young children, the elderly, pregnant women and those with diseases such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), cancer, and diabetes that weaken their immune systems. Thus, this study examined patronage of street food vendors and how it affects the health of consumers in EkpoAbasi Community Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Approach: Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 125 consumers of street foods in EkpoAbasi Community was selected for the study using accidental sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire while simple percentage was used to analyze the data collected from the 125 respondents and presented on frequency tables. Findings: Findings of the study shows that lack of knowledge on food hygiene among consumers, cheaper offerings by vendors as well as convenience of consumers significantly influence the patronage of street food vendors and indirectly affect the health of consumers in EkpoAbasi community. The study further revealed that foodborne diseases common among consumers of street food such as diarrhoea, typhoid fever and cholera posed negative impact on the health of consumers. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it was recommended amongst others that, street food vendors should be given basic training on food safety and hygiene practices by community health workers. Also, the Local Government Authority should provide vendors with appropriate infrastructures such as access to clean water and sewage systems in order to promote food and personal hygiene practices. Finally, community members should be given intensive health education on the dangers associated with patronage of street food vendors. This will enable them make informed decisions on how to curb the identified challenges associated with patronage of street food vendors in the study area.


Original article A Study on Impact of Socio Economic Factors and Human Resource Management Practices on Employees Job Satisfaction in a Super Speciality Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangalore

Chaitra M C, Ramanjanayalu


Purpose: the key success of an organisation lies upon how diligently the roles allotted to employees are accomplished by them with the spirit of enthusiasm and fervour. Human resource (hr) is known as an important part and parcel of an organisation. The aim of this study is to study the impact of socio-economic factors and human resource management practices on employees job satisfaction in a super speciality tertiary care hospital, bangalore. Methodology: a cross sectional study among 116 employees of different job profile working for more than a year in a super speciality tertiary care hospital, bangalore were included in the study. Results: the highest respondent’s are male which constitutes 53.4%.  23.3% of employees belong to the age group of 36 – 40 years, 65.5 % of employees were married, 47.4% of employees are doctors, 35.3 % of staff nurses and 17.2% of employees are technicians. 40.5% employees had worked for 1-2 years in the same institution &31.9% of employees belong to the monthly income group of > rs.50, 000 followed by 25.9% between rs.21,000- rs.30,000 and 22.4% had their monthly income rs.10,000-rs.20,000. Employees feeling easy to communicate with members from all levels of the organization has highest mean 3.93 and lowest mean for chances of promotion and job security. In this study, 52.6% of employees are highly satisfied with their job, 39.7% are moderately satisfied and 7.8 % of them are low satisfied. conclusion:  only age among the socio-economic factor was statistically significant in this study.   All the key dimensions of human resource management practises studied showed a positive impact falling into high job satisfaction among the employees working in the super speciality tertiary care centre. 



Organic Farmers, Consumers and Media: A Participatory Action Research

Ms.Brindha D Dr.Jayaprakash C.R.,


The market for organic products is currently exhibiting strong growth in India. More than 2% of India's net agricultural land was used for organic farming in the fiscal year 2022, the area used `for organic farming has been growing steadily, indicating an increase in demand for organic products (Statista, 2022). Besides, the Govt. of India promoting organic farming practices, many universities and colleges are offering organic farming courses online and offline. A quantitative approach to Participatory Action Research(PAR) was adopted as a broader tradition of collective self-experimentation that is backed up by evidential fact-finding, reasoning, and learning. The researchers organized a field visit to their own organic farm, ‘Redwoods’ at Chinna Thadagam, Coimbatore, where integrated farming is practiced with chemical-free inputs. The farm is a blend of greens, fodder crops, herbs, flowers, fruits, and timber trees of local and exotic varieties with poultry, native dogs, and cows and data was collected from the participants pre- and post-visit through questionnaires. Growers lack a marketing network in small farms because of low-volume products and difficulties in reaching consumers. Researchers have attempted to find the role of different information and communication technology (ICT)to bridge this gap from the participants’ perspectives both as producers and consumers. This study attempts to provide an overview of the role of media in bridging the gap from the participants’ perspectives both as producers and consumers to provide an overview of the sources, choices, and preferences of the participants for information on organic farming practices and organic products. The participants’ awareness of organic farming and organic products and trust in them improved after the field visit. As an important step toward a solution to many of the threats that conventional agriculture has on health and biodiversity, it depends upon a societal commitment to supporting organic farming. While field visits, workshops, and conferences can help with experientially learning organic farming, media, especially social media can help disseminate information about organic farming practices including techniques, workshops, field visits, marketing, buying, and selling organic products. In conclusion, media can be effectively used as channels to connect communities for sharing and marketing organic farming practices, organic products, post-harvest processing, value addition, and transportation among farmers and consumers.


The Emotional Intelligence of First-Year Teachers in the Sultanate of Oman and Its Relationship to the Effectiveness of Classroom Management

Kothar Alubaidani & Muhammed Yusuf


The current study aims to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and classroom management among first-year teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. The emotional intelligence scale prepared by Othman and Rizq (2001) and the classroom management scale prepared by Sayed (2015) have been  applied. The validity and reliability of the two scales have been  verified before their application. On the basic sample, The basic study sample consisted of 283 first-year teachers, who were selected by a simple random method, and the descriptive, correlational approach was relied upon in this study. The results of the study revealed that there was a low level of emotional intelligence among the first-year teachers, and the overall average of emotional intelligence was ( 2.585), Also, the first-year teachers in Dhofar Governorate schools practice classroom management methods a low to moderate degree, as the overall average degree of teachers’ practice of classroom management methods reached (2.454). The study also demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation at a statistical significance level of 01.0 between emotional intelligence and classroom management. The teachers of the first cycle in Dhofar Governorate.



Original article Immediate Effect of Nadanusandana and Music Therapy on Cognitive Functions among University Students

Nikhil Srinivas Dr. Vijayakumar PS Sahana AU


Background: The purpose of the current study was to examine the immediate impact of two interventions, Naadanusandana, and music therapy, on cognitive functions. University students were instructed to chant certain sounds with awareness during the Naadanusandana intervention, while the music therapy intervention involved listening to Carnatic classical music. Both interventions were tested on the same group of participants to evaluate their immediate effects on cognitive functions with a fading time of seven days. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Naadanusandhana and music therapy have any immediate effect on cognitive functions among university students. Materials and Methods: The study involved 100 university students, consisting of 50 male and 50 female participants, who were randomly assigned to two different interventions - Naadanusandhana and music therapy - using a self-as-control design. The Naadanusandhana intervention was administered first, followed by a 7-day fading period, after which the music therapy intervention was introduced. Cognitive functions were assessed using DLST and SLCT before and immediately after each intervention. Result: Based on the results reported, it appears that both Naadanusandana practice and music therapy practice sessions have a positive effect on cognitive performance as measured by SLCT and DLST. For SLCT, Naadanusandana practice showed a greater improvement in total attempted score (14.3%) and reduction in wrong attempt scores (69.2%) compared to music therapy (4.18% and 49.08%, respectively). However, for DLST, both Naadanusandana practice and music therapy showed significant increases in total attempted score (16.73% for Naadanusandana and 10.3% for music therapy) and net score (17.8% for Naadanusandana and 7.9% for music therapy), as well as reductions in wrong attempt scores (109.9% for Naadanusandana and 72.1% for music therapy). Conclusion: Both practices have been shown to be effective in improving mental well-being and cognitive function and can be used as non-invasive and non-pharmacological interventions to promote overall health and wellness. But in this particular study, even a single session of naadanusandana and music therapy was found to be effective in enhancing cognitive functions among university students, though it was found that nadanusandana is more effective compared to music therapy. Future research should address the potential long-term combined effects of nadanusandana and music therapy on cognitive functions among university students.


Learning Ability of College Level Students: Influence of Yoga and Degree of Association among Determinants

Gaganendu Dash and Susanta Kumar Dash


Present study was based on sixty college level boys between the age group of 19 to 23 years of KIITUniversity, Odisha. Randomly divided into two groups with yogic exercises in experimental group for 12 weeks against control, where no additional exercise was administered. The pre and post experiment learning ability variables were analysed and revealed that, yoga brought significant improvement in overall learning ability of college level students. The learning ability variables like Passage Comprehension Test, Word Series Test, Digit span Test, Number Detection Test and Listening Comprehension Test were significantly improved in yoga group compared with those of control group in the present study. Besides, significantly high degree of association was observed among the determinants judging the learning ability.


Training Needs of Coconut Farmers in Delta North Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

Giweze Alex Emeka, Ighoro Alexander and Odjebor Ufuoma


The objectives of the study examined are; location of farming coconut, areas of training needs of the farmers and ways of enhancing coconut farming in the areas. A multistage sampling technique was used to get data from 90 respondents using questionnaires and schedule interview. On areas of training needs of farmers and ways of enhancing coconut farming, the respondents were provided with a three (3) point Likert type scale responses as: Very Important =3. Important =2 and Not Important =1. With a mean score of ≥ 2.0 to ascertain important areas of training needs and ways of enhancing coconut farming Data collected were analyzed with percentage, mean and standard deviation. Majority of the farmers plant coconut front and back of the house. Top most of the priority of training needs of the respondents are; pest and disease control (=3.28), fertilizer application (=2.99), processing and preservation (=2.99), selection of good species (=2.95), Majority indicated government (50%) to organized training and should be done by demonstration method. Provision of good and functioning market (=3.44). Construction of good roads (=3.11). Labour availability (=2.80). Provision of credit facilities (=2.73). Provision of subsidy and incentives (=2.65) were some of the ways of improving coconut farming in the areas. The study shows that the practice of coconut farming in the study areas is still at the home gardening level. Training and orientation are highly needed in coconut husbandry practices and establishment of coconut plantation in the study areas


Assessing Financial Inclusion in Bangladesh: A Comprehensive and Inclusive Measurement

Md. Main Uddin Ahammed . Ahm Ziaul Haq Md Shahin Mia Rony Kumar Datta Md. Jahangir Alam Siddikee Md Shamim Hossain


Problem: The measurement of financial inclusion is one of the most important issues in the recent literatures of finance. For ensuring the required financial services for all people and groups by the financial institutions of a country, one of the essential steps is to measure the level of financial inclusion existed in that country. It assists the concerned to take suitable initiatives for bringing all people under formal financial network quickly by realizing the real scenario. But, no earlier studies measure financial inclusion of Bangladesh comprehensively. In Bangladesh, a cursory attention has been given for measuring financial inclusion using various dimensions. In this backdrop, this study measures the financial inclusion of Bangladesh using an improved and comprehensive index. Approach: A comprehensive financial inclusion measurement index has been used to measure financial inclusion level incorporating three dimensions. The dimensions of financial inclusion are access, availability, and usage. This study used twenty-three indicators for measuring financial inclusion under the three dimensions. Time series data ranging from 2004 to 2020 have been employed .Findings: An upper mid-level of financial inclusion had been achieved in Bangladesh with financial inclusion index (FII) value of 0.709 in 2020 (where 1.00 indicates full financial inclusion). It suggests that a significant portion of people are still out of the coverage of formal financial services in the country. It was also found that access to financial inclusion in the country is higher than other two dimensions of financial inclusion, namely, usage and availability. Among three dimensions of financial inclusion, Bangladesh scored high level only in access (0.837) dimension. But mid-level of financial inclusion existed in Bangladesh as per availability (0.640) and usage (0.661) dimensions. The findings indicate that urgent initiatives are to be taken to enhance the availability and usage of financial services for the people. Conclusion: The study provides a wealth of insights and knowledge about access, availability, and usage of financial institutions and their services in Bangladesh that might help policymakers and financial service providers to design and implement better policies to enhance level of financial inclusion in the country.


Predictors of Dietary Diversity and its Association with Nutritional Status and Academic Performance of Primary School Children in Anambra State, Nigeria

Onyeje Blessing Tochukwu;Ilo, Clementine Ifeyinwa; Odira, Chika Chioma; Ogbuji, Cynthia Chizoba


Intake of diverse food sources is very vital as it provides the foundation for optimum health, cognitive development and academic achievement, especially during the school age. Aim: to determine predictors of dietary diversity and its association with nutritional status and academic performance of primary school children in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional analytical survey involving primary school children from two selected local government areas (one urban and one rural) of Anambra State was carried out over a 3 month period. A total of 637 participants comprising 297 males and 340 females were selected using multistage sampling technique. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain needed information from the pupils and their parents/guardians. Anthropometric parameters such as height and weight were measured using a digital scale and a measuring tape. Nutritional status was determined using the WHO AnthroPlus version 1.0.4 and data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Findings: Findings revealed that 92.0% of study participants met the minimum dietary diversity score and dietary diversity was significantly associated with nutritional status and academic performance. Factors such as increasing age (AOR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.10-1.37, p=0.000); urban residence (AOR=4.12, 95%CI: 2.62-6.49, p=0.000); attending private schools (AOR=2.25, 95%CI: 1.40-3.63, p=0.001); high household income (AOR=1.91, 95CI: 0.75-4.87, p=0.176); and high socioeconomic  status (AOR=1.53, 95%CI: 0.83-2.82, p=0.175), increased the likelihood of having a high dietary diversity scores among primary school pupils. Conclusion: The present study showed that a high percentage of the population met the minimum dietary diversity and factors such as age, place of residence, type of family, type of school, parent’s educational level and household monthly income significantly impacted the dietary diversity of primary school pupils.


To Assess the Effect of Tight Glycemic Control on Complications of Diabetes for the Person with Type 1 Diabetes Cross Sectional Study

Dr. Meenaksi Bajpai , Dr. Ankur Saxena , Dr. Surabhi Saxena , Dr Anand Saxena , Dr. Moneesh Saxena


Aim- the current study aims to assess the prevalence of poor glycemic control and associated factors among outpatients with T1DM attending a diabetes clinic at a regional referral hospital. Methods: From January 2016 to June 2018, a cross-sectional study examined the variables linked to poor glycemic management.  study was out in the ophthalmology department of the Shri Aurobindo Medical Research Centre in Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Results: Of the 178 participants enrolled in the study, the mean age was 14.95 years, 89 (50%) of the participants were male and 89 (50%) are female. Clinical and diabetes specific factors associated with poor glycemic control Overweight participants had significantly better glycemic control when compared to the other BMI groups, and this was statistically significant P = .000. clinical and diabetes mellitus related factors with p value <0.05 in the analysis of variance were run using multivariate regression analysis to control for possible confounders and modifiable effects and to study their significance risk on glycemic control. The result indicated that higher BMI, type of insulin (actrapid and insulatard) and guardian education were significantly associated with better glycemic control, P< 0.05.The association between non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) showed that significantly associated with Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME) was 23.9 % (19.8–28.6), however, the overall presence of NPDR was statistically insignificant Conclusions: The study discovered a relationship between glycaemic control—which is still very low in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1DM who visit these clinics—and guardian education achievement, BMI, and type of insulin. Some particular actions that might be taken to promote diabetes education include raising the general literacy rate, hosting regular diabetes camps with support and instructional activities, and offering diabetes education materials that focus both prevention and treatment.


The Effect of Perfectionism on Burnout among Omani Teachers in Basic Education Schools in Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman

Ahmed Mohammed Saleem Al Rahbi, Associate Professor Dr. Muhammed Yusuf


Objective: This study investigates the impact of perfectionism on burnout among Omani teachers in basic education schools in Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman. Methodology: This study employed a descriptive analytical approach and utilized a questionnaire to collect data from a study sample selected through simple random sampling. The sample size was 572, which represented 21% of the study population consisting of 2,734 individuals. Among the participants, there were 152 males (26.6%) and 420 females (73.4%) Results: The results revealed a direct effect of perfectionism on burnout among Omani teachers in basic education schools in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. The critical value was 3.481, which is higher than the critical value of 1.964, indicating a statistically significant effect at a significance level of 0.05 between the dimensions of perfectionism on the dimensions of burnout among Omani teachers .In other words, there is a substantial direct (positive) effect, meaning that the greater the tendency towards perfectionism, the higher the burnout among Omani teachers in basic education schools in Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman. Recommendations: Based on the findings, the study recommends the integration of psychological preparation and the development of personal traits in teacher education programs. Furthermore, it suggests the implementation of preventive and therapeutic psychological counseling programs to support the mental well-being of teachers and raise awareness about balanced professional practices, including the concept of normal perfectionism. Additionally, the study suggests expanding the scope of research to encompass all regions of the Sultanate of Oman and conducting further studies on the burnout of Omani teachers and the impact of other variables.


Effect of Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise to Improve Swallowing Capacity among Stroke Patients with Dysphagia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Kavitha S, Kumari MJ , Ramkumar S , Jayachandran


Objective: Dysphagia after stroke affects more than 50% of stroke survivors. It can adversely impact the quality of life. Totally 41% of patients with dysphagia experience anxiety or panic during mealtimes and more than 33% of patients avoid eating with others because of dysphagia. Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise is one of the swallowing exercises, which will regenerate the neurons and improve the suprahyoid muscle activation.  This study evaluate the effect of the CTAR exercise along with conventional therapy in comparison with only conventional therapy in improving swallowing capacity among stroke patients with dysphagia Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 stroke patients with dysphagia in tertiary care hospital and they were selected by using a simple random sampling method. Using Gugging swallowing scale (GUSS) and Functional oral intake (FOIS) Scale pre and post swallowing assessment was done in both the groups. CTAR exercise along with conventional therapy was administered to the study group for 14 consecutive days and the control group received the only conventional therapy.  Results: This study revealed that the mean± SD of GUSS pre-assessment in the study group was 7.15± 3.031 and 6.45± 3.692 in the control group and the post-assessment mean value had progressed to 15.45± 4.006 in the study group and 11.65 ± 3.660 in the control group with the p-value (p-0.003), which shows the study significantly improves the swallowing capacity among stroke patients with dysphagia.  Conclusions: CTAR exercise along with the conventional therapy improves to swallowing capacity when compared to only the conventional therapy group.


Effect of Educational Intervention on Knowledge and Attitude of Central Line Care Bundle among Health Care Providers in Intensive Care Units

Chayanika Parasar, Dr. M.J. Kumari, Dr. Apurba S Sastry


Introduction: Central line Associated Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) is a rising problem in the health care institutes in this modern era of medical science and technology causing maximum morbidity, mortality and economical malfunction. The study aims to assess the effect of educational intervention on knowledge and attitude of central line care bundle among health care providers in intensive care units. Methods: An interventional non-randomized research design was adopted in the study.  Totally 96 health care providers from various intensive care unit were recruited for the study based on convenient sampling technique. Data collection was done in three phases; first phase was pretest by administering the questionnaire to the participants, followed by structured educational program by the investigator. After 2 weeks post test was conducted. Results: In the pretest 18.8% had inadequate knowledge, most of the participants had moderately adequate knowledge 64.6% and 16.6% had adequate knowledge. The pretest attitude result shows that 1% had unfavorable, 16.7% moderately favorable attitude and 82.3% had favorable attitude. After the educational intervention, the post-test knowledge level for inadequate, moderately adequate, and adequate were 0%, 19.8% and 77% respectively. Among all the participant0% had unfavorable, 10.4% had moderately favorable and 89.6% were having favorable attitude after the post test. The educational intervention was effective with p<.001 significance. There was significant correlation between the pretest and post-test knowledge level and attitude (p<.05) Discussion: The study concludes that proper communication of the CLABSI bundle and training and surveillance can reduce the CLABSI rate in the intensive care units.   


An Impact of Human Value Course in Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study

Dr. Kumari, L., Dr. Joshi, R.


Abstract: The humanities and engineering are contradictory ends of a learning spectrum. However, now a days the human values are an important part and parcel of engineering education. Recent, one of the pioneer university in imparting technical education in India “Visvesvaraya Technological University” has been integrated the culture of human values and humanities in the course curriculum of their engineering programmes. The objective of the inclusion is to provide students with a humanitarian approach to technical education. The purpose of the course is to implant universal values in students so as to make them responsible human beings. With this, the present paper is an attempt to explore the significance of human values in the Engineering institutions. Human society may not meaningfully sustain without human values. Hence, it is essential to talk on the subject and bring about awareness of human values into the present engineering institutions. There is no denying the fact that the contemporary society is facing a lot of crises. Human values crises are a known fact of the modern society. In the present work, two groups of undergraduate students were chosen from an engineering college to test the efficacy of the course. One group was not exposed to the contents of this subject, while the other group undergone the same in their curriculum. Our objective is to evaluate the changes in values-understanding among the students who had been taught the Universal Human value (UHV) course. The influence of the UHV course was estimated by giving the same set of value-based questions to both groups. It was observed that the group of students who had learned the UHV course has marginally more clarity about human ambitions, targets, actions, and the purpose of life on the basis of frequency distribution analysis. The future aspirations of the present generation can be expected to be high human valued humans as the implant of values in the young minds. This would eventually lead to a more harmonious society in the course of a couple of decades.


College Chatbot Using Deep Learning

Naga Durga Saile. K


The college chatbot aims to enhance the student experience on a college website by providing personalized support and guidance to users. By providing various services through a user-friendly chat interface, the chatbot will help students find the information they need more quickly and easily, improving their overall experience with the college website.One of its primary roles is to streamline administrative tasks, such as course registration, schedule management etc allowing students to navigate the often-complex bureaucracy of college life more efficiently. In this paper we discuss about the implementation of a college chatbot that can provide instant answers to frequently asked questions as its 24/7 availability ensures that students can access essential information and assistance at any time, enhancing their overall college experience


Exploring the symbolic representation of stone monoliths in Feast of Merit of Poumai Naga tribe, Manipur

Veithriene Pao & Dr Rajeev K


The Feasts of Merit, a prominent social practice among various tribes, notably in Southeast Asia, were once prevalent among the Poumai Naga tribe in Manipur. In this tradition, feast-givers distributed their wealth through sacrificial offerings of animals during consecutive feast stages, in exchange for a higher social rank and the privilege to erect a monolith to commemorate their societal achievement. These stone monoliths, rich in historical significance, provide a vital window into the extinct practice of the Feast of Merit among the Poumai Naga tribe today. This study, aims to illuminate the enduring legacy of these activities through interviews with village elders who have performed the feast as well as with people who are well-versed in megalithic traditions. Additionally, the study examines megalithic monuments and its symbolic representation in the Poumai culture. Using ethnographic research method, this study serves as a preliminary exploration of these unique practices, paving the way for a deeper understanding of the Poumai’s rich cultural heritage.


Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity on Hep-G2 cancer cell line in vitro from Cordyceps militaris Medicinal Mushroom

Aanchal Gupta, Chandra Kant Sharma and Monika Sharma


There are many different biofunctionalities found in the medicinal fungus known as Cordyceps militaris(CM). It contains polysaccharides and other components with biological significance. Because of its wide range of pharmacological applications, C. militaris has recently been the subject of a research, with a special emphasis on its role in the prevention of and associated molecular pathways in liver disorders. C. militaris extract were analyzed for their total phenolic content and total flavonoids, in ethanol and aqueous extracts of mushroom. Two assays (DPPH, and hydrogen peroxide) were used to determine the antioxidant activity.The IC50 value of CM extract was determine by NRU assay. Ethanolic extract of C. militaris extract shows highest antioxidant activity at CM80% as compare aqueous extract. Total flavonoids and phenolics of extract calculated as gallic acid equivalent and quercetin equivalent. Resultant shows 11.40 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of ethanolic extract and 7.64mg gallic acid equivalent/g of aqueous extract powder respectively. Whereas total flavonoid in ethanolic extract was calculates as 4.135mg Querecetin/g and 2.725mg Querecetin/g in aqueous extract. The NRU study revealed that C. militaris extract reduced the cell viability of Hep-G2 cancer cell line in a dose dependent manner.


Acoustic Study of Closing Diphthongs amongst Owerri (Igbo) Speakers of English

Oluwasegun Matthew Amoniyan, Omotosho Moses Melefa, PhD, Gloria Ebere Ihejietoh


This work investigated the acoustic features of English closing diphthongs articulated by Owerri speakers, in order to show how these features are different from or similar to the Standard British English. Data for the study, which were elicited from ten bilingual Owerri speakers of English, comprise a wordlist that contained closing diphthongs read in isolation and within the context of connected speech and tape-recorded using a Sony Xperia Android phone recorder. The analysis, which was done acoustically using Praat, focused on lengths, formants and pitch. Formant measurement and the comparison of the glide from the first vowel to the second vowel within the diphthong showed that the respondents had almost the same values for F1 and F2 in /??/, /??/, and /??/ sound, which were different from the values for the SBE, while the articulation of the /e?/ sound is varied among the respondents. Lower vowel heights were also observed for the L2 respondents than the SBE in addition to a more frontal F2 for the SBE than Owerri respondents.


Cost of Power Generation Technologies: An Overview of LCOE Metric

Aqsa Anjum, Jahangir Chauhan


Transition to a cost-effective and low-carbon energy technology is necessary for achieving sustainable development goals in this modern era. High economic and storage costs of renewable energy are the key hindrances to the country's consistent and sustainable electricity supply. Although conventional sources are more cost-competitive than renewables, they are limited in amount, pose environmental threats, and depend on other countries for import are the key concerns. Studies revealed that renewable energy sources with storage requirements are more cost-competitive than conventional ones. This study critically examines the LCOE metric used for checking the feasibility of electricity generation technologiesfor 20 to 40 years.Levelized electricity cost of power generation technologies will decrease if we move to 100% renewable energy adoption. Following the introduction, we discussed assumptions made for estimation, parameters involved in the metric, and the cost components ignored by this metric. Most studies considered producer cost for comparing the electricity generation technologies ignoring the additional consumer and external costs with societal implications, which is inadequate for decision and policy-making. Previous studies also ignored critical components such as inflation rate, integration, and system costs for comparing the electricity generation technologies feasibility. However, there is no agreement on this opinion due to the wide disparity in factors influencing electricity costs of technologies (LCOE) across nations. The additional costs integration (storage cost, external cost) would result in a more comprehensive evaluation of power-generating projects and the system. Therefore, there is a need to modify the LCOE metric by incorporating other significant components.


A Study to assess the Knowledge and Practice on Disposal of Household Waste among Women in Selected Community Area

Shenbagapraba N, Mary steffy Dsouza, Sujitha R, Janetfellishya V , Gokul Raj J


Objectives/Aim: A global review of household waste management, estimated that cities currently generate roughly 1.3 billion tone of household waste per year, due to current urbanization trends, this gruel will grow to 2.2 billion tons per year by 2025 i.e., an increase of 70 percent. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on disposal of household waste among women in selected community area. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice regarding household waste disposal among women, to correlate the knowledge and practice regarding household waste disposal among women, to find out the association between the women’s knowledge on household waste disposal and demographic variables, to find out the association between the women’s practice on household waste disposal and demographic variable. Materials and Methods: Descriptive research design was used for the study. 94 women from selected community area were selected by purposive sampling technique. Self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analyzed and tabulated. Results: Majority (52.1%) of subjects had moderate knowledge,(33%) had inadequate knowledge and least (14.9%) had adequate knowledge, Majority (53.2%)had adequate practice and (36.2%) had moderate practice and only 10.6% had inadequate practice. There was a positive correlation between knowledge and practice. There was no significant association between knowledge and practice with selected demographic variables. Conclusion: Disposal of waste is an important procedure to be followed by every individual in the community. Therefore, proper disposal is necessary to promote and maintain a healthy environment.


An ADDIE Approach to Design an Instructional Module for Preschool Children

Zaida Mustafa , Zulkifflee Mohamed , Azrul Fazwan Kharuddinc, Ku Faridah Ku Ibrahim


This study wants to find out how well lesson plans centered on moral and social standards work in preschools. This research method uses a research and development strategy, and the development model is based on the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) models. There are five steps to making educational plans for preschoolers based on moral values. This study only looks at Phase IV, which is the effectiveness of lesson plans based on manner values in preschool. Thirty preschoolers took part in teaching and learning models with the theme "morals and manners," which were based on the Prophet's daily life. A sheet for observing effectiveness is a tool for getting information and data. The fact that lesson plans based on moral and manner values work in preschool shows that it is time for this learning instrument to be used in other preschools so that children's character and values can be taught from a young age.


Prevalence and Comparison of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among cataract and Non Cataract Patients: Non Experimental Descriptive Research

Ms. Gnana Jemila. P, Mrs. Mohanapriya. A,


Problem: oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of major health problems by inactivating metabolic enzymes and damaging important cellular components, oxidizing the nucleic acids leading to cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, joint and neurological diseases, atherosclerosis, lung and kidney disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, cancer, aging, disease of the reproductive system including infertility, etc. Oxidative damage to proteins in the human lens is believed to be an important Etiology of age-related cataracts. Because free radical-mediated oxidative damage to lipoproteins may accelerate atherosclerosis, the development of cataracts might be a marker for such damage and therefore it is associated with future risk of cardiovascular disease. Approach: A quantitative descriptive approach was used. The non-experimental descriptive research design was adopted. A purposive sampling technique was adopted to select 100 patients with Cataracts and non-cataracts. Interview techniques were used for data collection. Assessment of CVD was done by administering a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings: This study shows that highly statistically significant cardiovascular disease risk factors like BMI (0.03*), Waist circumference (0.05*), dietary pattern (0.001**), COVID-19 (0.03*), history of diabetes mellitus (0.04*), obesity (0.02*) and thyroid disorder (0.05*) among cataract patient than the non-cataract patient. This study's findings showed that cardiovascular disease prevalence is 58% with a confidence interval of 95%. Conclusion: The study revealed that there is an association of cardiovascular risk factors with cataract patients. It also showed more prevalence of cardiovascular disease.


Role of Relaxation Technique in Oncology Patients A Review of Non RCTs Studies

Dr. Noel Samuel Macwan, (PhD)


Cancer is a disease which can have an effect on any of the body part, is second leading cause of deaths worldwide with the mortality on the higher side in the developing countries of the world. Breast Cancer in females and prostate cancer in the males are found to be more prevalent among that particular gender. Different treatment approaches to treat the cancer symptoms are available among which the effects of chemotherapy affects the cancer patients most significantly. Life expectancy of the patients has increase as a result of pharmacological drugs but they alone were not found to be effective. Other treatment approaches like relaxation therapy in form of progressive muscular relaxation, breathing exercise and guided imagery alone or in combination have shown to have positive effect on cancer symptoms. The need of this review article was to review the non RCT studies that are available in the literature. Methodology: Medical and psychological electronic literature databases, including Cochrane database,  Pubmed, PEDro, SCIRE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Psych INFO were used for computer based search. Studies published till 2021 which meet the inclusion criteria like Studies which are Non RCT in nature, with participants above 18 years of age suffering from any cancer symptom, where relaxation alone or with other treatment was used, published in English language in between the year 2005 to 2021 only got included in the review. Results: 55 studies were recognized initially which after scrutinizing for the title and abstract of the article 30 studies were recognized. A thorough search for the inclusion criteria and removing the duplicate studies and studies having only abstract 11 article meeting the inclusion were included in this review Conclusion: Relaxation technique is found to be useful in decreasing the burden of cancer related symptoms with limitations. Future studies with good research construct and homogenous research characteristics can give better information about the long term effectiveness of relaxation therapy on cancer symptoms.


Automated On Tree Mango Fruit Detection and Counting Through Computer Vision

Vidhya N P & Priya R


Using imaging and computer vision to precisely identify and quantify fruits at different stages of plant development is important not only to optimize labour-intensive manual measurements of phenotypic data but also to make significant progress towards task automation.  The estimation of fruit yield plays a pivotal role in Precision Agriculture, aiding growers in more precisely forecasting market planning, workforce scheduling, procurement of suitable equipment, and other related considerations. There is also a high demand for automated methods to estimate fruit yield accurately and reliably in orchards. The advancements in Deep Learning models have been a great boon in this regard. In this work, YOLOv5 model is employed to detect and count mangoes on trees. The model has achieved a mean Average Precision@0.5 (mAP@0.5) as 99.5% and the MAP across the range of 0.5 to 0.95 as 81.9%, with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 1.5 during testing.


Assessment of Saturated Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, and Total Dissolved Solid of Nworie River Using Multiple Regression Model

Udeorji, C.K, Okereke, C.D. Egwuonwu, C.C, Nwakuba, N.R ,Obumseli, P.C & Enwerem, D.K


The increase of oxygen deficit in rivers used for irrigating agricultural land, aquaculture, and domestic purposes is of great concern in Nigeria. To determine this along Nworie River, physicochemical and biological water quality analyses were conducted at three random locations namely: Amakohia/Egbeada bridge road where biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes are discharged; Assumpta/Holy Ghost College Road where municipal waste and sewage are discharged into the river; and Umezurike Hospital Road where household and medical wastes are discharged. The dissolved oxygen, temperature, and total dissolved solids from the laboratory analyses were used to show the relationship among physicochemical parameters using multiple regression models. The results of the estimated dissolved oxygen obtained for the three studied locations were 6.477mg/l, 5.832mg/l,and 3.992mg/l, respectively. These results were correlated with the observed value and a correlation coefficient, R2of 0.9992 was obtained. The high positive correlated result of the observed value to the laboratory dissolved oxygen implied that the model provides a good approximate solution in determining physicochemical parameters in water.


An Assessment of Changing Perspectives on Womens Socio Economic Empowerment Over the Last Two Decades: A Chronological Content Analysis

Jatin kumar jaiswal, Brajesh kumar, & Archila kushwaha


Problem: Over the past few decades, the concept of women's empowerment has gained significant prominence in both academic discourse and government-level initiatives. Scholars and government organizations have put forth various definitions of women's empowerment to facilitate its analysis. Consequently, numerous research papers and policy documents have been published by researchers, governments, and organizations, both nationally and internationally. However, there is often a lack of synchronization between these definitions in policy documents and the content of research papers, and vice versa. This study aims to examine the various definitions of women's empowerment and assess the alignment between these definitions and the content of policy documents. Approach: This study employs a content analysis approach to examine definitions and policy documents published by scholars, academicians, practitioners, organizations, and governments from 1992 to 2022. Data was gathered from reputable sources including Dimension, Scopus, Web of Science, as well as official government and organizational websites Findings: The study results reveal that perspective of women empowerment has really changed during the last two decades, but the growth has been really slow and after analyzing the various perspective we found a logical sequence among the definition’s content i.e., Resources – Capabilities – Decision making over choices – Freedom of choices – Power in all spheres of life. Further we also found that there was less synchronization between the research outputs and its placement in policy formulations. Conclusion: Women empowerments have received substantial research attention, but many definitions lack precision and are often arbitrarily constructed. Academics have contributed various definitions without a strong scientific foundation for selecting components. Over time, the number of clustered definitions has decreased, and new ones have emerged without clear scientific justification for variable selection. A more logical and systematic approach to defining women's empowerment is needed to facilitate focused and cumulative research in the future.


Meta Minds: Intellectual Property Rights in Neuro enhanced Creations

Prerna Mehta, Agnivesh Kumar Sinha, Satyadharma Bharti, Ram Krishna Rathore


In a world transformed by neuro-enhancement technologies, the concept of creativity takes a bold leap into the realm of neural landscapes. This chapter, 'Meta Minds: Intellectual Property Rights in Neuro-enhanced Creations,' delves into the uncharted territories of safeguarding intellectual property within the intricate domains of enhanced human cognition. As neural interfaces allow for the direct manifestation of thoughts into digital forms, questions of ownership, authorship, and protection arise in unprecedented ways. Exploring the ethical, legal, and technological dimensions, this chapter contemplates the evolution of intellectual property frameworks to accommodate creations born not from hands and tools, but from the fabric of the mind itself. Through speculative analysis, it navigates the intricate labyrinth of copyright, patent, and trademark laws, offering insights into potential paradigms of recognition, regulation, and dispute resolution. Brace yourself for a journey through the unexplored corridors of thought-driven innovation and its profound implications for the future of intellectual property rights.


Effect of IASTM on Parameters Like Pain, Range of Motion and Level of Function in Activities of Daily Living in Low Back Pain Patients A Study Protocol for RCT

Dr. Noel Samuel Macwan, MPT (Phd) & Dr. Vandit Gandhi (BPT)


Background: Low back pain (LBP) located above the gluteal curvature and below the costal edge is a significant public health issue that may frequently result in referrals to medical services as it is linked to both disability and absenteeism. LBP is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition as up to two-thirds of adults have LBP at some point in their lives. Many treatment approaches for LBP have been found in the literature depending on the persistence of the symptoms ranging from Electro-physical agents to as simple as patient education. Even after treating LBP its recurrence is common so the need of more efficient technique in form of IASTM is required. It is a well-liked treatment approach for myofascial restriction in recent years, and it is used in addition to traditional treatment for low back pain. Literature search shows very few articles that have seen the effect of IASTM on Low back pain. Therefore the purpose of this study is to see the effectiveness IASTM on low back pain subjects. Methodology: All participants coming to Physiotherapy OPD will be screened as per the routine musculoskeletal assessment. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and are willing to participate in the study will be requested to fill the informed consent form. Those participants who fall under the exclusion criteria will be excluded from the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to either to the Interventional group or the control group with the use of simple randomization. Once the assessment is completed the patient will be treated as per the treatment protocol devised for the Interventional group or control group respectively. Patients in both the groups (Interventional group and control group) will receive 2 days treatment (on 1st day and 7th day) in a week.  Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: Modified modified schober’s test, Secondary outcome: Visual Analog scale, Oswestry disability index Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics will be done by taking help of a Biostatistician. The latest version of SPSS software available with the Biostatistician will be used for doing the statistical analysis. Conclusion: This study protocol presents a RCT on the efficacy of IASTM and General Back exercises in patients with Low back pain. The results of this RCT will be helpful in contributing better insights on the efficacy of IASTM on pain levels, range of motion of lumbar spine and activities of daily living performance in LBP subjects. Clinical Trial Registration: The study is registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI), with the registration number for the trial being CTRI/2023/05/052764.


Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition as A Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Ogunmola Michael Olusola


This study aimed to examine the opinion of business education students in Ekiti State, Nigeria regarding the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in terms of skill acquisition and job creation. A survey design was employed. The population of the study consists of all business education students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample size of the study was 520 students. The instruments used for data collection were a set of structured questionnaires and observation. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis. Results from the study indicated that corporate entrepreneurial education has the potential to create job opportunities for the students and to equip them with the necessary skills for business establishment and development. The study also revealed that the students had a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship education and believed that it could lead to financial and business success. The study concluded that entrepreneurship education is an effective educational tool for equipping business students with the necessary skills for job creation and self-employment. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the government should continue to promote entrepreneurship education in the business education curriculum, to give students the opportunity to gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become successful entrepreneurs. Furthermore, entrepreneurship education should be enriched by incorporating new teaching methods and techniques such as case studies, practical exercises, and simulation.


Awareness and Response to Yellow Fever Mass Media Campaigns Among Residents of Enugu and Delta States in Nigeria

Nnenna Anthonia Okeh & Nnanyelugo Okoro


Yellow fever is a high-impact, high-threat disease with a risk of international spread, representing a potential threat to global health security. The focus of this study was to assess the level of awareness of yellow fever mass media campaigns and the positive impacts on the health behaviour of the inhabitants of Enugu and Delta States in Nigeria. The study adopted an exploratory sequential mixed-method design, which involves qualitative and quantitative data. The population of this study was made up of residents of Delta and Enugu States in Nigeria. The sample size for the first phase of this study, which was the qualitative study (interview), was an interview of nine (9) people from the organisers of the yellow fever campaigns from health authorities, while the second phase, which was the quantitative study (survey), used a sample size of three hundred and eighty-four (384) respondents. The data generated were analysed using percentages (%) and frequency mean to answer the research questions, while the standard deviation was used to assess the precision or reliability of the survey results, which indicates that the sample data points are closer to the population mean, implying greater precision. The findings of the study indicate that a concern or interest in increasing public awareness about yellow fever aligns with efforts to educate people about the disease to prevent its spread and improve public health. The study concludes that a positive development in terms of public health suggests that efforts to combat the disease have been effective in the surveyed population. The study recommends that there is a need for advocacy, through the use of traditional rulers, church leaders, health workers, and so on, to educate the people on the programme using their local languages.


Dialogue: An Effective Route to Peaceful Coexistence in a Heterogeneous Human Society

Charles Kenechukwu Okoro (Phd)


So long as man’s ontological constitution presents him as having a social character, he naturally finds fulfillment in inter subjectivity and social relationships. However, consequent upon their inherent antisocial tendencies, human beings are frequently entangled in the mire of controversies, misunderstanding, disputes and conflicts. These antisocial tendencies notwithstanding, man’s ratiocinative faculties still provide possible panacea to guide him aright. As rational beings, men possess the capacity to engage one another meaningfully in dialogue with a view to broadening their visions and perspectives on reality, reaching mutual understanding, achieving satisfactory resolution of controversies, disputes or conflicts, and charting more objective courses of action. Against the backdrop that peace and progress are functions of successful dialogue, this discourse defends the thesis that dialogue constitutes an effective means of fostering, sustaining and consolidating mutual coexistence in a heterogeneous society. This paper uses the Nigeria socio-political situation, which is a typical example of a society that consists of multi-ethnic groups and multi-variant socio-political orientations, as a case study. Considered as a concrete expression of man’s rational potential, therefore, dialogue is strongly recommended as an efficient means of achieving mutual cooperation and socio-political progress.


A Study to Assess the Adherence to Folic Acid , Iron and Calcium Supplement and Factors Affecting it ,Among Antenatal Mothers in Selected Hospitals

Vignesh.M, Ramyasri.S, Arthi.D, Christus Gabriel Raj & Joanie Priya.D


Issues: Anemia and calcium deficiency are the major problems faced by the antenatal mothers nowadays hence, this study has been undertaken to assess the adherence for antenatal mothers by asking the risk factors they are facing it while taking the supplements. The study aimed to assess the adherence to folic acid, iron, calcium supplements and factors affecting it, among antenatal mothers at selected hospitals. Methods: The study was a descriptive study. The participants were taken from the Obstetrics and Gynecological outpatient department with the estimated sample size (100 through convenient sampling method).Findings: To find out 90% of antenatal mothers were adherence, 10% of antenatal mother was non adherence because of 6% forgetfulness,3% during traveling and 1% was carelessness. Conclusions: We identified the level of adherence to folic acid, iron and calcium supplements and factors affecting it by the antenatal mothers. Forgetfulness, during travel and carelessness are the factors to affect the antenatal mothers by taking the supplements.


Modified Blum Blum Shub Generator for Generation of Pseudo random Number

Farah L. Joey , Wah June Leong, C. Y. Chen M. L. Othman


Pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) are considered as mathematical algorithms, that produce sequences of random numbers. They can be used in many applications such as operation research, statistics and cryptography which require random numbers. For this purpose, modifications have been applied to Blum-Blum-Shub(BBS) PRNG to increase the bit-sequence while lower number of iterations is required to achieve better randomness. Besides that, randomness hypothesis test is performed to study the randomness behavior, and our results indicate that all algorithms have fulfilled the randomness test except the cubic BBS algorithm.


Literature Review: Life Skills Education and Holistic Wellbeing of Adolescents

Mrs. Shimy Mathew & Dr. Deeplata Mendhe Ph.D


Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, characterized by significant changes and challenges in physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development and known as a period of ‘storm and stress’. Neglecting these challenges can lead to negative identity formation and unpreparedness for future hurdles. This literature review explores the role of life skills enhancement programs in promoting the holistic well-being of adolescents. Materials and Methods: A narrative review was done to study and summarize prior research and find gaps and advancements in the area of study. PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and physical search in the hard copies of journals were done to choose materials. 101relevant `studies were identified highlighting the implications of childhood obesity, psychosocial changes in adolescence, factors affecting well-being and the role of Life Skills Education programs.  Findings: There are adequate studies to support the concern of childhood obesity and its implications. Psychosocial changes in the adolescent period, issues, and challenges are also being addressed adequately. The effectiveness of life skills programs in addressing these issues was supported by the literature. Limitations: Majority of studies were school-based with limited research on non-school-going adolescents. Given the increase in school dropouts during the pandemic, it is crucial to develop programs catering to the needs of this vulnerable population. Expanding the life skills programs 

Measuring the Holistic Impact of Solar Home Systems (SHS) on Remote Tamil Nadu Villages: Economic, Social, and Environmental Perspectives

N. Periyamayan, G. Sumithra & P. Muthiveeran


Problem: The study focuses on using SHS as a practical and eco-friendly solution for providing electricity to remote rural areas in developing nations like India. Due to the inaccessibility of electricity and impracticality of extending the national grid, SHS emerges as a low-cost alternative. The objectives of the study were to understand the socio-economic conditions of SHS users and assess the benefits of SHS in different perspectives. Approach: This study is based on primary data. A well-structured interview schedule was used to collect the data from sample respondents and few identified variables were set as to evaluate the benefits of SHS namely economic, social and environmentally. The study adopted the simple random technique for the selection of 300 sample respondents from among SHS users. The collected data were processed and analysed to test hypothesis using SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences), Statistical tools such as Reliability, Correlation and Regression. Findings: The findings highlight the advantages experienced by SHS users across economic, social, and environmental domains. Economically, SHS contributes to income generation within households. Socially, it fosters community engagement by supporting activities such as village festivals, temple processions, and local traditional events. Environmentally, SHS stands out as an eco-friendly system, offering sustainable electricity without causing harm to the environment. Conclusion: The study concludes that use of SHS lead to reduction of social, environmental and health cost of the rural community. The installation of SHS in a rural area is to improve the quality of life.  SHS helps to achieve the sustainable development goals. It is suitable to the remote rural areas and will solve the electricity accessibility problems of remote areas.


Ergonomic and Biomechanical Approaches to Correct Sit To Stand by using Kinovea Software

Madeshwaran Elumalai & Dr. Priyadarshini Mishra (PT)


An abridged synopsis of the case report: A Male patient, Banfar, aged 22, visited the Department of Movement Science in conjunction with an Orthopaedic physical therapist due to lower back pain. We proceeded to gather the patient's history and demographic information, including presenting symptoms of difficulty in sit-to-stand movement. The diagnosis made by using Kinovea software was mechanical low back pain or lumbosacral dysfunction. We discovered that he had a sacral sitting posture instead of an ischial tuberosity sitting posture, and he also had an improper coping style when transitioning from sitting to standing. He was a medical student. We recommended treatment for him to correct his posture and improve his sit-to-stand movement phases and patterns. The study utilized kinematics analysis of sit-to-stand and postural correction as outcome measures.


Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Young Women in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Alade T. T. (Ph.D)


Breast cancer is one of the most dreaded conditions among women, which is formed in the cells of the breasts. After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among young women in Ekiti state teaching hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The research design that was used for this study was survey design of the descriptive type of research. The sample size of two hundred (200) middle aged women was sampled for the study using simple random sampling technique. The respondents were drawn from attendees and staff of Ekiti State Taching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire. The split half method of reliability was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and Spearman Brown’s formula. A coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. Formulated hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics of Pearson Chi-Square, the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The researcher concluded that young women are aware of breast cancer screening methods, level of education influence young women on the practice of breast self-examination and finally, young woman significantly engage in breast self-examination toward breast cancer screening. The researcher recommended that Symposiums and seminars should be organized for young women in order to sensitize them on the prevalence of breast cancer in Nigeria as well as the immense benefit early detection could be of help in healthy treatment. Females should be educated on some healthy part of their body that needs to be examined for healthy living and prolonged life. This will help them in cross examine their body anytime.


Training in Digital Literacy Skills among Secondary School Business Educators for Human Capital Development in Technological Era in Kogi State, Nigeria

Honesta Chidiebere Anorue, Ugochi Immaculata Chekwube, Chidimma Precious Ukonu, Blessing N. Iheagwam, & Roseline Nkemakolam Azubuike


 Digital literacy skills are central to contemporary business education and practice. Without proper human capital development and training in digital literacy skills, secondary school business educators may lack the necessary competencies in concepts, principles, and practices in this era. This can hinder their ability to effectively teach and improve on some of the business subjects to students and provide them with the skills and mindset needed for entrepreneurial success. The study adopted survey research design and was carried out in Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The population for the study was 68 Business educators from 6 public secondary schools in Kogi State, consisting of 20 teachers from three rural secondary schools and 48 teachers from three secondary schools in the urban area where business subjects are studied as core subjects. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire that was face-validated by three experts, The instrument has a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.82. The data for the study were collected through the administration of the questionnaire to respondents. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, the weighted mean, and the degree to which individual responses differed from the mean were quantified using the standard deviation, and Spearman's Rho correlation was utilised in testing the hypotheses. The results of the study revealed that the correlation coefficient yielded a non-significant negative very low relationship between age and level of human capital development and training (r = -0.043, p = 0.726), implying that the higher the age, the lower the level of human capital development and training, and the correlation coefficient yielded a significant positive moderate relationship between experience and level of human capital development and training (r = -0.501, p = 0.000), implying that the higher the experience, the higher the level of human capital development and training. The study found out further that teachers are resistant to change and reluctant to embrace new pedagogical approaches, technologies, and entrepreneurial practices, which hinder their adoption and implementation of innovative teaching methods that are essential for enhancing human capital development in business subjects. This in turn has a negative impact on the quality of education provided, student engagement, and preparation of students for modern business world. Based on the findings, the study recommended that business educators in secondary schools should be equipped with necessary digital literacy skills, with knowledge of pedagogical implications of technology integration, to enable them become very capable for leveraging technology and enhance student learning experiences at another level of education and work circles.


Assessing the Marketing of Fresh Fish of the Small-scale Fishermen: A Study in Songkhla Province, Thailand

Sirirat Kiatpathomchai, Ferdoushi Ahmed and Sutonya Thongrak


This study aims to assess the marketing of fresh fish of the small-scale fishermen in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Data were collected from 160 small-scale fishermen, 13 local middlemen and 14 fish retailersin Chana and Thepha districts of the Province. Descriptive statistics and marketing margins were used to analyze the data. Pacific mackerel (Platu), Blue crab, Banana shrimpand cuttlefishare the main fish caught by the fishermen. Most of the fishermen (97%) selltheir fish in fresh form at the village fish port.The study revealed that   the selling price of fishis determined mostlyby the buyers.It was also found that the market is dominated by the local middlemen, of whom about two thirds are contract lenders and likely to pay less than the other buyers. Besides this, the fishermen face some other problems in marketing their product including fluctuations in fish price; lack of transportation to deliver fish in the market; low leverage of the fishermen to negotiate prices; lack of options in going to another buyer; perishable nature of fish and lack of marketing management as group. Marketing margin varies in the range of 22% - 51% of retail price depends on fish species, size, season and the quantity to sell. It was found the cheapest fish Pacific mackerel (Platu) has the highest marketing margin (ranging from 29% to 51%). The findings of the study provide an insight about various factors of marketing of fresh fish of the small-scale fishermen that might assist in policy and decision making to improve marketing efficiency of fresh fish of the small-scale fishermen in Thailand.


Exploring the Antimicrobial Properties of Functionalized calix[4] pyrrole

Bhagav P.Dave and Keyur D.Bhatt


To determine a chemical's hazardous potential, antimicrobial activity research on several compound kinds is highly helpful. By adding different amounts of certain functionalized calix[4]pyrrole compounds to test organism culture, antibacterial activity has been evaluated. For known bacterial and fungal cultures, synthesised has been evaluated for a specific activity. As test organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. pyogenes, and Escherichia coli bacterial subcultures as well as fungal subcultures of Candida albicans, Aspergillus nigricans, and Aspergillus clavatis have been utilised. At various concentrations, all materials were examined against these stains.


Evaluation of Sharenting Risk Perception among Parents in Selected Urban and Semi Urban Areas in South East Nigeria

Eze Chiwetalu Henrietta & Professor Anorue Ifeanyi Luke


Sharenting is a phenomenon in which parents engage in the act of sharing personal information and updates about their children on various social media platforms and other internet channels. The study focused on the evaluation of sharenting risk perception among parents in selected urban and semi-urban areas in the South-east of Nigeria. The study employed a survey design. Parents resident in South-east Nigeria who are internet users constitute the population of the study. The sample size for this study was 451 respondents. Due to the large nature of the cross-sectional survey population under investigation, the researchers opted for the selection of a manageable and representative sample size that would produce valid and reliable results that could be generalised to other populations by adopting multi-stage sampling. Questionnaire (e-survey) was the instrument used to generate quantitative data for the study. The Facebook communities and WhatsApp groups were used in distributing the e-questionnaire to the parents involved in the study. The quantitative data generated was analysed using frequencies, percentages, and mean scores to answer the research questions. The study found that even though parents engage in sharenting, most of them do so with caution, bearing in mind the privacy and security implications. This study concludes that perceived risks associated with sharenting are the major reason parents exercise prudence in sharing information about their children online. Based on the findings, it was recommended that public awareness campaigns be put in place to effectively communicate the potential risks associated with sharenting and underscore the paramount importance of safeguarding children's online privacy. 


Land use Potential and Related Effect of Power Generation Technologies in India: A Sustainability Perspective

Aqsa Anjum, Jahangir Chauhan


The increasing population and its growing energy demands impose significant pressure on land use, compelling a fundamental shift to meet the escalating demand sustainably. In contrast to conventional belief, the detrimental impact on land quality is contingent upon how the land is utilized rather than being solely determined by population density. Sustainable land management is pivotal, and in alignment with this, India aims to restore 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.Acknowledging that all energy sources necessitate land for installation and operation, this study delves into the intricate relationship between power generation technologies and the country’s limited land cover. This comprehensive review examines the potential uses of land and the effects of diverse power generation technologies in India, emphasizing renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. It includes a comparative study with coal-based technologies, approaching the analysis from a sustainability standpoint that considers environmental, economic, and social aspects of land utilization. Notably, there is a dearth of studies scrutinizing this facet of energy sustainability, rendering this research a significant and timely addition to the field. Findings reveal that the Solar PV cycle has the smallest land footprint among renewable energy sources, followed by wind energy. Among conventional sources, coal-fired power plants emerge as the most land-intensive, disturbing soil equilibrium and rendering the land infertile.


Ficuspalmata and Ficusauriculata Phytochemical Screening in Different Solvents by HPLC and FTIR Spectroscopic Analysis

Namrata Singh, Rashmi Verma, Pramod Rawat, Rabia Basri Aziz, Anushka Kala


Many cultures all over the world have been using medicinal plants for ages to cure a variety of illnesses and medical concerns. Ficuspalmata is a kind of fig tree that grows in areas like the Himalayas, Afghanistan, and portions of Africa. Ficusauriculata is a species of fig tree that grows throughout Asia, mainly in India, Southeast Asia, and southern China. These plants contain bioactive compounds that can have therapeutic effects on the human body. In chemistry and biochemistry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a commonly used analytical method for the separation, identification, and quantification of chemical components in a mixture. A potent analytical method for identifying and characterising chemical substances based on how they interact with infrared light is Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The present study's purpose is to use introductory phytochemical analysis, HPLC, and FTIR spectroscopy to determine the chemical components of petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, and water extracts of Ficusauriculata and Ficuspalmata leaves. The existence of phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and saponins was demonstrated by the phytochemical investigation's results. A C18-150 4.6 mm column, 10μ injection volume, and methanol: acetonitrile (80:20 v/v) mobile phase at 30°C were used to carry out a reversed-phase HPLC analysis. FTIR analysis of leaf extracts in methanol and petroleum ether indicated the presence of aldehydes, ethers, primary amines, alcohols, amides, aromatics, alkanes, alkyl halides, alkenes, and aliphatic amine compounds—which display substantial peaks. The current study yielded helpful field data, including phytochemical analysis, HPLC spectra, and FTIR spectrum profiles for these medicinally significant plants.



Research Article Summarization System: An Integrated Approach Using Machine Learning

N. Indira Priyadarsini, Bhargavi Nethi, Bala Chandar, Abhay Ganapur


The Research Article Summarizer is designed to create intelligent and automated summaries of research articles using advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. The system analyzes article content by identifying crucial sentences, extracting key concepts, and recognizing important entities while preserving the original context and meaning. A notable feature of this software is its read-aloud capability, allowing users to listen to the summarized content rather than reading it. This feature is particularly beneficial for visually impaired individuals who may struggle to read the text independently. The system aims to enhance accessibility and understanding of research articles by providing concise and coherent summaries through innovative NLP approaches.


Analysis of Newspaper Framing of Government Policies in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry (2017-2019)

Silas Uduak Obot, Luke Ifeanyi Anorue, Ike chukwuelike


Issues: Activities in the Nigerian oil and gas industry have significant impact on the national economy. It contributes about 95% of the country's foreign exchange earnings. Information on policies within the sector are crucial for stakeholders to enable them make better decisions and benefit from activities in the industry. The media play a vital role in information gathering and dissemination. It is expected to provide this information within locally intelligible context and considered frames around the issues it addresses. Methods: This study analysed newspaper framing of government policies in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. The study was anchored on framing theory. Four national dailies were selected and the stories published within 1,095days, that is from 2017 to 2019 study period formed the sample size. Findings: From the data gathered, it was noted that there is a generally low volume of coverage of the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry in comparison with other editorial items in the Nigerian newspapers. Conclusions: In terms of reports on the industry, it was noted that policy issues received higher media coverage compared to other issues and events. The dominant frame in reporting these issues was the policy frame, other frames such as community and environment had very low frequency. The study therefore recommends that the media, especially newspapers should strategically increase their level of coverage government policies in the Oil and Gas Industry. This is particularly because it has the potential to boost activities within the industry and ensure derivable benefits for all the stakeholders, especially the host communities.


Cultural Imperatives and the Dynamisms of an Effectual Society in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart

Thomas-Michael Emeka Chukwumezie


Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, as a landmark novel, has generated great literary productions. Both African and non-African scholars and critics have studied this classic novel from various literary and cultural angles. This study re-examines the dynamisms of the cultural heritage of Umuofia (The fictive world of the text) with a view to establishing that these cultural practices delineate Umuofia as a self-sufficient and an effectual society. Within this culture are found such cultural barebones like industry, resilience, kinship, friendship, strict sense of justice, among others. These universal human and social attributes mark Umuofia (Igbo/Africa) as a self-sufficient society with progressive-minded citizens, who had no need of external intervention before their contact with the Europeans. Beyond that, Umuofia’s rich cultural practices espoused in this study could be seen as an indictment on the cultural values of most contemporary African societies who undermined these traditional core values and became Eurocentric in their cultural leaning. This paper, therefore, advocates a conscious reappraisal of the Igbo (African) cultural heritage taking a cue from the cultural matrix of Umuofia in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart in order to reinvent our cultural values that can support an affectual society in contemporaneity.  


A Novel Pipeline for Outcome Prediction in Ovarian Cancer Using CT Radiology Reports

Sunantha Guruswamy, Bobby Sharma, Nilesh Sable, Satishkumar Chavan


Problem: Electronic health careradiology reports contain diagnostic information, treatment details and drug dosage. Referring these reports on every follow up during the tenure of the treatment becomes tedious and unmanageable because of varying oncologists. Processing these textual radiology reports is challenging due to data imbalance, varying number of successive reports, changing format of the reports and differed flow of details of the organ. Approach: In this paper, a novel pipeline is proposed for structuring of report details, feature extraction & selection, and prediction of multilevel label. The research work is achieved using a proposed data wrangling algorithm for generating a structured dataframe (SDF). ML techniques are used for feature extraction & selection using TF-IDF of n-gram & TF-IDF of CBOW. Ahybrid transformer based deep learning (DL) technique is preferred for outcome prediction of ovarian cancer reports. Findings: The proposed pipeline is analysed on retrospective 984 CT radiology reports of 240 subjects during 2018-2020 treated at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. The algorithm achieved 100% information extraction followed by 489 unique features selection. The proposed hybrid transformer classifier method provided an accuracy of 96% and F1 score as 94%. Conclusion: The proposed hybrid transformer model has elevated the F1 score by6% to 12% when compared with state-of-the-artdeep learning or transformer methods.


Status of Manufacturing Industries in Andhra Pradesh An Overview

Chitturi Lakshmi & Prof.Sure Pulla Rao


The state of Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated in 2014 into two states, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The well-developed capital city of Hyderabad, which generates more income and employment, was retained by Telangana State. The residual state of A.P. remained with no capital city and no other income and employment-generation cities. In this scenario, the development of the manufacturing sector is crucial for employment generation and the development of the state. This paper aims to examine the growth and development of the manufacturing sector in the residual Andhra Pradesh. Although the state of Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated in 2014, the Annual Survey of Industries published separate data for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 2012–13. So, in the present study, secondary data from ASI published by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India was collected from 2012–13 to 2019–20. So this paper is an attempt to study the growth and development of manufacturing industries in residual Andhra Pradesh. The study found that Andhra Pradesh’s shares in India’s total value of output, total persons engaged in industries, profits from industries, gross capital formation, and invested capital are 

Analsis of Electrode Materials for Medical Images by Electrical Impedance Tomography

1Venkatratnam Chitturi & Salamah Amin Abu Mady


Electrode material plays an important role in the Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) applications. In this study Copper and Aluminium materials were tested for their capabilities as the electrode material for the EIT studies. The analysis of the mono-polar voltages show that the Copper has better electrical conductivity compared to Aluminium. Also, the dispersion or variation in the voltage values of copper was found to be low in comparison with Aluminium hence making it as an alternate electrode material for the EIT studies next to silver/silver chloride material.



Behaviour of Traveler Fondness, and Fulfillment towards Economy Class Airlines at Coimbatore City

Dr. K. Sasikumar Dr. P. Arunachalam,


The Indian aviation industry is one of the fastest-emerging airline industries in the world. Presently, India occupies the ninth position in the world’s aviation market. The objective of the study is to ascertain the factors that impact customer satisfaction in low-cost airline industries. Several variables that influence the travelers, namely employee approaches, service environment, consumer behavioural intention, and efficiency of services, were explored in the study. The airline industry has constantly been known for managing fluctuating demand, cutting costs, and continuous challenges while possessing stiff quality criteria while trying to satisfy the desires of diverse customer groups and provide outstanding services.


Efficacy of Translanguaging in a Phonetics Classroom: A Study on the Budding Engineers

Dr. Tanushree Sarkar


‘Exclusive English classroom can help students study EFL courses’ is a myth. There are objections to this immersive method, especially for the 1st year B.Tech Engineering students in Phonetics classroom teaching. Several studies have justified that L2 learners of English tend to confuse Native language letters and English letters and Translanguaging lays the theoretical foundation for linguistic research in EFL class. This research takes place in one small class of 1st year B.Tech (CSE) in a Telangana Private University. The class was divided into Exclusive English and an Experimental English class where Telugu language (25%) was infused to teach English. The experiments were carried out for 4 months through different phonetic activities based on LSRW. The result of the research showed that application of translanguage helped the students a lot. In Experimental class students could sort out the confusion between the two pronunciation of Telugu letters and English letters, and the 75 % English plus 25% Telugu model (EG-MT[1]) model used by the author proved to be a winner. In the experimental class, they are encouraged to synthesize listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in English citing examples of Telugu. This research shows that using EG+MT model is more effective than exclusive English class to learn the sounds of English.


Analyzing the Integration of Fourth Industrial Revolution Skills in Fourth Grade Cambridge Science Curriculum: Perspectives of Curriculum Supervisors and Teachers in Oman

Aisha Al Sulaitni & Mohammed Y. M. Mai


Problem: The current study aimed to analyze the integration of the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in the Cambridge Science curricula for the fourth grade from the point of view of curriculum supervisors and teachers in Oman, in light of the development of the current era in various fields in the light of the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it was necessary to consider and analyze the curricula to know the extent to which the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are integrated to develop curricula in light of the need for the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Approach: The study used the descriptive analytical approach to answer the study question, and the study population included all supervisors and first teachers in the Sultanate of Oman responsible for the science curriculum in the fourth grade, and the Thompson equation was used to calculate the study sample. The study used the Industrial Revolution skills questionnaire as a study tool, and afterensuring its validity and stability, it was directed to the first teachers and supervisors, and data was collected on the extent to which the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution were integrated into the curriculum. The data were analyzed statistically using frequencies and percentages across the SPSS program Findings: The results showed that the level of integration of the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution into the science curriculum is generally low, and the level of integration of each area in the curriculum was also low, and the field of digital skills was the least low, followed by the field of soft skills, then the field of learning and creativity skills, and the field of functional life skills was the highest included in the curriculum, but it did not exceed the low level as well. Conclusion: Conclusion: The study recommended reconsidering the curriculum and working to integrate the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, especially digital skills, and suggested analyzing the integration of the skills of the Fourth Industrial Revolution into the science curriculum for the upper grades.


Unnoticed Genetic Predisposition Identified as Risk Factors among Intellectually Disabled Families in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India

K. Sofia Revathy & L. Jeyapraba


Problem: Intellectual disability (ID) is a developmental disorder that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits. Genetic predisposition already found in the family can be identified as risk factors for the ease of implementing preventive strategies. This research aims to investigate selected genetic risk factors prevalent in families affected by ID, emphasizing the potential significance of early identification of the condition. Approach: A Cross-Sectional study was conducted in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India, through special schools meant for Intellectually disabled people. A total of 203 ID samples were included in the study. Personal interviews were conducted over telephone among the biological mothers of the ID samples. Findings: Among the participating families, 31.5% had a history of parental consanguinity with first cousin marriages being the prevalent one followed by uncle-niece marriages and second cousin marriages. Familial ID was found in 31% of the participants. Sibling involvement was observed in 24.3% of the cases, with sibling recurrence accounting for 12.3% of the affected group. Analysis using odds ratio and chi-square tests demonstrated that affected siblings had a significant impact on the severity of ID. Maternal age at conception and history of miscarriage/stillbirth as risk factors were reported in fairly low numbers in the population and found not to be associated with severity of ID. Conclusion: This study is the first epidemiological investigation that provides essential data to inform the formulation of strategic policies and to improve public health outcomes.


Correlations Between Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type Ii Diabetic Mellitus A Descriptive Study

T.R. Manjula, Keerthana G,Christinal Ragapriya .D, Dhatchayani .G, Akshaya. K


Problem: Mental health and metabolic health play a pivotal role in nurturing one’s physical and mental well-being. Depression and anxietyare common among people with diabetes mellitus. The triangular merge of these diseases increases the risk of diabetes complications and reduces the overall quality of life. It further adds stress for diabetes patients due to the never-ending demands of diabetes care, such as eating and maintaining physical health, exercising, monitoring blood glucose, regular follow-up, and management of symptoms, dependence on family members for financial support for medicines and fears about or the reality of complications. As a result, they experience feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress, which affect their health and overall quality of life. This study aimed to find the correlations between depression and anxiety among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Approach: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were attending Out Patient Department of Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chengalpattu.  A group of 100 participants were selected using a purposive sampling technique.  A self-structured demographic profile, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory was used to collect the data. The gathered information was coded and examined. Findings: The results showed that 39% of them had mild mood disturbance and 24% had borderline clinical depression and 17% had up & downs are normal and moderate depression, 2% had severe depression and 1% of extreme depression among patients with type II diabetes mellitus. In anxiety, majority 50% had moderate anxiety, 32% had severe anxiety, 16% had mild anxiety and 2% had minimal anxiety level among patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Mean depression score of patients with type II diabetes mellitus was 2.51 and Standard Deviation ±1.087 whereas the Mean anxiety score was 3.12 and Standard Deviation was ±0.742.There was a positive correlation (r = 0.286) of depression and anxiety among patient with type II diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. Majority of type II diabetic patients were having moderate level of depression and anxiety. Regular screening services are essential along with diabetes management plan for timely identification and treatment of the vulnerable groups in the healthcare centers.


Gamut of Skin Lesions: A Retrospective, Histopathological Study

K.T Athulya Krishna Kumar


Introduction: Skin is one of the largest and prime sensory organs in the body.  Skin biopsy is a simple and inexpensive procedure which can help in consolidating clinical diagnosis and help further management. The present study was performed with the objective of describing spectrum of skin lesions in relation to its histopathological features, age, sex and site of involvement. Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study carried out over a period of one year (January 2016-January 2017) in a tertiary care hospital. Histopathological details, along with age, gender, site of distribution and type of lesion were tabulated. Results: A total of 280 skin biopsies were analyzed. Most of the cases fell in the age range of 30-40 years. Upper extremity was the commonest site. Majority were non neoplastic conditions (68.92%), followed by inconclusive cases (27.5%) and neoplastic lesions (3.57%). In non neoplastic lesions maximum fell into the category of non?infectious erythematous papular and squamous disease (48.7%). In neoplastic lesions, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (50%). Conclusion:  Dermatological lesions are by nature, heterogeneous with a varying age range, site distribution and histopathological features. The gold standard of diagnosis is histopathological examination which in conjunction with ancillary techniques and special stains, help in confirming the clinical diagnosis and improving patient management.



Awareness Regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN Before and After Additional Intervention Packages among Pregnant Women, Raigad District, Maharashtra

Dr. Geeta Baswaraj Sagnali & Dr. R Ponchitra


Introduction: Maternal and child health services were proposed to escalate institutional deliveries, to bring down the out-of-pocket expenditure, to bring forth the quality care and nutrition to mother and baby and consequently curtail maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR). The objective of the study, To assess the awareness regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN before and after additional Intervention Package among pregnant women. To compare the awareness regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN before and after additional Intervention Package among pregnant women. Methods: A community-based study was conducted at Anganwadi centres, Raigad District, Maharashtra, India, among 528 pregnant women. They were interviewed using a structured validated questionnaire. Additional Intervention Package was implemented to the intervention group. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24.Findings:57.15% had average awareness score regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN in the pre-test. Major source of information was (ASHA) Accredited Social Health Activist (52.2%). Majority of pregnant women were multigravida (68.21%). Age group of pregnant women showed a significant association (p-0.043) with level of awareness regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN. Implementation of Additional Intervention Package in the intervention group showed a markable upgrade in the awareness score (91.4%) regarding POSHAN ABHIYAAN. Conclusion: Implementation of Additional Intervention Package revamped the community and family level participation in the present study. Thus, sessions with health education and community-based activities along with implication of community groups will help to perk up POSHAN ABHIYAAN service awareness. Uptake can be enhanced through proper channelising the resources.


How Block Chain Technology Works in Financial Services

Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Md. Akash, Md. Omithasan ovi, Sidratul Moontaha Moon, Arif Siddiki, Md Sabuj Islam


The Research goal is to explore the factors that can forecast the behavioral intention of financial sectors to use blockchain technology. The UTAUT model was enriched with the integration of safety and consciousness to grow the theoretical model for this research. The paper studies the influence of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence, and additional factors on the behavioral intention to utilize blockchain technology. This research is mostly based on primary data that has been collected through a well-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was spread to 234 distinct responders in various places. To examine the hypothesis made for the analysis, multiple regression analysis was conducted, and cross-sectional data were used. All of the variables have statistically noteworthy impacts on the financial sector's desire to embrace blockchain technology and are statistically significant. However, some extraneous factors might be added to the model to gain a better idea. The study concluded that blockchain has huge potential in Bangladesh. Blockchain technology will be crucial in the future for handling a variety of Financial Services.


Financial Crime: A Conceptual Framework Implementation for Prevention of Malicious Request from a VPN or Proxy Server

Grace Odette Boussi, Himanshu Gupta , Syed Akhter Hossain


Cybercrime is no longer a crime that needs to be introduced as it has an impact all over the world in many aspects. It is a daily fight and new ideas, proposals, and suggestions are welcomed to overcome that issue. Every day, people, and organizations are a victim of cyber-attack despite de efforts that have done. During a cyber-attack, most of the time, the hacker utilizes a VPN to hide their identities such as IP address and location details and this makes tracking difficult. Having a method for having their details will help us to track them and this will lead the concerned organization to catch them, make legitimate moves against them, and will stop their fraudulent activities. One of the main reasons behind a cyberattack is money, therefore, financial organizations are mostly targeted and are likewise confronting an immense impact. In this paper, we propose a framework that is going to prevent a request that comes from a VPN or proxy server. Our work can be implemented in many areas like banking, social media, organization, and so forth.


Transcultural Nursing Assessment of Maranao Older Adults in the Philippines: Utilizing Andrew’s and Boyles Model

Hamdoni K. Pangandaman


Background: Transcultural nursing has emerged as a significant component of healthcare delivery, with increasing recognition in the global health sector. This notion emphasizes the importance of nurses integrating cultural understanding and sensitivity into their work, thereby ensuring favorable patient results. Objectives: This study aims to assess and understand the unique health needs and developing culturally competent nursing care of displaced Maranao older adults at Lanao del Sur.  Methods: This study used non-experimental methods and model of Andrews and Boyle's Transcultural Nursing Assessment Guide for Individuals and Families to assess the health-related practices, nutrition, religion and spirituality, and values orientation of displaced Maranao older adults living in Lanao del Sur, Philippines. Results: Findings shared that Maranao older adults believed that illnesses and diseases are normal part of life inflicted by God (Allah). Their ideal self-image is maintaining their faith by following Islamic beliefs and practices with reliance on scientific and culturally congruent approach on health. They considered nutrition as the greatest blessing from the creator and always ensure that the foods served are halal that adheres to Islamic beliefs and practices. Conclusion: Transcultural nursing assessment is crucial in addressing the cultural beliefs and practices of Meranao older adults that potentially affect the extent of the delivery of quality healthcare services and their health status in general.


Globalization, Socio-Cultural and Economic Imbalance in Sub Saharan Africa: The Nigerian Example

Enyimba, Maduka & Emmanuel E. Etta, Samuel Aloysius Ekanem, Ushie Thomas Egaga, Okpe Timothy Adie


Despite the much-clamored merits of globalization across the universe, its demerits which have adversely affected Sub-Saharan African states far outweigh its presumed benefits. This chapterargues that, instead of bridging the socio-cultural and economic gap between the global north and global South by way of fostering development, globalization has in addition to creating a polarized universe and engendering underdevelopment, contributed in no small measure in deepening the socio-cultural and economic imbalance in Africa South of Sahara. This work contends that, against social cohesion, cultural exchange, economic integration and development which globalization is supposed to encourage and entrench, what is rather evident in African and the third world today is gross underdevelopment occasioned by socio-cultural and economic imbalance which is a product of Western- hegemonic disposition towards the rest of the world. This work presents evidence from Nigeria and selected parts of African continent to show that the endemic nature of the socio-cultural and economic imbalance bedeviling African continent, points to the fact that the negative impact of globalization is a contributing factor to Africa’s socio-cultural and economic underdevelopment.


Perils and Possibilities in Restorative Justice: Spaces for Sexual Crimes and Punishment

Vidushi Kothari


Restorative Justice is a controversial process that brings together a victim of a crime with wrongdoer and/or other stakeholders for a dialogue as a way of healing from conflicts and harms brought about by crime. Many scholars are optimistic about its benefits to victims, wrongdoer and societal relationships at large yet others are skeptical of its application to sensitive cases where punishment must be administered for justice. This research explores the theoretical framework and debates to determine whether restorative justice is deemed suitable for crimes that require punishment especially for sexual crimes. This paper makes an attempt to understand that restorative justice need not be at odds with punishment, but may be applicable to some sexual crimes while safeguarding their best interest. Further, restorative justice may be delivered pre-trial/post-sentencing and at the clear and unequivocal option of victim/wrongdoer to avoid intermingling and/or being co-opted by the traditional criminal justice process.


Barriers and Strategies in the Implementation of Virtual Learning Modalities Amid COVID-19 among Students in Nursing Schools at Sulu Province, Philippines

Nursidar P. Mukattil & Hamdoni K. Pangandama


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a significant shift toward virtual learning modalities in nursing education. However, this transition has been marked by various challenges, including faculty and student unfamiliarity with online platforms and the need to adapt curricula rapidly. Objectives: This study aimed to comprehensively examine the barriers encountered by nursing schools in the Sulu Province while implementing virtual learning modalities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive approach was employed to collect and analyze data from 95 nursing students across three higher education institutions in the Sulu Province. A questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic factors, technology usage, and barriers experienced during virtual learning. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation.             Results: The results revealed that most participants were between 19 and 20 years old, with a higher percentage of females. The majority of students reported owning and using various online technologies, including online videos, social media platforms, mobile apps, and email. Key barriers to virtual learning included the absence of face-to-face interaction, poor internet connectivity, limited technical support, restricted access to clinical simulations, and distracting home environments. Language barriers, technical jargon in learning materials, limited access to required software, insufficient opportunities for collaboration, and privacy and security concerns were also identified as barriers. Conclusion: The findings underscore the importance of implementing key strategies to enhance virtual learning modalities in nursing education. These strategies can significantly improve the quality and effectiveness of virtual learning in nursing education, especially in challenging contexts like the Sulu Province.


An Empirical Investigation of Indias Money Demand Function: An ARDL Approach

Rizwan Qasim & Dastgir Alam


The present research paper tries to investigate the stability of India’s money demand function using the variables such as broad money, income, interest rate, price level, foreign exchange reserve, and exchange rate between 1990 and 2020 through an ARDL model. The finding has two fold (1) the ARDL bound test for cointegration and (2) the long-run and short-run ARDL models, including the error correction term (ECT). The outcome of the ARDL-bound test proved the existence of long-run relationship among the variables. In addition, the long-run ARDL model revealed that all variables have a statistically significant impact on broad money (M3). In addition, the error correction term (ECT) is 0.64, which suggests that short-term disturbances are resolved with a speed of 64 percent within a year. Finally, the diagnostic outcomes of the study indicated that the data used in this study satisfied the assumptions of classical linear regression model while, the stability tests (CUSUM and CUSUMSQ) provided evidence in support of the validity of the model. Overall, the research findings suggest that policymakers and the RBI can estimate output gaps and inflationary expectations using broad money (M3) as an indicator or information variable in the inflation-targeting strategy in India.


Peer Feedback Skill Training to Improve Students Writitng Skills

Firehiwot Woreta and Hailay Tesfay Gebremariam


The study investigated the role of peer feedback skills training in improving students' writing skills. To achieve this objective, data were collected using a quasi-experiment design. The participants were 11th grade students, selected into two groups through simple random sampling. One group served as the experimental group and received instruction with the assistance of peer feedback, while the second group served as the control group and continued with the usual method of instruction. Both groups received sixteen hours of instruction over a period of five weeks. Pre-tests and post-tests were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using independent sampling t-tests and multivariate analysis. While there was no significant difference in the pre-test results, the post-test results showed a significant difference between the two groups. The findings of this study indicate that students who received peer feedback skills training demonstrated improved overall writing skills compared to those who were taught in a traditional manner.


Existence and Boundedness of Solutions for a System of Renewal Equations

Dr. Pranita Jena


In this article the existence of the bounded solutions for a system of functional equations has been established. In this work, existence and boundedness of the solution of the renewal equation arising in inventory control, multistage game etc. has been discussed. It is proved in a different method using contraction principle through a dynamic programming approach. In the present model, a dynamic model of renewal equation with the stochastic transformation has been considered


Antimicrobial Potential of Ipomoea Aquatica, Allium Fistulosum and Cucurbitamoschata Against Staphylococcus Aureus, Pseudomonas Aureginosa and Escherichia Coli

Lalima Kumbhkar, Dr. Rachana Choudhary, Dr. Bhuneshwari Nayak & Rachana Tiwari


Vegetables are comparatively cheaper and rich sources of vitamins. Green leafy vegetables are an important part of our healthy diet. They are rich in antioxidants (natural source of fibers) and also supportimproving inflammatory response, optimal brain function, bone health and making skin glow, etc. This research aimed to determine the phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Ipomoea aquatica (Water spinach), Allium fistulosum (Green onion), and Cucurbitamoschata(Pumpkin) against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus)and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aureginosa).The solvent used for the extraction weacidsthanol, water, and petroleum ether, where ethanol is polar, water is aquas and petroleum ether is non-polar. Phytochemical screening to determine the existence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins,glycosides, cardiac glycosides, amino acid, flavonoids, tannin, terpenoids, quinone, phlobatannins, saponin, and phenolic compounds. All plant leaves extracts were shown antibacterial activity against test pathogenic bacteria.


Exploring Methylammonium Halides as High-Efficiency Photoanodes in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: A Comparative Study Using SCAPS-1D

Dhandapani K R, Dhanya N P, Sudheer Sebastian K


This research investigates the solar cell parameters of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing MAPbCl3 and MAPbBr3 as photoanodes. Leveraging the SCAPS-1D software, we explore the potential of methylammonium halides with elevated band gaps as viable alternatives to traditional TiO2. Notably, MAPbCl3 exhibits an efficiency of 13.78%, while MAPbBr3 achieves 10.76%. The comparative study, conducted under quasi-ideal conditions, anticipates lower efficiencies in real-world experiments but remains consistent within the reliable range of DSSC solar cells.


Impact of Sustainability on Firm Performance in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Taiwo O. Soretire Taiwo Adewale Muritala (PhD., CPFM, FBDFM) May Ifeoma Nwoye (Ph.D.) Umar Abbas Ibrahim (Ph.D.)


Sustainability has been a trending development topic since the year 2000 following the United Nations’ declaration of the millennium development goals and the discussion is getting more intense and interesting as the importance to and impact on firms and society are becoming clearer. Although its approach is similar to that of CSR, its impact and scope are wider, more sustainable, and futuristic for firms and society. Many scholars and articles are mixing up the concepts and interchangeably using these two endeavors. On the other hand, many firms publish sustainability reports but are still not taking advantage of integrating long-term environmental, social, and economic impacts into the firm’s strategy, and not leveraging the benefit to both the firm and society. Although the gap in implementing sustainability as a strategy is open for future research, this study aims to examine the impact of the practices of sustainability on firm performance in developing countries. This study harmonizes the theories of the triple bottom line (planet, people, and profit, which is environmental, social, and economic respectively) and ESG (environmental, social, and governance) to formulate three proxies of sustainability - environmental, social, and governance - whose impact was measured on the two proxies of firm performance – brand image and return on equity. Lastly, this study conducts a Systematic Review approach to synthesize the effect of sustainability on firm performance in developing countries from 2014 to 2023 from 17 past articles. The qualitative review revealsinconsistent relationships between sustainability and firm performance, with 72% positive relationships, 17% mixed relationships, and 11%negative relationships. However, the study reveals consistent results based on the methodology adopted in the various articles which adopted different methodologies and obtained data from various sources – primary and secondary.


Exploration of the Dominant Features of Mobile Banking Transactions in Bangladesh During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Rony Kumar Datta, Sakila Zabin, Tasfia Akter, Md. Tarek Hussain Prodhan


This study attempts to investigate the key factors affects the mobile banking transactions in Bangladesh during thecovid-19 pandemic. Based on a survey of 200 mobile banking usersof Bangladesh, this studycollected primary data through anonline based semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed by applying exploratory factor analysis and descriptive statistics. The principal axis factoring (PAF) extraction method with an oblique rotation (Promax) method has been applied to extract and select the influential factors based on the communalities (factor loading), Eigenvalue value, and pattern matrix. Following the factor analysis, this study consideredfive main factors namely transactions volume and cost, facilities offered by service providers, transactions reliability and secrecy, covid-19 aspects, and demographic features of the respondents. The results of this study indicated that the number and amount of transactions, agent’s location, ATM facilities, prompt and quick service, the attractiveness of product and features, trustworthiness, privacy issue, and technological security have a positive impact whereas transactions cost and internet cost have a negative impact on the volume of mobile banking transactions. Additionally, the study revealed that imposed lockdown by the Government, safety measures taken by agents, and avoiding bank branch visits due to the restrictions of the covid-19 pandemic have a noteworthy positive influence on the volume of mobile banking transactions. The empirical findings of this study are beneficial to mobile banking service providers in designing their products and strategies, as well as to the regulatory authorities and stakeholders of bank and non-bank financial institutions.


The Extent to Which the Digital Skills Needed to Learn Artificial Intelligence are Included in the Science Curriculum (Cambridge) in the First Cycle Classes in Basic Education Schools in the Sultanate of Oman

Aisha bint Ali Al-Sulaitania & Mohammed Y. M. Mai


The current study aimed to identify the extent to which the current science curricula used in the Sultanate of Oman include the digital skills necessary to learn artificial intelligence in light of the current developments that have occurred in all fields, and the importance of the topic lies in working to provide students with the necessary digital skills through the curricula and the importance of developing curricula continuously to develop student's skills and abilities to deal with artificial intelligence techniques and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and the study was to answer two main questions about the extent to which the curriculum includes digital skills By surveying supervisors and teachers, and by analyzing the curriculum document. The study followed the descriptive analytical approach, through a survey of the sample of (223), and the analysis of the curriculum document for the fourth grade, and found that there was a low inclusion of these skills in the curriculum according to the opinion of the sample, where all skills fell within the low level, and the results of the analysis indicated that the curriculum also includes digital skills in a low way, and recommended the importance of developing the curriculum to include digital skills that qualify students to learn the artificial intelligence techniques necessary in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.


Regular Long Wave Equation Solution of Fractional Black Scholes Option Pricing Model

Prisca U. Duruojinkeya, Silas A. Ihedioha and Bright O. Osu


The traditional Black-Scholes equation, guided by Brownian motion, lacks memory. Therefore, it is deemed appropriate to substitute Brownian motion with fractional Brownian motion (FBM), characterized by long-memory dynamics attributed to the Hurst exponent. This paper focuses on deriving the option pricing equation modeled with fractional Brownian motion. The equation is then transformed into a one-dimensional heat equation through the Shehu transform, and a solution is subsequently obtained. The Black-Scholes Model is a widely utilized tool for option pricing, a critical application in finance. In scenarios without transaction costs, option value is determined using the Black-Scholes model. In the context of the Caputo sense, this study proposes a solution for the fractional Black-Scholes equation (FBSE) problem. The research revisits the direct algebraic method initially proposed by Hereman et al. (1985) and applies this methodology to solve both the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (RLW) equation (PDE) into an ordinary differential equation (ODE). Subsequently, the ODE is solved using algebraic processes, resulting in solutions for the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equations and hence the solution of thefractional Black-Scholes option pricing model. Also the modified sine-cosine method is used to solve the non-homogeneous form of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation with time-dependent coefficients wasto solve non-homogeneous case of our problem.


Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational Performance in a Non Banking Institution, Nigeria: A Qualitative Approach

Francis Ugochukwu Opene (MPhil. Student) Taiwo Adewale Muritala (Ph.D., CPFM, FBDFM) Hauwa Lamino Abubakar (Ph.D.) Saji George (PhD)


Employees cannot execute their work to the expectations of management unless they are motivated. Motivation is vital for the performance of any firm. This study investigated the impact of employee motivation on organizational performance in a non-banking institution utilizing the identified explanatory variables of motivation, namely, reward, renumeration, recognition, and promotion. For papers published between 2012 and 2022, systematic searches were largely undertaken in ProQuest, Web of Science, Statista, and Google Scholar.  The review focuses on how employee motivation impact organizational performance through many variables such as rewards and recognition, management styles, working environment, and employee characteristics. According to the findings, employee motivation is strongly linked to organizational performance. However, there are other aspects that influence an employee's capacity to execute efficiently. According to the theoretical and editorial literature studied in this study, the many dimensions of motivation are critical to employees' degree of job performance.


Surgical Management of Denture Induced Inflammatory Hyperplasia in Anterior Maxilla with Use of Collagen Membrane A Case Report

Dr Rohit S, Dr Ankesh Kumar Jain, Dr Sandeep Giriraj, Dr Narahari R& Dr Sathvik Ms


Introduction: Any localised swelling of the gingivae may be called an epulis. Epulisfissuratum is an inflammatory hyperplastic growth resembling a benign tumor which occurs due to an ill fitting prosthesis. The swelling is usually a result of a local irritant such as calculus  or a poorly adapted margin of a dental restoration or apoorly adapted denture for edentulous patient. AimThis case report describes a 65 year old male patient who presented to us with ahyperplastic growth in maxilla. The purpose of this article is to present a case of epulisfissuratum due to a poorly adaptedprosthesis which was treated using a single surgical procedure forthe excision of the lesion and use of collagen membrane graft for the defect closure.Primary closure tends to roll the lip inward which may decrease the vestibular depth causing decreased retention and stability of the denture.  Wounds covered with dressing materials tend to heal faster and better and have lesser contracture compared to the open wound. Treatment of this case was essential because of the masticatory problemsarised by the overgrowth. Conclusion: The maintenance of an optimal level of oral hygiene is essential for the preservation of the oral health following the surgical removal of an epulis. Furthermore, an additional benefit following the surgical removal of the overgrowth is improvement of oral health and its resolution will help the patient to have a better fitting dentures.Because of better oral wound healing, surgical treatment is advocated for epulis treatment.



Measuring Neck Flexor and Extensor Muscle Endurance in Individuals Using Electronic Devices: An Observational Study Protocol

Dr. Noel Samuel Macwan , Dr. Dixita Tandel


Background: Electronic gadgets are becoming more and more necessary for both daily life at home and at work as their use offer quick, convenient access to many of the same learning-enhancing capabilities. The more frequent use of the electronic devices on an average of ten hours a week causes a lengthy period of neck flexion which leads to higher chances of experiencing musculoskeletal pain. When using laptops compared to computers, users often adopt awkward postures due to the device's inherent portability and small weight. Neck strain experienced by laptop users is frequently caused by bad posture and repetitive motion. When it comes to smart phone addiction, university students are said to have the highest rates among users of all age categories. The cervical muscles' motor output is compromised in patients with neck pain. Muscle strength, endurance, and force stability all get declined. Poor postures exert abnormal physiological strain on the neck, which weaken the muscles in the neck. As of right now, there isn't enough proof to say that neck pain, posture, and neck muscle endurance are related. The purpose of the study is to evaluate neck muscle endurance in normal healthy individuals using electronic devices. Outcome Measures: Neck flexor muscle endurance, Neck extensor muscle endurance Statistical Analysis: Independent t test will be done to compare the two groups with neck pain and with no neck pain individuals to know the effect of neck muscles endurance on neck pain. One way ANOVA will be used to compare more than 3 groups. Conclusion: This observation study will be useful to check association if any of neck muscle endurance on neck pain in individuals using electronic devices. Clinical Trial Registration: The study is registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI), with the registration number for the trial being CTRI/2021/06/034444.


Emissions Based Environmental Impact Analysis from a Power Cooling Organic Rankine Cycle with Ejector System

Ukemeobong E. Akpan, Bassey D. Nkanang, Agnes E. Oboh, Oyongha M. Agbiji, Remigus A. Umunnah, Obasi-sam O. Ojobe, Patrick O. Odu.


Although Organic Rankine cycles does not require the combustion of its working fluid, the choice of operating refrigerants pose significant environmental impact from construction, operation and decommissioning phases. This research work focused on the evaluation of possible environmental impacts of an adapted power-cooling organic Rankine cycle using six different refrigerants with respect to the power generation potential within the system’s operational phase. A simplified life cycle model was used for quantifying the related emissions subject to the thermodynamic operation of the cycle for each refrigerant. The analysis was done using the Engineering Equation Solver. The results revealed R114 and R600a as the refrigerants with the highest emissions of greenhouse gases amongst all others when all refrigerants are operating under the same conditions, but with the potential to generate the highest power from the system. Within the estimated 20 years system life cycle, the system can emit as much as 6.5 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, while generating 66 KW of turbine power with R113 as the working fluid. The results can assist in the optimal refrigerant choice with regards to environmental sustainability, operating cost, and performance efficiency in the adapted power-cooling system.


Exploring the Enablers and Obstacles of Weight Reduction among Adults with Obesity in Urban Areas of Puducherry A Qualitative Study

Mrs. Vembu.K , Dr. M J. Kumari , Dr. Venkatachalam J


Issues: Overweight and obesity are now rapidly expanding in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban areas. Designing a successful and comprehensive weight loss strategy necessitates an understanding of the motivators and constraints of weight loss. Through the experiences, emotions, and thoughts shared by obese adults in urban Puducherry. This study investigated the enablers and obstacles to weight management among urban adults with obesity. Methods: This study was conducted with urban adults who measure 25 or more body mass index using purposive sampling in urban areas of Puducherry. Using a semi-structured focus group discussion guide, four focus group discussions (FGD) were held with six to eight adult women in each FGD, totalling 27 obese individuals aged 18-50 years. Following the transcribing of the focus group conversation, codes and themes were identified using thematic analysis using a deductive and inductive approach. Findings: Subthemes that emerged as enablers include health concerns, free access to community health services, self-interest, adequate family support, and access to facilities, while obstacles include a lack of awareness in food preparation, routine dietary habits, frequency and type of food consumed, emotional factors, physical, personal, psychological, and social barriers. Conclusion: The findings indicate that a variety of factors influence lifestyle modification to reduce weight in the obese individuals. The findings help healthcare providers in considering those variables into account when devising scientific and realistic weight loss strategies to prevent non-communicable diseases.


Recent Progress in Nanosponge Technology: Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Treatment

M. Ramya Teja & G.V. Radha


Nanosponges are a unique class of nanomaterials that can absorb and trap toxins and drugs, making them a promising drug delivery system. Their versatility, ability to selectively target specific cells and tissues and capacity to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity make them an attractive alternative to traditional drug delivery methods. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of nanosponge research and its applications in cancer treatment. We discuss the challenges associated with nanosponge design, synthesis, and scalability, and highlight recent advances in these areas. We also review the current preclinical and clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of nanosponges in cancer treatment. The potential of nanosponge technology to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs, enhance immunotherapy and target cancer stem cells is discussed. Overall, the review highlights the significant progress made in nanosponge technology and its potential in cancer treatment, while also identifying the challenges that need to be addressed for successful clinical translation.


Isolation and Characterization of Plastic Degrading Bacteria Collected From Landfill Sites

Akanksha Jain, Suchitra Ku Panigrahy, Nidhi Dongre, Parag Jain


The growing demand of plastic leads to global pollution generated from plastic waste. The conventional methods fail to degrade plastic completely so alternative methods are used for degradation. In the present study the collected waste sample screened and three strains having potential for polythene degradation were isolated. Among 3 strains the strain P1 degrade PVC efficiently both in broth and agar media. Biochemical testing and ribotyping characterize the strain P1 as Bacillus gibsonii strain pm11.


Lean Optimization of Admission Process in Educational Institute

Dr. Vinod Waiker , Mr. Nitin Wange


Process Optimization proved to be the one of the widely used technique for improvement in the production and service industry. Implementation of optimization with lean tools in the educational institute assist to eliminate the waste for better prospects for students and stakeholders equally. This study emphasises on application of lean principles in admission process at educational institutes to transform their process, eliminate waste and improve productivity. Ten colleges of business administration had selected for study where admissions were centralised and through a common admission process(CAP). The parameter like time spans of admission and the activities involved were alike for selected sample where 3M model of lean management identifies the types of wastage and their treatment up to optimum level. This helps in streamline the admission process along with subprocesses by utilizing optimal resources to enhance utilities for stakeholders. 



Workplace Civility in Universities of Assam Examining Hypotheses for Agreement and Disagreements Test

Arunima Kalita, Dr. Arup Barman


This study, titled "Assessment of Workplace Civility Atmosphere in Higher Education Institutions: A Comparative Study among Select Universities in Assam, India," employs a mixed-methods approach to evaluate and compare perceptions of civility within the academic community. Utilizing surveys and interviews, the research explores diverse viewpoints among students, faculty, and staff from various universities in Assam. The findings reveal varying degrees of agreement regarding the presence and impact of civility, with analyses incorporating statistical tests like Kendall's W and Chi-Square to generate hypotheses. The study delves into factors influencing civility perceptions, discussing implications for educational experiences and institutional effectiveness. The paper concludes with potential strategies to enhance the civility atmosphere, offering valuable insights for academic administrators and policymakers in fostering a positive academic environment.


Original article Effect of Conicity Index and Body Mass Index on the Level of Spinal Anaesthesia

Nagasobbanaa Manukaran, Ankitha Sunand, Ravi Madhusudhana


Spinal anaesthesia is a popular form of regional anaesthesia for surgeries below the umbilicus. It involves injecting a small amount of drug into the subarachnoid space to achieve adequate anaesthesia. Recent studies suggest that obesity may lead to greater spread of spinal anaesthesia due to reduced CSF volume. Obesity also affects the level of anaesthesia achieved and is associated with increased cephalic extension levels. This study aims to investigate the effects of Conicity Index (CI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) on the level of spinal anaesthesia.


Impact of Enterprise Risk Management on Organizational Resilience: A Qualitative Approach

Temitope Olabunmi Otun (MPhil Student) Taiwo Adewale Muritala (Ph.D.,CPFM, FBDFM) Umar Abbas Ibrahim (Ph.D.) Nasamu Gambo (Ph.D.)


A qualitative technique was adopted in this study to examine the effect of Enterprise Risk Management on Organizational Resilience from 2016 to 2022. The study analyzed thematic evidence from 39 previous researches that evaluated the effect of Risk Assessment, Risk Tolerance and Risk Identification on Innovation Culture. The study demonstrates a mixed outcome, with 46.15% of findings being positive and mixed respectively. The study also found the Variation-Selection-Retention theory fits in the explanation of the relationships between Enterprise Risk Management and Organizational Resilience. The use of primary data was utilized by most studies with Multi-Stage Narrative and Regression being majorly used for analysis.  The authors observed limited literature on the Enterprise Risk Management and Organizational Resilience in Nigeria and recommend the use of other methods of analysis is recommended for future studies.


Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program on Knowledge and Attitude on Prevention of Child Abuse among Mothers at Selected Community

Shenbagapraba. N, Karthiga Devi.S, Miriyam Sharon. R, Pavithra.V, Sweety. C


Objectives/Aim: Increased violence against young people encompasses all forms of violence occurring between ages 1 to 18 years old. This violence can be mitigated through the implementation of preventive measures. Efforts to prevent and address violence against children necessitate society, healthcare workers, and various organizations to systematically tackle risk and protective factors across the four interconnected levels of risk. Child abuse prevention is an integral aspect of society. The study's objectives are to assess mothers' knowledge and attitudes concerning child abuse prevention, identify correlations between their knowledge and attitudes, and examine associations between knowledge and attitudes and selected demographic variables.Materials and Methods: An Evaluative Research Approach and a Quasi-Experimental Research Design were adopted for this study. A Convenience sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 100 participants. The tools utilized for the study included demographic questions and a questionnaire assessing mothers' knowledge and attitudes about child abuse prevention for children under 18 years old. Data collection spanned two weeks. The collected data was compiled, analyzed, and interpreted using descriptive statistics in alignment with the study's objectives. The findings reveal the levels of knowledge and attitudes concerning child abuse prevention among mothers with children under 18 years of age.Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among mothers having children under the age of 18 years. The above findings shows that mothers had a poor level of knowledge and  moderately favourable attitudes regarding the prevention of child abuse. On the whole, carrying out the present study was truly an enriching experience for the investigator. It also helped a great deal in exploring and improving the knowledge of both researcher and the respondents.


Measurement of the Intensity of Solar Radiation Using Pyranometer with Dual Axis Tracking System

Niranjan Kumar Mandal


Problem: A pyranometer is used to find the global radiation. But, to measure the intensity of solar radiation accurately at a particular sunshine hour, it is required to focus the pyrometer perpendicular to the sun. It is not practical to adjust pyranometer manually to tract the path of  two-directional movement of the sun every time accurately and it is a tedious task. For this, someone is required to be engaged to monitor the sun movement and to change the position of the pyranometer. Approach: To get maximum intensity of solar radiation an automatic controlled dual-axis solar tracking system has been used to get maximum intensity at any time with respect to latitude and longitude of the particular place of measurement. Thus, the problem of manual tracking can be avoided and maximum radiation can be measured at any sun-shine hour. Findings: Data have been obtained from the measurements of intensity of solar radiation on sunny days for both the winter and summer seasons at the latitude of 22.5595790 and longitude of 88.4900360.The time span has been considered from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. i.e. 12 hours. Mathematical modeling has been done and computer programmings have been also used to find the values of the intensity of solar radiation theoretically at 12 sunshine hours to compare the theoretical and practical results. It shows the slight variation in the data obtained for theoretical and practical methods. Conclusion: Theoretical results have been obtained by assuming variation of intensity of solar radiation using mathematical model in the form of half-sine wave and practical measurements have been done using pyranometer. But, the readings given by the pyranometer depends on many climate conditions of a place. So, there are differences in the data of two cases. But, this study is useful to find the intensity of solar radiation of a place at different seasons at the particular latitude and longitude.                                                                                                                                                 


Digital Literacy or Digital Competence: Aligning Teacher Competence Frameworks to 21st Century Educational Context

Sikha Nayak, Khandavalli Ashok


Over time, diverse frameworks, models, and literacies have emerged to direct teacher educators in their endeavors to cultivate advanced digital skills in their students, that will motivate them to utilize modern technologies in their future classrooms. For the most part, these revolve around the advancement of students' aptitudes in using 'instructive' applications and meticulously gathered information or comprehension represent a successful fusion of academic elements, content, and innovative information viewed as aiding the integration of computerized incorporating assets into education to revamp subject learning results. Inside educator schooling establishments, courses intended to improve these abilities are normally passed on as independent units, or there is an assumption that they will be delivered by coordinating innovation in different controls or through approved evaluation. Notwithstanding, different examinations suggest that the current spotlight on subject-related specialized and data abilities doesn't plan students enough with the expansiveness of data and capacities needed in the present classrooms, and past.This article aims to align teacher competence frameworks to the digital context of the 21st century. It includes a critical analysis of competence frameworks such as the TVET Teacher Professional Competency Framework, UNESCO Competency Framework, P21 21st Century Skills Framework, and the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards and their pertinence to the present scenario. The conversation moves past specialized proficiencies and, conceptualizations, affirming more comprehensive and more extensive understandings that see the unpredictable information and abilities youthful people need to work ethically, safely, and beneficially in assorted, carefully intervened circumstances. The ramifications of the structure are talked about, regarding its interdisciplinary nature and the prerequisite of all workforce to connect intentionally and purposely in conveying its goals.



FRW Minimally Interacting Holographic Dark Energy Cosmological Model in a Scalar Tensor Theory of Gravitation

Muddada Ramanamurty , R. Santhi kumar , Sobhan Babu Kappala


This paper explores the evolutionary dynamics of the dark energy parameter within the spatially homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model, incorporating both barotropic fluid and dark energy. The investigation is conducted within the framework of the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986). A well-defined solution is obtained by employing the special law of variation for Hubble's parameter, as put forth by Bermann (Nuovo Cimento B 74:183, 1983). Minimally Interacting Holographic Dark Energy Cosmological Model involving barotropic and dark energy, are considered, resulting in general outcomes. The paper also delves into the physical implications of the obtained results.


Pain Intensity and Analgesic Requirement After Caesarean Section: Effect of Daytime Variation

S. M. Kushal, Madhusudhana Ravi & Dr. Ankitha S.


Introduction : Cesarean section is one of the most common surgeries occurring in the world. Pain after the surgery is an unavoidable complication which affects the recovery of the patient. Looking into the various factors affecting postoperative pain can improve the pain management. Many key processes occurring in our body have diurnal variation. Numerous methods and analgesics have been developed to manage postoperative pain, the incidence of moderate to severe pain after CS has reached approximately 50%. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the postoperative pain and to assess the requirement of analgesics in the postoperative period in patients undergoing caesarean section in the morning and afternoon. Methodology: In the retrospective study, depending on the time of the surgery, the participants were divided into two groups, namely the morning group (start time between 06:00 to 12:00) and afternoon group (start time between 12:00 to 18:00). The women who underwent cesarean section under spinal anaesthesia are noted. The frequency of analgesia requirement at postoperative period 0-8, 8-16, and 16-24 hr was respectively obtained, and the total frequency is calculated. Intensity of pain is continuously monitored in the post operative period. Pain intensity at rest and 24   hrs after the caesarean section is analysed using NRS score (0-10; 0 is defined as no pain and 10 is as unbearable pain). The extra analgesic requirement at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr after the surgery is recorded. The study design of the study is retrospective and prospective study. Results: The pain intensity score was significantly higher in afternoon group at 8th,12th and 16th hour than in the morning group. There was significant statistical difference in NRS at the 16th hour for the afternoon group. Furthermore, the frequency of extra analgesic requirement is significantly higher in the afternoon group at 12th, 16th and 24th hour than those in the morning group. There was significant statistical difference in Analgesic requirement at 12th and 16th hour in the afternoon group. Conclusion: The afternoon group is more prone for higher pain score and extra analgesic requirement. Therefore, in our study it is observed that patients undergoing cesarean sections, pain intensity and analgesics are required more in the afternoon.


Evaluation of Financial Soundness of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) Listed Textile Industry in Bangladesh

Dr. Razu Ahmed & Dr. Md. Ashraful Alam


The present study is concentrated on evaluating the financial soundness of the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) listed textile industry in Bangladesh. A total of 13 textile companies were selected randomly for the present study.  The research primarily relies on information from secondary data sources covering the five years from 2016 to 2020. To evaluate the financial soundness of textile companies, the researchers employed ratio analysis, ANOVA, and MDA. The liquidity position in terms of the current ratio is moderately satisfactory. In the case of the NWC ratio, even found a negative ratio for a few companies. Profitability ratios were not so handsome during the study period; even loss was observed for some companies. ROA and ROI results also focused on inferior performance on average. Regarding ROCE, 6 out of 13 demonstrated alarming performance, whereas few companies showed average efficiency. Activity ratios also showed dissatisfactory findings during the study period. The solvency position of the companies is measured using the debt-equity and interest coverage ratios. Only five companies out of 13 show a satisfactory interest coverage ratio. On the other hand, most companies focus on a higher debt-equity ratio, indicating a high risk. An average satisfactory EPS was observed for 50% of the companies, whereas the other 50% showed poor EPS. Most companies retained their earnings to expand the organization and, as a result, viewed low DPS. For most cases, ANOVA identified significant differences for different ratios among the companies and years. From the average results of the Z score, it is observed that all selected companies are in a distressed or grey area regarding financial health. To increase financial soundness, textile companies should increase current assets or decrease current liabilities, handle long-term capital carefully, increase sales in cash or by creating good purchasers, increase NWC, increase EBIT by cutting operating costs and the cost of goods supplied etc. However, to reduce expenses, companies must ensure the smooth operation of the business.


Bio-Inspired Learning for Management A Review for Designing A Taxonomy

Prof. Arup Barman & Dr. Ajay Kumar Deka


Bio-mimicry as a deep observation-based subject serves as the input of knowledge and wisdom for human activities. Management as an interdisciplinary subject connecting human activities can draw pearls of wisdom from nature. Applying wisdom and knowledge from nature bio-mimicry can open a new treasury for management innovation. This paper attempts to articulate what to learn and apply through bio-inspiration. Through a brief literature review, a bio-inspired taxonomy is created. There are enough spaces to accommodate bio-mimicry-based knowledge and wisdom for management needs more rigorous discourse and concept development.        



Comprehensive Review on Cost Analysis in Various Stages of Breast Cancer

Ajay, Moghal Roshni, Kesav, Sriram Alagappan


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. In 2020, there were 13,24,413 new cases, 8,51,678 deaths and 27,20,251 cases of common breast cancer in India. In 2020, 2.3 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 685,000 died worldwide. As of the end of 2020, 7.8 million women alive had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the past five years. Female gender is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer. About 0.5 to 1% of breast cancers occur in men. The treatment of breast cancer in men follows the same management principles as in women. Economic burden is a real and emerging problem for breast cancer patients among worldwide. Direct medical cost associated with breast cancer was substantial.


Impact of Pharmacist Counseling on Patients Medication Adherence: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study

Sanjeevi Reddy D , Dr. Jagadeesan M


Background: Patient compliance is one of the main barriers to positive treatment outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated that effective patient counselling by pharmacists about medications improves outcomes and can reduce morbidity and mortality. Aim: To compare medication adherence before and after pharmacist counselling by improving their knowledge about the medicine intake at the right time in the right way as prescribed by the physician. Settings and Design: A Prospective cross Sectional Study Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a South Indian tertiary caremultispecialty teaching hospital for three months. Patients over 18 years, irrespective of gender, and those willing to participate in the study were enrolled. 150 type -2 diabetes patients enrolled as a covenant sample. Patients' demographic characteristics were collected before performing the Medication Adherence Rating Scale-8(MARS) questionnaire to understand the age, gender, and co-morbidities associated with medication adherence. Results were compared using a student t-test after four weeks of post-pharmacist counselling. Statistical analysis used:Paired sample T-test Results: Post-counselling values ??of MARS after 4 weeks showed significant differences (P<0.01) in both genders and age group 25-35, showing better response than other age groups. Therefore, treatment adherence by counselling patients using the MARS questionnaire showed significantly increased outcomes after counselling. Conclusion: Pharmacists are essential in increasing medication adherence rates among patients, as they have extensive knowledge of medications and their effects. Appropriate treatment and improved drug effectiveness will increase treatment compliance and save lives.


Incorporating Sustainability and Accountability as a Nexus for Development in the Nigerian Economy

Prof. Kenneth Amechi, Ife, Okoro Blessing Chineme (Ph.D)


This article explores the approaches for incorporating sustainability and accountability as a nexus for development in the Nigeria economy. Governments today are challenged more than ever in three operational areas: pursuing sustainable development, being accountable to the public for the expenditure of taxpayer dollars, and anticipating and adapting to critical and cumulative risk. Efforts within government to improve performance in these three core abilities of governance have been advancing largely independently over the past two decades, despite an apparent commonality in the basic principles and tools that drive them. Often concurrently, finance and treasury departments create and implement cross government accountability frameworks, environment departments promote sustainability internally and externally and audit departments build capacity for risk analysis and management. Therefore, it aims at structuring the literature on sustainability and accountability, to highlight its main contributions and gaps. It is followed by the delimitation of each sustainability approaches. Finally, a conceptual framework is proposed to address the integration of sustainability and accountability in the development of Nigerian economy. Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. Projects play a pivotal role in the realization of more sustainable business practices. This article recommends, among others, the need for government to adopt a more practical approach to the promotion of accountability, a determined fight against corruption and unethical behaviour, proper management of resources, and commitment of more funds to the execution of capital projects that could positively affect the lives of the people for improved standard of living. The study identified a positive relationship between sustainable growths at the firm level. Also, the study identified numerous challenges facing sustainability management and accountability in Nigerian Economy.


Irrational Fixed Dose Combinations in Current Clinical Practice: A Need of Reconsideration or High Precautions

Akash Ganga R, Jagadeesan M


Introduction: Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) play a crucial role in pharmaceuticals by incorporating multiple approved Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) into a single dose. The intent is to enhance medication adherence, reduce poly-pharmacy, and promote cost-effectiveness. While the World Health Organization's Seventeenth Model List of Essential Medicines (March 2011) includes only 25 approved FDCs, India's National Essential Medicines List encompasses 354 essential medicines, featuring 14 FDCs. However, the irrational use of FDCs poses significant risks, leading to adverse effects, therapeutic failure, ineffective dosing, susceptibility to abuse, and increased costs. Identifying the causes of such side effects becomes challenging with FDCs, making a critical examination imperative. Objective: The primary objective of this study is to examine and discuss the irrationality of selected FDCs available in the market. Methodology: This study focuses on the irrationality of selected FDCs available in the market, including combinations such as Ramipril and Telmisartan, Aspirin and Clopidogrel, Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate, Fluoxetine and Alprazolam, Amitriptyline and Chlordiazepoxide, Lovastatin and Nicotinic acid, Isoniazid and Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Ethambutol, Zidovudine and Lamivudine, Chlorpromazine and Trihexyphenidyl and Trifluoperazine, Domperidone and Rabeprazole, Atorvastatin and Amlodipine, Ezetimibe and Atorvastatin, Atenolol and Nifedipine, Salbutamol and Theophylline, Salbutamol and Ipratropium bromide, indicated for various diseases. The rationality of these FDCs is analyzed using authoritative resources such as AHFS drug information, BNF, Martindale: The complete drug reference, Stockley’s drug interactions, among others. Results: The analysis reveals that the irrational use of FDCs may lead to adverse consequences, with potential risks such as side effects, therapeutic failure, and increased costs. By scrutinizing specific FDCs, including Ramipril and Telmisartan, Aspirin and Clopidogrel, Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate, among others, evidence from authenticated resources is used to assess their rationality. Continuous monitoring and periodic clinical studies are deemed essential to justify the rationality of these FDCs, ensuring their safety and efficacy. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study underscores the need for a critical evaluation of FDCs to ensure their rational use in clinical practice. The presence of numerous FDCs in the market demands continuous monitoring and periodic clinical studies to validate their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. The results emphasize the importance of evidence-based assessments from authoritative drug information sources to guide healthcare professionals and policymakers in promoting rational FDC prescribing practices.


Celebrity Endorsement and Consumer Skepticism: Insights and Implications

Amit Kumar


The use of famous people to promote products has long been a common technique used by companies to increase awareness of their brand and impact the choices consumers make. However, there is still ongoing discussion about whether celebrity endorsements reduce or increase consumer doubt. This paper investigates the complex connection between celebrity endorsements and consumer skepticism, examining the factors that contribute to skepticism and the consequences for both consumers and brands. By examining a wide range of studies, conducting research, and analyzing the findings, this paper provides valuable insights into the intricate relationship between celebrity endorsements and consumer skepticism.


A Systematic Review on Various Approaches for News Headlines Categorization in Malayalam Language

Rameesa K.& K. T. Veeramanju


Purpose: It is said that newspaper is something that we cannot get rid of. It is very necessary for us to know about our surroundings and to know about the things in our world. In today’s situation, people like to read everything online, unlike newspaper printed on paper which is commonly found in today's technological world. For the reader, it is very good to save time to get each news item separately. But readers have made everything online and the biggest problem is in the area of reading newspapers once they get all the news together without separating them. Not only that, but in our newspaper industry, sorting the news into each category at the time of printing requires a lot of labor. Therefore, many research works has been done in various languages regarding the categorization of news. This paper discusses a detailed literature survey of various approaches used to categorize news headlines in Malyalam language. Design/Methodology/Approach: The details collected for this review paper were obtained by analysing and comparing different research articles from recognized resources. Objective: To find a research gap and appropriate solutions for news headlines categorizations in Malayalam. Results/ Findings: Review of this paper gives a proper understanding of news headlines categorization   in Malayalam and other languages in connection with machine-learning and deep learning approaches. Originality/Value: The review of this paper exhibits an analysis of machine learning algorithms for news headlines categorization in Malayalam and other languages and suggests the importance of news headlines categorization.


Challenges in the Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Mohammed Ismail K S, Jagadeesan M


New medications are now available for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can help them improve their exercise capacity, enhance their quality of life, and delay the progression of their condition. However, these medications require careful individualized dose titration to ensure they are effective while minimizing side effects. Different routes of administration, such as intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SC), and inhaled administration, can also present challenges for patients and healthcare providers. These challenges include the possibility of catheter-related infections (IV), infusion site pain (SC), and difficulties in adhering to frequent dosing schedules (inhaled). Temporary discontinuations may require re-titration and can even be life-threatening. In this article, we provide our recommended dose titration schemes for PAH medications that require individualized dosing for adult patients. These include medications that act on the endothelin-1 pathway (bosentan and ambrisentan), the prostacyclin pathway (epoprostenol, treprostinil, and selexipag), and the nitric oxide pathway (tadalafil and the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat).


Effect of Intermittent Fasting in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Narrative Review

Ms. R. Poojasree & Dr. A. Priyadharshini, Pharm.D., (Ph.D)


Background: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, anovulation, weight gain, and insulin resistance. Approximately 3.4% of women globally, equivalent to about 116 million individuals, are estimated to be affected by PCOS. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a potential dietary intervention that includes various regimens, such as time-restricted fasting. Aim: The aim of this review article is to explain the complex relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic manifestations, including hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiac dysfunction, and how intermittent fasting helps in treating this syndrome. Method: The method involves an extensive literature search and the extraction of information from various sources. Screening was performed for titles and abstracts, and potentially eligible citations were retrieved by the authors. Results: Intermittent fasting is discussed as a potential approach to improving conditions associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Various effects of intermittent fasting on polycystic ovarian syndrome are mentioned, such as control of blood glucose levels, reduction of hyperandrogenemia, positive effects on menstrual flow, weight control, and improvement of body composition. Intermittent fasting is reported to reduce insulin resistance and cardiac hypertrophy. Conclusion: More research is required to confirm and establish intermittent fasting as a recommended treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome. The absence of studies on the impact of intermittent fasting on the metabolic syndrome of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients is highlighted, indicating the need for further research.


The Effect of Exogenous Zn Application on Photosynthetic Pigments, Electrolyte Leakage and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Soybean Plants Subjected to Cd Stress

Dhiraj Kapur and Kamal Jit Singh


This pot experiment was designed to study interaction between cadmium(Cd)- a toxic element and zinc (Zn)- an essential micronutrient, in soybean. Soybean plants were treated with Cd (0.3 and 0.6mM) alone and in combination with Zn (0.3 and 0.8mM). Zn only (0.3 and 0.8 mM) treatments were also given for comparison. Cadmium had a deleterious effect on the leaf pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids) and relative leaf water content (RLWC). Cd application caused a decrease in chlorophyll (25-31%), carotenoids (24-30%) and RLWC (3-7%) in comparison to the control plants. The plants showed accumulation of starch (39-53%), total sugars (42-49%) and reducing sugars (62-83%) and a higher leakage of electrolytes (25-42%), apparently caused by Cd-induced oxidative stress. Zn supplementation in combination improved the water status and photosynthetic pigments level of the crop. Further, Zn application was also counteractive in ameliorating heavy metal toxicity through reduced carbohydrates accumulation and prevention of ion leakage through membrane, thus, playing an antagonistic role in Cd stress. Zn alone treated plants did not show significant difference in the studied parameters, indicating that the Zn concentrations chosen in study were non-toxic.


Statistically Significant Differences in the Dimensions of Job Satisfaction Attributed to Variables among Omani Teachers in Basic Education Schools in Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman

Ahmed Mohammed Saleem Al Rahbi, Dr. Muhammed Yusuf


Objectives: The study investigates statistically significant differences in the dimensions of job satisfaction attributed to the variables (gender, years of experience, and marital status) among Omani teachers in basic schools in the Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. Methodology: This study employed a descriptive-analytical approach and utilized a questionnaire to collect data from a study sample selected through simple random sampling. The sample size was 572, representing 21% of the study population of 2,734 individuals. Among the participants, there were 152 males (26.6%) and 420 females (73.4%). Results: The results revealed statistically significant differences for the demographic variable of gender at a significance level of 0.05 among the dimensions of job satisfaction. The arithmetic average values indicated that the statistical significance favored the male group, with an average score of 3.922, compared to the average score for females, which was 3.612. On the contrary, the results indicated no statistically significant differences at the 0.05 significance level among the dimensions of job satisfaction attributed to the variables of marital status and years of experience. Therefore, the researcher concluded that there were no significant differences or statistical significances among the dimensions of job satisfaction based on the variables of marital status and years of experience. Conclusion: The study recommends investigating the underlying causes of the low level of job satisfaction among female teachers in basic education schools in the Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman should prioritize efforts to enhance job satisfaction among Omani teachers when developing educational strategies, while also providing both material and moral incentives. These initiatives should specifically target Omani teachers, with a particular focus on improving the job and social status of female teachers. Additionally, further research should be conducted to explore job satisfaction among Omani teachers, as well as the influence of other variables on their job satisfaction levels.


Breaking Barriers and Forging Paths: Examining the Entry of Women in the Field of Medicine

Anisha Sen


This research explores the process of constructing professional identity among women professionals. It also examines the experience of women physicians concerning the interplay between career and lifestyle choices and tries to discover how women’s experiences have evolved with growing times. It also looks at the nature of the gendering of the medical profession. This chapter adopts a feminist approach towards conceptual advances in the study of women professionals and applies it to research on women physicians with multiple roles. In past research, social values about appropriate roles for women have emphasised negative outcomes, vagueness about the roles conflict, and the assumption that the work role is the most problematic for women. The effects of social context, including interpersonal relationships, have also been ignored. Research using new approaches has shown that there are benefits to combining roles, which role conflict is most common between work and parental roles, and that social support from the spouse is crucial. The importance of the work environment is also stressed. Thus, according to Frierson, the internalisation of professional norms and ethics in the professional identity allows different professions to regulate themselves effectively, assuring that they do not abuse the autonomy they are granted.


The Big Five Personality Traits Determine Tendencies Toward Religious Understanding among Students in Higher Education

Salmaini Yeli, Hartono


This paper aims to examine whether an individual's tendency towards religious understanding is influenced by their Big Five Personality factors and determine which of these five personality factors is the most dominant in influencing tendencies towards religious understanding. The religious understanding in this research does not focus on the specific religious group or ideology but rather on the content of the understanding itself. This research takes the form of correlational ex post facto research, utilizing previously collected data from respondents. The sample analyzed comprises 343 respondents who are students at Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau State Islamic University. The sample size was determined using the Slovin formula, considering a significance level of 0.05. Samples were selected using the quota random sampling technique. Data analysis and hypothesis testing were conducted using multiple regression after testing for analysis prerequisites, which include continuous data, linearity, normality, homogeneity, and the absence of multicollinearity or heteroscedasticity. The research results demonstrate that the Big Five Personalities collectively influence an individual's tendency towards religious understanding. Higher personality scores correspond to a greater inclination towards a positive religious understanding, characterized by flexibility and respect for differences. Among the Big Five Personality factors, one factor, neuroticism, exhibits a negative correlation, although it is not statistically significant. Openness and Conscientiousness are the most influential factors in shaping an individual's tendency towards religious understanding, while the remaining three factors -neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness- do not significantly impact an individual's religious understanding tendencies.



Screening Desho Grass (pennisetum pedicellatum trin.) Varieties for Yield and Nutritional Quality in Different Environments of Northern Ethiopia

Assen Ebrahim & Nigus Derbew


This study aimed to evaluate growth performances, dry matter yield, and chemical constituents of four Desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) varieties under irrigation at two different altitudes in Tigray, Ethiopia. A factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with a combination of four Desho grass varieties (Areka DZF-590, Kindu Kosha2 DZF-591, Kindu Kosha 1 DZF-589 and Kulumsa DZF-592) and two altitudes (midland and lowland) between October 2019 and May 2020 (105 days). Results showed that the mean number and length of leaves per plant, number of leaf per tiller and leaf-to-stem ratio varied significantly due to altitude rather than variety. Lower plant cover (91.2 percent), plant height (27.7 cm) and number of tillers per plant (35.3) recorded for KK1-DZF#591 variety. Remarkably higher performance values obtained at midland than lowland altitude. More dry matter yield (ton h-1) was recorded for DZF# 590, KK2-DZF- 589 and Kulumsa-KDZF#592, while the lowest value was from KK1-DZF#591 variety. Highest mean crude protein content obtained at midland compared to lowland altitude, while the mean neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin were higher at lowland area. All Desho grasses varieties evaluated in this study showed higher growth performances and chemical constituents at midland altitude. This study also highlighted that Areka DZF-590, Kindu Kosha2 DZF-591, Kindu Kosha1 DZF-589 and KulumsaDZF-592 could be used for wider cultivation forage due to their better dry matter yield preferably in midland altitude and other similar agro-ecological areas. Feeding experiments are also required to examine the performance of ruminant animals fed Desho grass.


A Study on Production and Marketing Challenges of Betel Leaf Cultivation in Namakkal District Tamil Nadu

Dr. R. Ravikumar Mr. A. Munusamy Mr. G. Ezhilarasan


 The Betel is the leaf of the vine. Betel leaf is a cash crop. In India, it is known as "paan". Betel Leaf cultivation is a type of agricultural activity that provides livelihood to rural farmers. Betel leaves are cultivated in the Cauvery basin areas of Namakkal district. This gives substantial income to the farmers. Namakkal district ranks first in betel leaf cultivation in Tamil Nadu. However on the dark side betel farmers are found to be facing various problems at the production and marketing level. Thus, an attempt has been made through the present study to study the betel leaf growers in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Three blocks were purposively selected based on the highest production of betel leaf to make a sample size of 385. The collected problems were analyzed using Garret’s ranking methodology to develop a quantitative position of each problem. The findings show that production and marketing problems are very acute for betel growers. Among the production problems, heavy investment, no research station, no crop loans, excessive disease attack. Similarly, in the case of marketing problems, excessive commission, no regulated sales market, improper payments, improper bidding system etc. were ranked at top. As betel leaf cultivation is the main source of livelihood of the farmers, various policy measures by the central and state governments are urgently needed to overcome the difficulties.

Salinity Stress Response of Halotolerant Bacillus Licheniformis NJ04 and its Role in Improving the Growth Parameters of Chick Pea (Cicer Arietinum L.) in Salt-Stressed soil

Dr. Mridul Umesh, Nilina James


Soil salinity possesses a significant challenge to crop productivity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, as it is a major abiotic stress factor. This research delves into the response of the halotolerant bacteria Bacillus licheniformis NJ04 to salinity stress and its capacity to enhance the growth of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) in salt-affected soil. To comprehensively understand the underlying mechanisms, stress response of B. licheniformis NJ04 was studied prior to exploring its effect on improving the growth of chickpeas. The findings of this study revealed that NJ04 strain displayed high resilience to salinity levels when subjected to salt stress and B. licheniformis NJ04 strain exhibited heightened production of osmo-protectants, highlighting its adaptive strategies to cope with salinity. Furthermore, studies on chickpea seeds sown in salt-stressed soil along with B. licheniformis NJ04 as liquid bioinoculant, mitigated the adverse impacts of salt stress on chickpea growth. C. arietinum plants were able to grow and show tolerance to NaCl salt in the soil up to 250 mM). The root length and shoot length of control plants (at 250mM salt stress) were found to be 10.82 ± 0.76 cm and 17.32 ± 0.48 cm respectively. Whereas, the root length and shoot length of test plants were 16.43 ± 0.43 cm and 19.56 ± 0.32 cm respectively. These findings demonstrate the ability of B. licheniformis NJ04 to thrive and sustain metabolic functions even in saline environments and hold significant implications for sustainable agricultural practices in regions plagued by soil salinity, offering a promising strategy to alleviate the detrimental effects on crop productivity.


Clinical Spectrum of Dysphagia at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

Pranav Mehta , Akash Rajendra, Manika Chhabra , Kshitij Mehta, Dhiraj Saini, Rajat Bhargava, Subhash Nepalia


Background and Aim: Dysphagia is aclinical condition responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly population. It has various causes, both benign and malignant. Owing to limited data from Indian population, this study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical profile and various etiologies of dysphagia. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 213 patients presenting with dysphagia in Department of Gastroenterology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur from September 2022-23. Detailed history, general and systemic examination, endoscopy and guided biopsy and radiological investigations were done. Patients with oropharyngeal or neurological cause of dysphagia were excluded. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.6 years, with the male: female ratio being 1.76:1. 32.39% (n=69)patients had malignant etiology, with mean age of 63.3 years, and 67.61% (n=144) had benign etiology, with mean age of 49 years. Of the malignant cases, 2 (2.89%) patients had gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, 16 (23.18%) had adenocarcinoma of esophagus and 51(73.91%) had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of esophagus, lower 1/3rd of esophagus being the most common site of malignancy. Of the benign etiology, most common cause was esophagitis due to gastro-esophageal reflux seen in 60 patients (28.16%), followed by esophageal ulcer in 12 (5.63%), achalasia in 12 (5.63%), corrosive stricture in 8 (3.75%), peptic stricture in 7 (3.28%), esophageal ring in 6 (2.8%) and, hiatus hernia in 6 patients (2.8%). Conclusion: Dysphagia has a variety of causes. Detailed history and examination followed by endoscopy and radiological evaluation are the key to diagnosis.



Social Media as a Tool for Peace? Mapping Online Engagement among Mranaw Youths

Raihan A. Yusoph


Social media is profoundly shaping youth political participation and discourses globally. However, its specific role in influencing peace and conflict narratives remains understudied, especially in the Philippines. This study aimed to provide useful baseline data on how Mranaw youth social media users engage with and perceive online dialogues on peace issues. Findings revealed most passively consumed rather than actively contributed to discussions, though a sizable minority played an active role. Domestic socio-political contexts shaped narratives far more than international events. Sentiments were largely positive or neutral versus negative. The study is limited by its small non-representative sample but offers initial evidence countering assumptions that social media mainly drives extensive youth activism or polarizes discourses on peace. Key contributions include highlighting the significance of grounding digital peacebuilding efforts in local values and generating youth perspectives unveiling a more multifaceted public discourse. Practical implications emphasize tailoring awareness campaigns to resonate locally, encouraging critical evaluation of content, and promoting inclusive dialogues embracing diverse identities. Further research building on these exploratory findings can support evidence-based policies and initiatives harnessing social media's potential for constructive exchange on peace and conflict issues.


Generalization of Vedic Mathematics Method for Nth Degree Polynomial Factorization: Using Sutras Paravartya Yojayet, Vilokanam and Ganita Samuccaya: Samuccaya Gunita

Ashishkumar Thakkar Dr. Jishan K Shaikh Dr. Moksha Satia Dr. Leena S. Patekar



In this paper, we have presented a new approach to factorization of apolynomial,with the help of Vedic mathematics and modern mathematics concepts. This method is based on the Vedic mathematics sutras Vilokanam, Gunita Sumaccaya: Samuccaya Gunita, and Paravartya Yojayet given by Swami Bharti Krishna Maharaj. It is an easier and more useful method for studentsto easily factorize this type of polynomial with mental calculation.


Assess the Level of Distress among Treatment-Naïve Cancer Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Jipmer, Puducherry

Meenashi N, Dr. M.J. Kumari, Dr. Pooja Sethi


Objective: According to GLOBOCAN (Global Cancer Observatory) 2020, about 19.3 million new cases of cancer and 10 million deaths occur because of cancer in 2020. Knowing about the diagnosis of cancer and its treatment, and related side effects will put patients under severe stress. Distress leads to poor quality of life which will harm the health outcomes and cancer treatment. The study aims to assess the level of distress among treatment naïve cancer patients and to associate the level of distress with socio-demographic and clinical variable. Material and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to collect data from 384 treatment-naïve cancer patients. A standardized tool, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress thermometer and problem list for the patients version 2.2020 was  used to assess the level of distress. Results: This study revealed that the majority of the patients were found with severe (135, 35%) levels of distress, and only (45, 12%) reported no distress. We found a significant association between age and distress level (P = 0.020); between gender and distress level (P = 0.030) & between occupation and distress level (P = 0.032)and between the level of distress and BMI (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying the distress in the early phase immediately after diagnosis and before treatment can help to find the cause, and help the patients to start their cancer treatments with good psychological health. There is a need for psychological counselling or support for cancer patients even before their treatments.


Impact of Leadership Style on Employee Performance in the Nigerian Banking Sector

Akinkunmi Oluwayemi Ibikunle (MPhil. Student) Taiwo Adewale Muritala (Ph.D., CPFM, FBDFM) Akeem Adewale Bakare (Ph.D.) Nasamu Gambo (Ph.D.)


Leadership styles have a significant influence on employee performance, influencing everything from motivation and engagement to productivity and innovation. This article examines possible impact the following styles of leadership: autocratic, transactional charismatic and laissez-faire, on employee performance. The article sheds light on the positive, negative, and nuanced effects of each style on employee outcomes through a comprehensive analysis of existing research. We investigate how autocratic leadership, with its emphasis on command and control, can foster compliance while stifling creativity and initiative. Transactional leadership can motivate short-term performance but fails to foster long-term commitment. Laissez-faire leadership, defined by minimal intervention, has the potential to empower employees while also risking a lack of direction and accountability. Finally, charismatic leadership can significantly boost employee engagement and performance due to its ability to inspire and motivate, but its effectiveness is dependent on the leader's authenticity as well as the organisational context. This article provides valuable insights for leaders seeking to optimise employee performance by examining the strengths and limitations of each leadership style. Understanding the nuances of various leadership approaches and tailoring them to specific contexts can enable leaders to foster an environment of work that promotes employee satisfaction and generally, organisational achievement of goals and objective.


A Complete Exercise Protocol to Decrease Reaction Time

Anjali Raghuwanshi, Dr. Digvijay Sharma, Apoorva Srivastava



Background: Elite badminton players has shortest reaction time (RT) in comparison to the Recreational Badminton Players (RBP). There are none established exercise protocol which reports decline in RT in RBP. The present study is aimed to study the effectiveness of physiotherapy protocol on RT in RBP. Methods: This will be single group pre-test and post-test feasiblity trial. Sixteen male and female RBP’s aged 11-17 year, will be recruited by purposive sampling. After screening and assessment, reaction time will be assessed by Ruler drop test (RDT). Then participants will receive intervention including One Leg Forward Jump, Plank Jacks, Side Shuffles, 5-10-5 Drill etc with cool down and warm up session for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks reaction time will be assessed again by RDT test will be used to assess the reaction time. Discussion: This section discusses the decision to publish a trial protocol



Evaluating the Relationship of FoMO, SNS addiction and Phubbing

Dr Komal Nagar , Nitin Gupta


Recent research has identified several risk factors for phubbing behavior. However, limited research has investigated the potential influence of  Fear of Missing out FoMO and phubbing on Social networking site addiction (SNS addiction) and little is known about the mediating mechanisms underlying this association. In this study, we investigated the predictive role of Fear of Missing out behavior on university students' phubbingbehaviour  and found that both Fear of missing out and SNS addiction were associated with phubbing behaviour. A sample of 301 Indian university students (17-23 years old, M age = 19.6 years, SD = 1.24) reported addiction to Social networking site, Fear of missing out and phubbing behaviour. Results showed that (a) fomo was positively correlated with phubbing behavior; (b)SNS addictionwas positively correlated with Phubbing behavior.These findings have important implications for the prevention and intervention of phubbing behaviour among university students.


An RPA Based Question Paper Generator using UiPath

K Soumya, D Ashwitha, B Sriram, D Naveen, J Poorana Chandar


This article proposes an overview of an innovative Question Paper Generator developed using Robotic Process Automation (RPA) technology with UI Path as the platform. In this application the main aim is to generate question paper template which satisfy the condition of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This application offers an innovative and efficient tool to enhance the learning experience of students. Traditional methods of manually generating questions can be time- consuming, error prone and lack consistency. The automated question paper generator is an innovative solution designed to streamline and revolutionalize the process of creating question papers for educational assessment. This application involves the selection of random questions satisfying the condition of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Physiochemical Characterization of Blends of Diesel like Fuel Produced from Pyrolysis Distillation of Waste Engine Oil

Okafor Victor C.


This research is based on the physiochemical (mechanical and chemical) analysis of blends of diesel-like fuel produced from pyrolysis distillation of waste engine oil. The blends considered in this research are D25, D50 and D75. The experimental results obtained for each of the blends were compared to the ASTM standard values for petroleum diesel and biodiesel respectively. It was proved experimentally that the chemical and mechanical properties such as specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point, sulphur content, oxygen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, calorific value and Cetane number of the respective blends of the diesel-like fuel fall within the ASTM standard values for petroleum diesel (D975-18) and biodiesel (D7467-18) respectively. However, it has been experimentally tested that the D75 blend of the diesel-like fuel is more efficient in characterization based on mechanical and chemical properties compared to the D25 and D50 blends respectively. From this research, it was concluded that D25, D50 and D75 blends of diesel-like fuel can be used as an alternative fuel for compression ignition internal combustion engines with little or no engine modification.


Exchange Rate Pass Through and Inflation on Unemployment in Nigeria

Yusuf Wasiu Akintunde, Anih David Onyebuchi and Taiwo Adewale Muritala


This study investigates the dynamic relationship between exchange rate fluctuations, inflation, and unemployment in Nigeria from 1986 to 2022. The study used annual data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria data bank and the World Bank Development Indicator. The analysis employed Non-Linear ARDL models and Structural Vector Auto-Regression (SVAR) techniques with E-views version 10. Comprehensive diagnostic tests confirmed the adequacy of the chosen model. The estimations from both SVAR and ARDL reveal significant effects of exchange rate fluctuations on unemployment in Nigeria. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that inflation exerts a substantial influence on unemployment in Nigeria, both in the short-run and long-run. Additionally, the SVAR framework highlights a significant impact of exchange rate movements on inflation in Nigeria. The findings collectively support the applicability of the Phillips Curve hypothesis in the Nigerian context. The findings have implications for the timing of current account adjustments and the choice of exchange rate policies. It proposes the development of a threshold model by the CBN that captures not only the direction but also the magnitude of changes in the real exchange rate. Therefore, the policymakers, including the Central Bank of Nigeria, should tailor monetary policies to address rising unemployment rates stemming from real exchange rate fluctuations. Furthermore, policymakers should expedite structural reforms aimed at economic diversification.


Perspectives on Hidden Curriculum: Manifestation and Effect on Students Learning in History Courses in Wolaytasodo University

Alebachew Worku Bahru; Yilfashewa Seyoum, Garkebo Basha, Derebssa Dufera


This paper studies how instructors and students view the manifestations of the social dimension of the hidden curriculum and its effects on student learning in history courses. A qualitative single-case design was  employed. The study's respondents were second and third year history students, as well as instructors who teach history courses. Fourteen leader students for 1-5 groups and six instructors who teach history courses were considered through purposive sampling. The data was collected through an in-depth interview and observation .The data was analyzed with narration and thematic description. The findings of this study reveal the fact that instructors and students consciously perceive the social dimension of hidden curriculum such as different teaching methods, social interaction (student-student interaction and instructor-student interaction), and assessment as an important and persuasive part of classroom learning. However, instructors unconsciously strived to make hidden curriculum explicit to the students via their practical teaching methods, social interaction, and assessment techniques, and thereby confused with the contribution of hidden curriculum to students’ learning. As a result, it is essential to give induction training to instructors to take advantage of the hidden curriculum to foster student learning.

Analyzing and Optimizing the Gaps among Hospital Beds Vacancy, Medicines and Oxygen Supply through Dynamic Plug-in Instrumentation

Prasenjit Kundu, Anupam Bhattacahya


The research paper highlights information about the prediction and optimization of the essential services required in managing a hospital or a large healthcare centre. The essential services include facilities or services such as bed availability, Generic Drug availability, and medicated oxygen supply. Both primary and secondary research methods have been implemented by the researcher to attain the viability, and reliability of the data. A primary interview survey has been conducted on 115 participants. The research study identifies an urgent need for reverse engineering-based dynamic binary instrumentation for the synchronization of hospital bed management procedures, along with an adequate predictable supply of essential generic medicines and oxygen. This will help to cope with the emergency patients’ healthcare needs in hospitals and large healthcare centres.


Comparitive Study of Vas Scores and Pressure Algometry to Quantify Pain in Healthy Subjects

Harini.D Ravi Madhusudhana Dr Ankitha.S Dr. Nagaseshu kumari vasantha


Introduction : Pain quantification is essential for diagnostic and monitoring purposes where it is inherently subjective, and pain measurement in patients relies primarily on self-reports. The most common approaches to self-reported pain measurement are the use of a visual analog scale (VAS), numeric pain rating scales, and the Western Ontario and McMaster osteoarthritis Index pain scale. Objective pain measures are invaluable as they reflect different perspectives of the health condition like the physiological and psychological features of the patient making it difficult to interpret responses. Pain threshold is evaluated by methods including cuff algometry, pressure algometry, and algometry with electric stimulation. Pressure algometers(PA) are inexpensive, more convenient and widely available. Objectives : Primary: Is to determine in healthy volunteers the reliability of PA when it is applied on the medial part of the proximal tibia metaphysis along with VAS Scores Secondary: Is to evaluate if there were differences inpressure pain threshold(PPT) at the medial side of the knee between men and women. Methodology: After receiving the approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee 40 healthy volunteers under ASA 1 and 2 were included in a study using a randomized comparative study. All healthy volunteers both males and females age group between 15 to 65 years were the inclusion criteria in this study after obtaining written informed consent from healthy volunteers. Exclusion criteria for this includes those with a healthy subject with no history of lower limb, spine or pelvic fractures, with the absence of skin disorders, peripheral neuropathies or vascular diseases and those who took painkillers for any reason in the previous week will be excluded. PPT is determined using a handheld pressure algometer device with an increasing of the pressure of 20Kpa/s, all the measurements were performed from the medial knee joint line with the knee flexed at 90 degree, by pushing the algometer the force applied to the tibia gradually increased. The participants were not allowed to see the algometer display in any moment, and, as soon as they experienced a painful sensation, they said “stop”, the algometer is immediately released and the force (in Kpa) is read from the display and they were also asked to indicate their pain intensity on a 10 cm line by using the VAS score simultaneously, based on both scores they were graded into mild, moderate and severe. Results: No significant demographic differences in age, gender or ASA classification have been observed in my study. PA AND VAS- Frequency distribution of patients studied. In our study, when quantifying the pain threshold in healthy volunteers using Pressure algometry and VAS, we obtained similar results with p value of 0.397 and p value of 0.366 respectively but were unable to detect any statistical significance and as observed males have high pain threshold compared to females based on the standard deviation of 1.55±0.43 and 1.43±0.49 respectively measured in our study. Conclusion: Both Pressure algometry and VAS is a reliable tool to quantify the pain threshold in a healthy volunteer and males have a high-pressure pain threshold compared to females.


Social Sensitivity Measurement for Non Profitable Social Issuevia Social Media: Social Spin Orientation According to literacy Level

Gireesh C. Joshi, Geeta Rawat Shah, Anurag Sharma, Sandeep Kumar


The present research delves into the interest of the participants for external social spin according to their literacy level. This study has a particular focus on social spin orientation based on the literacy levels of the target audience under the influence of trailing messaging. Higher educated participants are less interested in online discussions, as reflected in the pattern of their responses .The study employ impact of external social spins in people groups within social media. A total of 20.54 %  response rate of total population is found by comprehensive utilization of sensory processing stimulation (SPS) via multi-disciplinary approaches as request-response, informative, rectification, anxiety, legal proceeding and analyzing approaches. There is a dynamic interaction between various SPS traits and social sensitivities. Impostor and social breakdown Phenomenon are reported in social grouping of high educated members of studied group.


A Literature Review on Chatbot Technology in the Health Care Sector

Panchajanyeswari & K.T. Veeramanju


Chatbot is an emerging technology that helps in developing interactive systems. It is a software or computer program that simulates human conversation or "chatter" through text or voice interactions. Chatbots are used in different domains for different purposes. Chatbots allow humans to interact with the digital devices as if they were communicating with the real person. The paper aims at how chatbots could be used to help patients in the healthcare sector interact with the hospital with ease. The time taken to seek medical help should be reduced with the help of chatbots. Many chatbots offer services in the healthcare industry. The issue with these chatbots is that they can only respond to broad healthcare-related questions. The chatbot system for the healthcare industry is briefly discussed in this paper. Moreover, the paper discusses the different NLU(Natural Language Understanding), NLG(Natural Language Generation), and ML(Machine Learning) algorithms that should be used with the chatbot and evaluates them. This paper aims to introduce the role of chatbots in the healthcare sector and also understand the underlying architecture of chatbots. The paper explains the different types of chatbots and analyzes various chatbots used in health care systems. A SWOT analysis of the chatbot systems in the healthcare sector is evaluated. The paper also aims to identify the research gaps and future directions in contributing towards further study of chatbot technology in the healthcare sector. Various scholarly articles and websites are referred to and studied to gather information for this review paper. This review-based research article is a paper on chatbot technology to find the research objectives and the research gap in chatbot technology in the healthcare sector.


Microstrip Fed Slotted Ground Wide Band Radiator for 5G and High Data Rate Communications

Sreejith M. Nair, Manju Abraham, Sindhu S, Nishamol. M. S


A novel microstrip fed slotted ground antenna having wide bandwidth capable of future 5G and high data rate communication application is developed. Antenna offers a wide bandwidth of 4.715 GHz ranging from 2.875 to 7.59 GHz with uniform radiation pattern, uniform polarization characteristics, moderate gain and flat and high radiation efficiency. Developed antenna has an overall volume of 25 × 23 × 1.6 mm3 which is compact when compared with other antennas having these radiation frequencies. Another attraction of the proposed structure is the simplicity and less number of dimensional aspects and which makes it a suitable candidate in latest generation communication gadgets.


Thailands Hedging Strategy under the Strategic Competition between China and the United States

Yongping Feng & Chanattaporn Netkhunakorn


Thailand's foreign policy stance has shifted dramatically since the Prayuth regime staged a coup in 2014. According to the findings of this study, Thailand has begun to tilt more toward requesting assistance from China in the Prayut Government. Many researchers are concerned about Thailand's neutrality. However, Thailand has not yet vanished from the United States. Just a few steps removed from the Obama and Trump administrations. Thailand has begun to rebuild its old friendship with America as the Joe Biden era looms. But anyway, Thailand cannot choose a side. Because Thailand is a reliable ally on both sides. This has caused the Prayut government to seek cooperation from other organizations and countries, including Japan, India, and ASEAN. Thailand has accelerated the development of economic links with Japan. Accelerate the political development of relations with India, and establish ties with ASEAN and Southeastern countries to find a way for small countries to maintain their interests as much as possible in the fight between the two superpowers. Although hedging techniques are currently the preferred option for smaller countries, the variables driving this strategy differ. In Thailand, the majority of the factors that influence hedging tactics originate within the country. But all bordering countries are influenced by foreign causes. As a result, Thailand has become another special case of hedging among ASEAN countries.


Original Paper The Correlation and training effects of Hand-Eye Coordination and Scapular Muscle Strength of Affected Upper Limb in Following Modified Radical Mastectomy

Kalpesh G. Vasani, Dr. V. P. Hathila, Siddharth N. Joshi


Breast cancer is a prevalent disease among women worldwide, necessitating various treatments, including Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM). This surgical procedure can lead to post-operative complications, including upper limb impairments. This prospective study investigates the correlation between hand-eye coordination and scapular muscle strength in women following MRM. A total of 50 participants were recruited, and comprehensive assessments were conducted to evaluate hand-eye coordination, scapular muscle strength, and their relationship. The findings of this study reveal a significant correlation between hand-eye coordination, and scapular muscle strength, highlighting the importance of rehabilitation strategies to enhance the quality of life of post-MRM breast cancer survivors.


Combatting Back Pain and Anxiety: The Power of Physical Therapy

Sethi Priyanka, Elina Dewanji Sen , Varsha Chorsiya


Anxiety contributes significantly to musculoskeletal and neurological problems. Patients with chronic pain conditions often experience anxiety symptoms such headaches, mood swings, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. After seeing a pain physiotherapist and receiving frequent counseling, patients reported less lower back pain and anxiety. Pain recovers quicker than anxiety, which requires longer rehabilitation time. This case report shows that back discomfort increases anxiety and may be addressed with psychological treatment. A team-based strategy may treat chronic pain and anxiety issues as an alternative therapy.


An Impact Study of Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)

Dr Sonam Mishra


India, located in South Asia, holds the seventh position globally in terms of land area and is the second most populous nation, boasting a population of over 1.2 billion. While the substantial population signifies a vast potential market within the country, it concurrently gives rise to significant employment challenges in Indian society. In recent times, there has been a noticeable surge in self-employment awareness among college students, leading them to be less reliant on parental support, educational institutions, or waiting for conventional opportunities. Instead, these students proactively seek out new prospects for themselves. This study aims to examine the Government's initiative, the Mudra Yojna, designed to support start-ups financially, thereby empowering entrepreneurship as a viable solution for unemployment. The paper intends to study the impact of PMMY (MUDRA) on the development of entrepreneurship,especially among privileged classes such as women reserved backward classes.


A Data Driven Framework Addressing Students Motivation, Regulation and Strategic Approaches

Sourajit Ghosh, Arka Rajak, Swati Chowdhuri, Moumita Pal, Biswarup Neogi, Dharmpal Singh


This study employs a multi-faceted methodology integrating SPSS and eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques, specifically Benefit-Risk Balance (BRB) and SP-LIME, to discern and explicate the interests and critical attributes conducive to academic success among engineering students. One of the most important tools for feature selection in order to determine the relevant student cohort is Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the study explores student motivation using a well-crafted series of questions that are integrated into a Google Form and make reference to previous prompts. The combination of PCA, XAI, and SPSS offers a thorough framework for identifying the distinct interests of engineering students and clarifying the essential characteristics supporting their academic success. Our study is enhanced by the incorporation of survey data obtained using Google Forms, which provides more detailed understanding of the motivational elements that influence students' success paths. This study contributes to our understanding of the motivations behind academic success and demonstrates the value of integrating survey-based methods, artificial intelligence, and statistical analysis to better understand the intricacies of student dynamics in engineering education.


Determining the Impact of Social Media Usage upon Work Life Balance: A Comprehensive Analysis

Shreejeeta Kargupta, Dr. Samapika Das Biswas


Problem: This research aims to examine the effect of Social Media Usage on Work-Life Balance. The primary objective of the study is to analyze the effect of social media usage on work life balance of the employees. Approach: A qualitative research design was made concentrating on analyzing existing literature to determine the effect of social media usage on work-life balance. Many literature reviews and research articles were taken to interpret the major findings related to the research topic. Findings: Examining a diverse range of studies, this investigation sheds light on both the positive and negative facets of social media's influence on individuals' ability to manage their professional commitments and personal well-being. The study identifies various dimensions through which social media intersects with work-life balance. By synthesizing empirical evidence and theoretical insights, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between social media engagement and work-life balance. Conclusion: The results provide valuable insights for individuals striving towards navigating the challenges of the digital age while maintaining a healthy work-life equilibrium. The implications of the study suggest employers and organizations create supportive environments that enable them to utilize the benefits of social media while combating its potential drawbacks.


Analysis of Financial Literacy and Financial Application among University Students: A Survey in Bangladesh

Ara Jesmin, Aktar Mahbuba


The study analyses financial literacy and its application by the university students of Bangladesh. Randomly selected university students of various faculty and various levels are the respondents of this study. This research is done in two steps. At first, student’s characteristics are used to predict financial literacy of students. Then, the relationship between university students’ financial literacy and their successful involvement in financial sector is examined. Results are quantified to understand the significance of financial knowledge. Firstly, the findings of the study suggest that the field of education is a significant factor that can influence student’s financial literacy and students of major in business have significant knowledge of finance. In addition, the study identifies there is no significant association between financial literacy score and financial application. The study tries to find out reasons of this negative effect. In this context, policymakers need to be more cautious to protect young investors’ fund.


From Crisis to Calm: A Study on Detecting and Managing Educational Stress amidst the COVID 19 Pandemic

Priyanka P. Shinde, Varsha P. Desai, Pratibha V. Jadhav, Kavita S. Oza


The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in an era of unprecedented challenges for students at various educational levels, from schools to colleges. This study delves into the pervasive issue of academic stress experienced by students during the pandemic and employs a data-driven approach to examine its underlying causes. Leveraging Python-based data analysis techniques, we apply a suite of classification algorithms, including K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN), Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, and Logistic Regression, to pre-process and analyse the data. As the pandemic prompted a shift towards online education in India, we sought to understand its ramifications on student mental health. Our research unfolds a notable finding: a significant upsurge in mental health issues among students, inextricably linked with elevated stress levels. To gauge stress levels and classify data effectively, we employed diverse classification methods, accompanied by accuracy assessment algorithms. Emerging from our comprehensive analysis is a compelling insight: the primary driver of academic stress during the pandemic is the palpable lack of effective communication between students and their educators. This finding underscores the pivotal role that communication channels play in mitigating stress and bolstering student well-being. In conclusion, this research paper illuminates the multifaceted impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' mental health, particularly in the context of academic stress. By harnessing machine learning algorithms, author provides a nuanced understanding of the stressors faced by students, offering valuable insights to educational institutions, policymakers, and mental health professionals. The imperative for improved communication between students and teachers is a salient takeaway, emphasizing the need for proactive interventions to support students' emotional well-being during these challenging times.


Prevalence, Knowledge on Early Recognition and Initial (First Aid) Management of Heart Attack and Stroke among Adults in Pooncheri, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu

Suvitha M, Venkatesan A


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. An estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2019, representing 32% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke. Out of the 17 million premature deaths (under the age of 70) due to noncommunicable diseases in 2019, 38% were caused by CVDs. Aim: Determine the prevalence, level of knowledge, early recognition, and initial management of heart attack and stroke among adults. Materials and Methods : This quantitative study used the cross-sectional research design content analysis approach and consisted of adults in rural areas. The participants were selected through a convenience sampling technique, a structured questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics where p>0.05 was considered significant. Result: This study provides information on the prevalence of stroke n=48, (24. %), Heart attack n=17, (8.5%). Knowledge level of score in heart attack and stroke is seen in demographic variables knowledge score, as evidenced by p<0.01 heart attack (Chi-square=50.245, p=.000**), stroke in p<0.01 (Chi-square=30.034, p=.000**) scores in had a highly significant association with early recognition and initial management of heart attack and stroke. Conclusion: The study discovered comparable knowledge of stroke and heart attack in the demographic variables with significant associations. Finally, people with knowledge of stroke and heart attack have a moderate level of knowledge on early recognition and initial management of heart attack and stroke.


Green Synthesis, Biological Activity and Molecular Docking Studies of Schiff Bases

A. Saritha, E.V.L. Madhuri, K.S. Karuna and S. Sree Kanth


1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide mediated synthesis of eleven Schiff base compounds (1-11) bearing benzhydrazide moiety is carried out followed by their structural investigation based on ESI-Mass, UV-Vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed against Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas syringae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The DPPH assay was followed to check the antioxidant potential while BSA denaturation model was used to find the anti-inflammatory potency of the compounds. The Schiff bases are found to possess very good biological activities. Docking studies have also been conducted to understand the interaction between the ligands and the protein involved in antibacterial activity.


Synthesis and Characterization of CuO/ZnO/GO Nanocomposites for Enhancement of Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activities

N. Nejanthan, J.Raffiea Baseri, J.Manikandan, S.Chandra and J. Alice puspharani


In this work, CuO/ZnO/GO nanocomposite was prepared by chemical method. Graphene oxide was prepared by using Hummer method and characterized by using SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. SEM results confirm that CuO/ZnO/GO has nanorod like shape. XRD analysis reveals that the CuO/ZnO/GOnanocomposite has the typical hexagonal wurtzite structure with the particle size of 38.8nm. TEM images show that the CuO/ZnO/GO composites have a rod shape and are well-dispersed on the GO surface. From the antibacterial studies, it shows that ZnO nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial activity against both E. coli and Staph, compared to Neomycin sulphate as a control. The degradation of Methylene Blue dye shows that CuO/ZnO/GO composite can be used as a good absorbent.


Language Alchemist A YouTube Transcript Summarizer

Swetha Pesaru, B Shravya, E Devendhar, A Shashank,


In the rapidly evolving digital landscape dominated by video content, the YouTube Transcript Summarizer Chrome Extension emerges as an innovative solution to streamline content consumption. Driven by the imperative for efficient information retrieval, the extension employs advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to succinctly summarize YouTube video transcripts. This comprehensive work encompasses essential elements such as backend setup, transcript retrieval via the YouTube Transcript API, abstractive text summarization using Hugging Face's transformers, and the development of a user-friendly Chrome Extension integrated seamlessly into browsers. The extension's successful implementation yields concise and meaningful video summaries, offering significant potential across diverse domains, including business meetings, academic research, and patent analysis. By automating the summarization process, this innovation provides a powerful tool to navigate the digital realm efficiently.


Association of Craniovertebral Angle with Neck Pain and Hand Grip Strength in Individuals Working on Computers: An Observational Study Protocol

Dr. Noel Samuel Macwan , Dr. Tanvi Radadiya



The software sector is growing at a very quick speed. Computers are necessary in every sector. The majority of the day must be spent sitting in front of a computer screen in order to operate on a computer. Prolonged Computer use combined with an inadequate work-rest cycle, particularly when utilizing input devices leads to postural stress due to poor workstation ergonomics which is directly linked to musculoskeletal issues and can cause neck pain and changes in the craniovertebral angle thereby leading to Forward head posture (FHP). It is measured by using modified universal goniometer. Office workers reported a 12-month prevalence of neck pain. In computer professionals, grip strength could be impacted by extended mouse use, protracted typing sessions, and awkward hand placement. The need of this study is to examine the relationship between craniovertebral angle and handgrip strength and neck pain in people who use computers. Outcome Measures: craniovertebral angle measured with modified universal goniometer, neck pain using Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and hand grip strength measured using digital handheld dynamometer. Statistical Analysis: The data will be collected and descriptive statistic like mean, standard deviation after ensuring the normal distribution will be analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Shapiro-Wilk Test will be used to check normal distribution of data. If the data will follow normal distribution then Pearson correlation coefficient will be used and if data does not follow normal distribution then Spearman Correlation will be used to find correlation among normal and abnormal craniovertebral angle, neck pain, right and left hand grip strength. Conclusion: This observational study will be helpful for understanding and building up essential information for the association between forward head posture, neck pain and grip strength. Clinical Trial Registration: The study is registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI), with the registration number for the trial being CTRI/2022/07/044312.


Impact of Performance Management Systems on Business Performance among Nigerian Startups: A Qualitative Approach

Olorunfemi Olutayo Ojomo (M.Phil.Student) Taiwo Adewale Muritala (Ph.D.) Frank Alaba Ogedengbe (Ph.D.)


This study adopted a qualitative technique to examine the impact of performance management systems on business performance among Nigerian startups. The study reviewed thematically evidence from 23 previous studies that examined the impact of performance indicators, performance monitoring, performance reward on employee productivity. The study demonstrates positive, negative and mixed results. Positive results representing 87 per cent, 9 per cent negative and 4 per cent mixed results. The study also found that multiplicity of theories further explains the rationale of the relationships between performance management system and business performance. While most studies adopted primary data, future studies may focus on using a combination of secondary and primary data while also exploring other methods instead of the dominant adoption of regression and correlation analysis methods.


Identifying the Levels of English Language Writing Skills of MBA Students

Abhishek Verma , Dr. Rabindra Kumar Verma


The identification process of the different levels of writing skills is a constituent and important step in researching writing skills. Though it is a step in the process of researching writing skills, this identification in itself is a process as it involves multiple steps. In this research study, these steps include the identification of the research topic, research problem, and target participants, selecting of a measurement scale, constructing an instrument, administering the instrument to collect the data, evaluating the answer scripts, awarding the marks, and analysing the scores along with deciding the level. In this research paper, the target participants are MBA students. It is a sincere effort to illustrate the identification process of the writing skills of MBA students. The study aims to facilitate prospective research scholars in this domain of researching writing. The study is based primarily on the experience of data collected from the field.


An Analytical Video Dependent Study to Explore Awareness and Knowledge of the Relationship between Obesity and Coronary Heart Disease among Students Residing in Paying Guest Accommodations

Gyanendri Tomar, Kirti Verma, Richa Bhogal



The global rise in overweight and obesity poses a major health threat, linked to millions of annual deaths and various cardiac complications. This study delves into the association between obesity and coronary heart disease, emphasizing the role of adipose tissue and its impact on cardiovascular health. Methods: A mixed-methods approach assessed awareness of the obesity-coronary heart disease link among 61 students in guest accommodations. Pretest and post-test questionnaires, coupled with a self-instructed video intervention, aimed to enhance awareness. Sociodemographic variables were considered to explore baseline awareness influences. Results: Pretest data showed diverse awareness (range 4-12, mean 7.64), significantly improving post-intervention (range 7-14, mean 10.57). The wilcoxon signed-rank test (p=6.872e-12) and effect size (r=0.8784) highlighted substantial impact. A weak positive correlation with age (r=-0.0166) and no significant associations with gender or diet type indicated universal efficacy. Conclusion: The educational intervention significantly increased awareness of the obesity-coronary heart disease link among students, regardless of demographic factors. These findings underscore the intervention's universal efficacy and provide valuable insights for future health education initiatives.


Impact of Digital Marketing on Consumer Buying Behaviour: A Qualitative Approach

Onesi Jude Oketta (M.Phil. Student) Taiwo Adewale Muritala (Ph.D) Hadiza Saidu Abubakar (PhD) Faiza Haruna Maitala (PhD)


This study investigated the impact of digital marketing on customer purchasing behaviour in Abuja utilizing selected digital marketing variables/proxies such as social media marketing, email marketing, and website UIUX. The research was conducted in the form of a qualitative assessment of past studies on the issue. Twenty-two (22) studies were reviewed, searches were largely undertaken in CORE, Web of Science, Statista, Academia, Research Gate, and Google Scholar.  The review concentrated on how digital marketing, through various variables/proxies, influences customer buying decisions. According to the study, digital marketing through social media marketing has a 77% favourable impact on consumer buying behaviour. The remaining components, on the other hand, had a negative and mixed significance of 14% and 9%, respectively. The theoretical and empirical literature reviewed in this study indicated that indeed consumer buying behaviour is influenced by digital marketing.


Mediating Effect of the Role of Teacher Child Interaction on the Professional Development of Early Childhood Education Teachers and the Well Being of Preschool Children

Li Sai , Ku Faridah Ku Ibrahim, Nadia Samsudin, Richard Bailey, Azrul Fazwan Kharuddin


In order to promote the overall growth and development of children, early childhood educators may benefit from specialised professional development programmes that are designed to improve their abilities and pedagogical techniques. Understanding the exact influence that professional development has on the well-being of children is something that needs to be investigated, despite the fact that its significance is well acknowledged. In the context of early childhood education in China, empirical research is required because of the complex links that exist between teacher professional development, teacher-child interactions, self-efficacy, and the well-being of preschoolers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationships between early childhood education teacher professional development, teacher-child interactions, self-efficacy, and the well-being of preschoolers via the use of quantitative analysis. As a result of professional development, the results demonstrate improved relationships and self-efficacy, with considerable mediation occurring via interactions between teachers and students. An emphasis was placed on the moderating impact that teacher expertise has in relation to development consequences. 230 Chinese early childhood educators participated in this study, which highlights the significance of providing opportunities for professional development for educators. The research provides valuable insights that may be used to improve educational practices by illuminating the linkages that exist between professional growth, relationships, and well-being.


Anthropogenic Interference on Age Old Khoai Region (Badland Topography) Near Bolpur Santiniketan in Birbhum District of West Bengal, India and its Impact on the Natural Environment: A Geospatial Overview

Dr. Jayanta Gour


Every type of relief has its own beauty and natural significance to the living organisms in this world. Since the past centuries, Mankind has altered the small and neglected relief features only for commercial profits. Very few people understand their natural functioning and importance in our day-to-day lives generation after generation. Many relief features have been abolished silently only due to anthropogenic activities in the name of human welfare. Natural reliefs have always been misunderstood due to the lack of our simple thoughts. Khoai, a unique example of the remnant of vast badland topography of the district of Birbhum in West Bengal in India, can be regarded as the best example depicting nature’s struggle for existence to restore its wealth under the tremendous commercial pressure from all sides. This article has emphasized how this unique and noted relief feature has been destroyed in the last two decades. Several measures have been taken to restore this unique natural asset for its scenic beauty but reality shows different results. The author has tried to focus on the probable remedies to restore this relief through geospatial techniques and applications.


Effect of Gender Equalityon Women Empowerment: A Critical Reviews of Past Studies

Dr. Rekha Pathak & Mrs. Madhuri Sheth


Despite progress made over the years, women still face many challenges and barriers to achieving equality in various aspects of life. Gender inequality persists in areas such as education, employment, politics, and access to health care. Gender equality is a crucial factor in women's empowerment. When women are treated equally and have the same opportunities as men, they are better able to take control of their lives and participate fully in all aspects of society. Gender equality and women's empowerment are closely linked, with one leading to the other. Gender equality provides the necessary conditions for women to be empowered. This research article is focusing on past studies and its finding on gender equality and women empowerment. The purpose of this paper is to provide critical review of existing researches on gender equality and synthesizing evidences for finding its effect on women empowerment. Through review of past researches, a researcher tried to find out how far gender equality can act as a crucial factor for Women empowerment

A Study of Melvin Seemans Theory of Alienation in Siddhartha Gigoos the Garden of Solitude

Simran Koul & Dr. Pallavi Thakur


Seeman’s has identified five alternative meanings of alienation. While doing so Seeman’s considers the social conditions that lead to the “five variants of alienation” and “their behavioural consequences” (1959, p.784). The paper examines the manifestation of Melvin Seemans theory of alienation in Siddhartha Gigoo’s The Garden of Solitude. It examines the application of Seemans five classification of alienation on the community of Kashmiri Pandits who experienced forced exodus in 1990s from their homeland, Kashmir. The paper elucidates powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, social isolation and self-estrangement as extensions of Kashmiri Pandits’ alienation who were subjected to relentless trauma due to the forced expulsion. It endeavours to provide the textual evidences to quadrate the Melvin Seeman’s theory of alienation with the alienation faced by Kashmiri Pandit community.


A Mathematical Model Analysis of a Super infection Control Strategy for the Hepatitis B Hepatitis D Viruses in Highly Epidemic Areas of the World

Tesfaye Tefera Mamo, Samuel T. Tefera


In this work we considered nonlinear ordinary differential equations to study the super infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-hepatitis D virus (HDV) epidemics in highly epidemic areas of the world. We proved the posetivity and bounded ness of the solution of the dynamical system. We used a nonlinear stability analysis method for proving the local and global stability of the existing equilibrium point. We found that the diseases free equilibrium point exist for some conditions. We proved that the disease free equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable and also globally asymptotically stable. Using second generation matrix, we obtained that the effective reproduction number for the dynamical system is , which depends on nine parameters; and basic reproduction number is  Using standard parameter estimation we found that the numerical value of effective reproduction number is  and the basic reproduction number is . From this numerical value it is possible to conclude that vaccination intervention strategy is effective to control the spread of the diseases. Out of nine parameters, the most sensitive parameter is  the proportion of vaccinated new bourns. We also conduct numerical simulations which support the finding in the sensitivity analysis.


Predicting the Future Price of Heterogeneous Stock Data Using Machine Learning Classifiers

Ms. Bhavana Hotchandani , Dr. Vishal Dahiya


The forecast of the stock market has entered a technologically advanced era, revolutionizing the traditional trading model with the introduction of technical wonders such as worldwide digitalization. Many financial investors now focus their investments on stock trading due to the steady rise in market capitalization. Numerous academics and analysts have created methods and tools that forecast changes in stock prices and support investors in making wise decisions. Researchers can forecast the market using non-traditional textual data from social platforms thanks to advanced trading models. Prediction accuracy has significantly improved with the use of sophisticated machine learning techniques like ensemble methods and text data analytics. This paper aims to combine data from various sources, making a heterogeneous data, a hybrid data. Then machine learning methods were implemented and compared to it an ensemble method XGB classifier is implemented in order to retrieve higher accuracy. The study would be a very great help for emerging researchers, stock market analyzers and stock market businesses. This research can be further enhanced to implement deep learning methods like LSTM.


Impact of Quality of Work Life on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Educational Sector

Surya S & Dr. Jacob P.M


The Quality of Work Life and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among school teachers are strongly influenced by the school streams and the type of schools. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the QWL and the OCB of school teachers, to examine the impact of demographic factors on the QWL, and to compare the OCB of different types of school teachers. The study was conducted using multi-stage random sampling techniques on 200 school teachers in 40 schools in the Ernakulum district of Kerala. The findings of the study show that QWL has a positive impact on OCB among the school teachers. According to the Pearson correlation, the dimension of QWL is strongly related to the dimension of OCB. Using one-way anova showed that demographic variables like age and experience have a significant impact on QWL as well as OCB. The high OCB value of school teachers is welcome as it shows that the teachers are going beyond their initial duties for the future generations.


Agribusiness Firms Supply Chain Management Practice: A Systematic Literature Review

Mesfin Mekonnen, Chalchisa Amante and Mekonnen Bogale


The main purpose of this review is to review the supply chain literature and examine the determinants of agribusiness supply chain management practices (ASCMP). In an attempt to address this objective, the study applied the systematic review methodology of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). The documents were extracted from the Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The data was gathered through systematic reviews and analyzed using content analysis to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the determining factors of ASCMP. According to the generated findings, supplier management, supply chain integration, IT implementation, sustainability, trust, information sharing, customer relationship management, coordination, and collaboration management are the main determinants of ASCMP, while traceability, procurement planning, contract monitoring, top management support, staff competency, food safety management, and lean practice are less important. As a result, it was determined that it is critical for agribusiness firm management to recognize and address the identified factors influencing ASCMP to maintain and achieve success in their supply chain practices.

Primary Tendon Repair and Early Controlled Mobilization in ZONE I - IV Injuries of Hand Our Experience and Clinical Outcome

Dr. Mir Yasir Dr. Hillal Ahmad Bhat Dr. Junaid Khurshid Dr. Mir Mohsin Dr. Haroon Rashid Zargar Dr. Adil Hafeez Wani


Background: Tendon injuries are the most common injuries and present in a wide spectrum depending on the mechanism of injury. Hand injuries are most debilitating considering the impact it has on the daily activities. The prompt primary treatment gives the best outcome. Other essential elements required for a near normal function include technique of surgery, post-operative care and physiotherapy protocol. Objective: To assess the presentation, epidemiology and clinical outcome of early controlled mobilization in Flexor Zone I-IV hand injuries. Methods: This prospective study was conducted for a period of three years from December 2019 to November 2022 in a tertiary hand care centre. Flexor tendon injuries in adults in Zone I-IV were included in the study. A two layer closure with modified Kessler's core suture and epitenon suturing was done using 4-0 and 5-0 round polypropylene sutures respectively. A custom designed PVC splint was designed pre-operatively in all patients for post-operative splint age. Early controlled mobilization in the form of passive flexion and limited active extension was started from postoperative day one. Palm to pulp (PTP) distance method was used to assess the functional outcome at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months.  Results: The study included 221 patients. Zone II injuries (52%) were the most common followed by Zone III (30%).102 (46%) patients had the combined flexor digitorumsuperficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorumprofundus (FDP) injuries. Flexor pollicislongus injuries were found in 19 (9%) of cases. Other associated nerve, intrinsic muscle and soft tissue injuries were found in 16% of cases. Metal roofing (steel sheet) injuries (28%) followed by machine cut injuries (24%) were the most common mode of injuries. PTP distance was less than 3cm in 73%, 82% and 82% of patients at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months respectively. Conclusion: A meticulous primary surgical repair with a well programmed physiotherapy protocol consisting of early active controlled mobilization gives good functional outcomein Zone I-IV flexor tendon injuries of hand.


Language Literacy and the Role of Reading and Writing in Primary Education: An Overview’

Mr. Ramchandra Chandru Patil


A Unique relationship between human life and education can be Seen Since ancient times. Human life started with education. Education can be seen embedded in correlation between its use of various objects. Many aspects of literacy have been Strengthened for the Support and development of human life. literacy and its forms are seen in every evolution of human life and correspondingly in every change in Social Structure. Of Course, literacy in this is expected to be strengthened at every Stage of human life. That is why it is important to Strengthen the education and literacy of the child at the primary level in the education system. Reading and writing are foundational skills in language media literacy at the primary level. In this review of research studies, language literacy and its importance at primary level have been elaborated. Reading and writing skills are expected to be Strengthened through language media literacy at primary level. The acquisition of such skills paves the way for all further education streams of the student. Of course, students who acquire language media literacy skills at the primary level appear to be persistent in all their further education Streams. Reading and writing are found to play a major role in literacy and its fundamental aspects in the primary level education system. Students progress through the development of learning through a strong focus on reading and writing. Of course, reading and writing are the basic basis of literacy. Education and its system have changed along with the changing social Structure of the modern times, but reading and writing are found to be the basic focus of literacy. This is way both the foundation of the education system and language medium literacy are of great importance and primary level literacy is fundamentally. Language literacy is seen as synergistic with literacy in other subjects. Both the nature of the changed social system and the education system are Complementary to each other. Therefore, language literacy at the primary level is the main focus and its basic communication is seen to be concentrated around the two foundational issues of reading and writing. for this reason, it is very important to develop primary level language literacy development or its discourse Consolidation, the main components of which are the development of reading and writing skills, action experiences for long-term memory, and the development of Specific discourse experiments. In shout, although there are many forms of education that have changed with the transformation of the social system, basic skills such as reading and writing at the primary level are expected to be Strengthened at this level of education. From which the student receives a definite direction in the direction of the coordinated effect of further education.

Alveolar Ridge Preservation in Period on tally Compromised Extraction Socket A Literature Review

Dr. Pragya Atray Dr. Ashita S Uppoor Dr. Sangeeta U. Nayak


alveolar ridge preservation techniques have been developed to prevent alveolar ridge atrophy and maintain sufficient bone dimensions to enable implant placement in prosthetically driven positions while also maintaining an acceptable ridge contour in regions of cosmetic importance. It has been demonstrated that the alveolar bone undergoes a sequence of healing events following tooth extraction which are different for extraction of periodontally compromised tooth when compared with intact extraction sockets. When left without alveolar ridge preservation at the time of extraction it may be more difficult and necessitate invasive augmentation treatments to place an implant at sites previously impacted by periodontitis the preservation of ridges can be accomplished via a variety of methods, involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes, and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. The literature does not distinguish one technique as being better than another, but several studies have demonstrated that all accepted therapeutic methods for ridge preservation are superior to blood clots alone. The effectiveness of these techniques in periodontally compromised extraction sockets will be assessed in this literature review together with the supporting data.


Beans to Billions: Analysing the Production and Export Dynamics of Coffee as Catalysts for Indias $5 Trillion Economy Ambitions

Rangegowda R , N Ravikumar , Nuzhatul Abrar Siddiqua and Swathi


This research paper probes into the intricate dynamics of coffee production and export in India and their role as catalysts for the Nation's $5 trillion Economy ambitions. The study primarily focuses on key coffee-producing states, with Karnataka emerging as a powerhouse in both Arabica and Robusta cultivation. The methodology involves a meticulous analysis of time series data covering three decades, employing statistical techniques such as regression analysis and Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR). Regression analyses highlighted the robust correlation between coffee area and production, providing insights into the industry's growth. Decade-wise assessments reveal varying growth rates and export data sheds light on market trends. While some markets show consistent growth, challenges in key destinations necessitate strategic interventions. State-wise analyses highlight Karnataka's pivotal role. Overall, the study offers a comprehensive overview of India's coffee industry, crucial for policymakers and stakeholders navigating the journey from "Beans to Billions."


Study of Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Characteristics of Tlawng River, Aizawl, Mizoram

Lalnunthari Ngente


Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate the water quality of the Tlawng river for both pre-treated and treated water. The Tlawng river is an important river to study since the residents of Mizoram's capital city, Aizawl, rely significantly on its discharge for drinking water. The Tlawng river also has significance for research because it transports biomedical effluents from Civil Hospital and Ebenezer Hospital. Methodology: Seasonal studies were conducted on a range of physico-chemical properties (pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons). The analysis was conducted using the procedure described in "Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater." The results were contrasted with scientific standards set by organisations like the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), and the United States of Public Health (USPH). Results: With the exception of pre-treated turbidity and alkalinity, all of the physicochemical parameters tested during the study period were found to be within the acceptable range. Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids levels were found to be higher during the pre-monsoon season, which could be attributed to inadequate water availability from sources, increasing salt concentrations, and the leaching of various pollutants and micronutrients from groundwater. Turbidity and acidity have higher values during the monsoon season, which is associated with heavy rainfall that washes adjacent fertilised agricultural fields, city waste, and other contaminants into river bodies of water. It was also found that the pre-monsoon season had increased total hardness and alkalinity. This might be attributed to a number of factors, including low water tables, water evaporation, and activities like bathing and cleaning along the bank using soap or detergent that contains alkalinity- and hardness-causing compounds. Conclusion: This study revealed the importance of taking serious management activities and methods to protect, conserve, and manage the Tlawng river. It is not recommended to drink water directly from the Tlawng river without treatment. It is vital to investigate the Tlawng river's water quality before an emergency occurs.


Comparing Two Exponential Models for Predicting Yearly Cocoa Bean Yield in Ghana

N Kausalya and S R Krishna Priya


In this study, two exponential models, the Simple Exponential model and Holt's Linear Exponential model were used. The two models are compared in order to determine which of the two models the better one is. Ghana's annual cocoa bean yield for the past 60 years is used as the input characteristics and it is gathered from the "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations," a secondary source. To determine the goal of the current study, error metrics such Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error were employed. In conclusion, the Holt's Linear Exponential model appears to be a more accurate model for forecasting Ghana's annual cocoa bean yield. This study aids in timely decision-making for farmers, the chocolate industries, and cocoa bean producers.


A Comprehensive Review of Bamboo and Its Various Properties

Mainak Mallik, Saurabh Dubey, Deepak Gupta


Bamboo, renowned for its exceptional properties and sustainability, has become a focal point for various industries. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to bamboo, exploring its physical, mechanical, and chemical properties across diverse applications. Drawing on the latest literature, the paper delves into a broad range of facets, offering a thorough evaluation of bamboo's unique characteristics and its potential applications in numerous fields. Methods: This review is based on an extensive examination of the most current literature available on bamboo. Various sources, including scientific articles, research papers, and relevant publications, were analyzed to compile a comprehensive overview of bamboo's properties and potential applications. The methodologies employed encompassed a thorough literature review and analysis, ensuring a comprehensive and up-to-date portrayal of bamboo's capabilities. Conclusion: In conclusion, this review paper sheds light on the versatility and sustainability of bamboo, emphasizing its physical, mechanical, and chemical attributes. The analysis of the latest literature provides valuable insights into the potential applications of bamboo across diverse fields. The paper also addresses the prospects and challenges associated with utilizing bamboo, serving as a crucial reference for scientists, engineers, and policymakers interested in adopting bamboo as a renewable substitute material. Relevance: This review holds significant relevance for individuals in scientific, engineering, and policymaking domains who seek to leverage bamboo as a sustainable alternative material. By consolidating the latest findings on bamboo, this paper serves as a valuable resource, offering insights into its properties and potential applications. Researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers can use this review to inform their work and contribute to the sustainable utilization of bamboo in various industries.


Assessing Employee Satisfaction and Work Life Quality in A Manufacturing Setting: A Case Study of Escorts Kubota Ltd.

Dr. Sanjula Sheokand


The current research focuses on a study done at Escorts Kubota Ltd in Faridabad, Haryana, and examines the intricate connection between industrial relations, the quality of work life, and employee job satisfaction. The study incorporates a mixed-methods approach to examine the major variables affecting employee well-being and satisfaction. The current work focuses on job satisfaction and seeks to assess the level of overall job satisfaction among employees at Escorts Kubota Ltd. The research methodology section describes the data-gathering procedure, which was mostly based on questionnaires distributed to Escorts Kubota Ltd employees. The research objectives were carefully examined using statistical tests including Chi-square, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's alpha reliability test. In particular, Chi-square tests show that demographic factors (gender, experience, and age) have a considerable influence on work satisfaction. The conclusion emphasizes the need to take demographic characteristics into account when creating policies aimed at increasing employee work satisfaction while acknowledging the study's limitations. It highlights the significant impact that workplace quality has on worker output and organizational effectiveness. In conclusion, this article offers a detailed analysis of the complex relationships that exist between employment relations, job satisfaction, and the standard of living at Escorts Kubota Ltd.


Effect of Migration Factors on Medical Tourism Decisions among Residents of Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria

Nina Valentine Orji, & Geraldine Egondu Ugwuonah


Problems: The heightened level of outbound medical tourism in Nigeria implies the presence of specific factors that have a significant impact on medical tourists' decision to travel. When deciding where to seek medical care, medical tourists from varied socioeconomic backgrounds are influenced by a variety of factors. In general, the key factors influencing this decision-making process can be classified into two types: push migration factors, which discourage patients from seeking care in their own country, and pull migration factors, which attract them to medical providers overseas. In Nigeria, these factors have had a significant impact on the economy, contributing to the continuous growth of outbound medical tourism among Nigerians. Nigerians' increasing reliance on foreign healthcare services has far-reaching consequences, including deterioration of medical facilities in Nigerian hospitals, a slowing of economic growth that stifles investment in the health sector, inadequate wages and incentives for healthcare workers, and an increase in the absence of skilled workers due to emigration of healthcare professionals. In Abuja, Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory (FCT), as in many other parts of the country, medical travelers have different reasons for selecting their preferred medical tourism destinations. While some people are affected by variables that favor migration, others are influenced by characteristics that draw them to a specific location. Approach: This study examined the effect of migration factors on medical tourism decisions among residents of the federal capital territory of Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted for the study. A structured questionnaire was used as the research instrument. To establish the reliability of the instrument, a test-retest method was employed. The snowball sampling method was adopted in this study to acquire data from respondents in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, where medical tourists reside. Therefore, the sample size of the study was 384 medical tourists from the selected medical tourism agencies and hospitals. The statistical technique that was used includes descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. All analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 23. Findings: Findings showed that access to quality healthcare facilities, the privacy of health records, tourist attraction sites, the prevalence of unintended complications, and deterioration of medical infrastructure have a significant positive effect on medical tourism decisions, whereas the absence of skilled healthcare workers has no significant effect on medical tourism decisions. Conclusion: The study concluded that all migration factors, besides the absence of skilled healthcare workers, have a significant positive effect on medical tourism decisions among residents of FCT, Abuja. The study recommended amongst others that the Nigerian government should invest in the education and training of healthcare professionals, with a focus on increasing the number of skilled healthcare workers.


A Comprehensive Study of Socio Economic and Ethno-biological Status of the Mountainous People of Idanre Tribes Ondo State South West Nigeria

Sarada Prasad Mohapatra and Okosodo E. F.


The research study examined the comprehensive social-economic and ethno-biological status of the mountainous people of idanre tribes ondo state south west Nigeria. The primary objective to gain valuable insights into their social-economic status and contribute to informed decision-making and policy development aimed at improving their well-being. The study is grounded in both primary and secondary sources. Data acquisition involved the utilization of interview schedules and personal observations, encompassing an evaluation of the general health status and participation in focus group discussions with both male and females from the Idanre community in selected villages of the Idanre Local Government Area. The selection of respondents for primary data collection was done randomly. The result of the research study indicates the Idanre people are unique set of people for their culture, customs, food habits, ethno medicinal status, and mostly an agrarian society. In all 64.58% were males 35.48% female’s respondents. The age distribution revealed that the majority of the respondents were between the ages of 38- 48 which is about 46.88% this is followed by the ages between 29-39 which is 21.88% . The occupation of the Idanre people is majorly agriculture. In all, arable agriculture was 54  respondents which is 56.23%, while cash crop agriculture was 19 respondents which is 19.79% and this was followed by hospitality and tourism business  with 10 respondents which is 10%.


Relationship between Plant Diversity and Soil Moisture for the Seasonal Health Evaluation of Riparian zone in the Central Region of Narmada

Ankita Singh, Pratiksha Singh, Vipin Vyas


The distribution and primary production of plant communities are all strongly correlated with the availability of soil water. Due to anthropogenic activities, the vegetation cover near the water bodies (i.e., riparian zone) is affected. So, to improve the vegetational health of riparian zones it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between the vegetation and soil components. In this research paper, we have outlined findings from the study conducted in riparian forests of the Narmada basin to under stand the vegetational condition and soil moisture (SM), i.e., affected the variety and composition of herbs in the central Narmada region. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (SWDI), Simpson diversity index (SDI), Margalef's index (MARI), and Menhinic's index (MERI) of species richness of the herbs were assessed in the three seasons (i.e., pre-monsoon season, post-monsoon season, and post-winter season) which showed significant positive relationships with SM. Pre-monsoon season showed a low species diversity of 1.046 to 1.807 (SWDI)and 0.001-0.473 (SDI) and high i.e., 1.238 to 1.867 (SWDI) and 0.001-0.481(SDI) in post-monsoon season, indicating poor to intermediate health of the stretch. Like how species richness is higher in the post-monsoon season, it was discovered to be 0.01-1.46 (MARI) and lowest in the post-winter season i.e., 0.001-1.369 which also indicates poor to moderate health of the river stretch. The index of the link between soil moisture and biodiversity (Root-mean-square deviation, or RSMD), which measures soil moisture at 0–12 cm depth, shows that only this association increased with the change of season. In the pre-monsoon season, the SDI’s linear relationship with soil moisture was stronger than that of other indices, despite MARI and MERI exhibiting stronger linear correlations with soil moisture (SM)in the post-monsoon and post-winter seasons, respectively.


Maximum Power Point Tracking Improvement Using Incorporated Linear Quadratic Regulator and Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme

Idaresit I. Abraham, Christian C. Mbaocha, Samuel O. Okozi, Mfonobong E. Benson


This paper presents maximum power point tracking improvement using the incorporated linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and model reference adaptive control scheme (MRAC). Solar photovoltaic energy system is one of the renewable energy applications which operates by tracking energy from the sun and converting it into useful electrical energy However, harnessing the generated energy has been the major concern of the engineers hence the necessity for an optimal control technique aimed at obtaining efficient control of the generated power hence the need for an efficient maximum power point tracking (MPPT) mechanism. This paper therefore presents MPPT improvement using incorporated linear quadratic regulator and model reference adaptive control (LQR-MRAC) technique. 


The nutritional values of papaya and the challenging role of yoga practices for weight loss in a society of Mumbai

Islam Mazahirul, Mukul Sharma, Afraim Koty, Alam Afroze, Ahmed S. Mabrouk


Introduction: Obesity is a Curse in our society. It has caused one of the major fatalities in the world. Papaya belongs to the giant herbaceous small family Caricaceae. It originated in the historical era of Meso-America, which is currently known as southern Mexico and Central America. In India, it came from the Caribbean through the Spanish explorers around 1550 AD. The nutritional value of the papaya provides an amazing result for weight loss. Yoga is mentioned in several oldest Hindu religious books, such as Rig Veda in Sanskrit. Yoga has been described in Upanishads as well by our Rishis and Monies since ancient times. Therefore, researchers have traced these yogic practices such as asanas to over a thousand years ago. Yoga asanas have benefited in several ways to reduce the weight among the obese. Yoga along with low-calorie fruits such as papaya uniquely reduces BMI. Obesity is a major concern not only in India but also causing severe damage to society and overall health issues all across the rich and the developed world. Method: We selected a large society with a yoga club in a suburb of Mumbai, Andheri having 189 active members of different ages of 16 to 59 years old male and female with a rich background. We identified 95 obese members with a high BMI. We have conducted a small conference on the values of yoga and the nutritional value of Papaya in the club. We performed a BMI and lung function test after the post-corona period from 15th July 2021 to 20th June 2022 for 11 months. The selection of 75 members was performed prudently with their consent. Result: The addition of papaya and regular Yoga Asanas at least thrice per week till 11 months post BMI result was amazing. Conclusion: The use of papaya and regular use of Yoga yields a powerful message as a concomitant therapy for our medical community and will help to reduce obesity as an alternative therapy.