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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Occupational Stress among Doctors: A Review of Literatures

Vijay Dalal


Stress has become a common factor in healthcare departments especially for doctors as they deal with large number of patients with variety conditions and work overload. So, effective coping strategies are important to reduce stress among doctors. The present article is discussed about the presence of occupational stress among doctors and their findings with suggestions to reduce the levels of stress. This study recommended that all the sources of occupational stress especially heavy workload, financial and family concerns should be dealt with through restructuring of words and rising satisfaction of physicians about their job.


Levels of educational development in Bankura District, West Bengal

Dr. Anjumoni Boruah


literacy may be defined as the person who is  more than seven years of age read, write and understanding in any language of society . It is an essential part of human life which eradicates poverty and mental isolations. Literacy influences on society for creating friendly and peaceful environment. It is an important index of development of society. It influences on fertility, mortality, social advancement, friendly international relations, economic growth, political maturity, occupation etc. Illiteracy on the other hand is the major hindrance of development.  It retarded society from of all sides by ignorance of real understanding of society. The district Bankura is located in between 22038'N to 23038'N latitude and 86036' E to 87046' E longitude. It is located at the western part of West Bengal and eastern part of Chhotonagpur plateau. The eastern part of this district is a part of Gangetic deltaic region. According to the census 2011 more than quarter number peoples are illiterates. Here the literacy is 70.26% where the male is 80.05% and female is only 60.05%. Here many people migrates seasonally to the eastern part of some other district like Burdwan and Hooghly as a labour  to the agricultural field of paddy sowing and cutting  times of both aman and boro seasons. Here many people are very poor. In this paper I will try to show the development and problem of literacy by different statistical, cartographic methods. Literacy development index and index of deprivation have been computed for this purposes and lastly a major comparison will be made to show the temporal variation and trends of literacy.


Students self-belief about their mathematics capability and achievement in mathematics

Onoshakpokaiye, E. Odiri


Self-belief in someone’s capability is an important component in learning. Someone who doubts his/her capability or ability may not succeed in accomplishing a given task. Mathematics has been regarded as a difficult subject by many students, and so they try by all means to avoid it. Many students doubt their ability or capability in learning and carrying out mathematics task because they believed that they could not succeed, and this has caused lots of problems and discouragement to the students in learning the subject. This study looked at the students’ self-belief about their capability in learning mathematics, sources that enhance students’ self-beliefs about their mathematics capability, students’ self-belief in their mathematics ability and their achievement. The study uses a correlation. One hundred and forty students of the diploma year two students of a tertiary institution were selected as a sample through random sampling. Two research questions and two hypotheses were stated and used for the study. Instruments for data collection was the questionnaire which was analyzed using the SPSS. The study revealed that i) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematics influence their Ability ii) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematics influence students’ achievement in mathematics.



Ecological study of flora is an important indication as it forms baseline data for the distribution of plant species or communities and their relation with physical environment of particular area

Soni Raj


Pteridophytes are the primitive vascular plants, they are found scattered all over the globe and quite many of them occur in India. However, they are not found throught the country. Pteridophytes make as important contribution to the earth’s plant diversity. Being the second largest group of vascular plants, they form a significant and dominant component of many plant communities. All human activities disturb the vegetation by eliminating many species. So an up to date study is very important for knowing about flora, especially in the case of pteridophytes. The present effort was undertaken to enumerate the pteridophytic species present in Kilavarai freshwater river situated in Palni hills of southern Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, the study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2016. The result of the present study revealed that 36 pteridophytic species belonging to 25 genera distributed among 19 families were noted from the study site. Among the families recorded, Adiantaceae (16.67%) was found to be dominant and largest family comprising 6 species. Polypodiaceae and Pteridaceae (each of 11.11%) shared the second largest family status; they were represented by 4 species each. The third largest family was Lycopodiaceae (8.33%); it was represented by 3 species. The families Cheilanthaceae, Nephrolepidaceae and Selaginellaceae were recorded with each of 2 species (5.56%) and 11 families were represented by single species (2.78%). Moreover, terrestrial species (27 species) were found to be more in number than epiphytic (5 species), 3 species were found as both epiphytic and lithophytic species and 1 species was recorded as purely lithophytic.


Entrepreneurship skills needed by vocational and technical education students for self-employment in a recessed economy

Timothy O. Olinya, Honesta C. Anorue & Faruk S. Abdullahi


The study identified the entrepreneurship skills needed by Vocational and Technical Education Students for self-employment in a recessed economy.  The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population for the study was 172 which comprises of 52 vocational and technical education Lecturers from both Federal College of Education Eha-Amfufu, and Enugu State College of Education (Technical)Enugu State, and 120 Vocational and Technical Education Students from both Colleges. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaires. Data collected from the respondents was analyzed using statistical packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS-20.0). The statistical tools for data analysis were mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions.   The study found that , organize activities in line with set up of organizational guidelines, ability to prevent conflicts and resolve issues as they arise, demonstrate effective financial management, and application of basic accounting record principles among others, are some of the entrepreneurship skills needed by vocational and technical education students for self-employment in a recessed economy.  The study recommends among others, that Lecturers in vocational and Technical Education should undergo training and re-training in entrepreneurship skills in forecasting models to be able to meet up with new trend in global economy and Technology.


The significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level

Lakshmi Sindhe


The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the senior secondary students (Class XI & CLASS 12). This is an empirical study which makes use of the data collected from a sample of 80 students belonging to Little Flower School, Guwahati and Gurukul Grammar Senior Secondary School, Guwahati. The sample was divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 students who are participants and non-participants in co-curricular activities respectively. A questionnaire consisting of 10 items was distributed among the students of both the groups to collect quantitative data. It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level who are participants and non-participants in such activities. Significantly different results were obtained from the study. The result of the study indicates that the students who participate in co-curricular activities show lower level of stress than the students who do not participate in co-curricular activities at all.


The Effect of Academic Staff Retention in case of Jig-Jiga University, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

Farah Iftin


The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing academic staff retention in case of Jigjiga University. Jijiga University in Ethiopia are operating in a highly competitive environment and one of the challenges that face is employee retention, the core academic staff. This has been occasioned by globalization which has intensified competition and the mobility of highly skilled employees yet the university depend on these staff for success and stability. Especially the objective of the study was to identify whether extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors influenced retention of academic staff. To achieve the above objective, the study was conducted using survey and explanatory research design. The total population of the academic staff in Jigjiga University covered by the study was 843. Stratified random sampling was used in the first stage to insure all subgroups ware represented. The second stage ware employed simple random sampling and a total of 80 respondents ware sampled from the study in Jigjiga University. Data was collected using questionnaire which had both closed- ended (Likert type scale 1-5) and open ended questions. Academic Program and promotion director in charge of administration of the university ware interviewed in order to get in-depth information on retention. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 descriptive statics such as mean and standard deviation. Inferential statics included correlation and multiple regressions ware used. Qualitative data was put into categories based on themes that was aligned in to research objectives and was integrated of discussion and findings. The study revealed that leadership style positively influenced academic staff retention. This study therefore, brought to the fore, the role of leadership and there leadership factors in academic staff retention. The finding also indicated that promotion did not influence academic staff retention in Jigjiga University. The study concluded that in the presence of leadership factors and training remuneration influence academic staff retention


Changes of population scenario of Himachal Pradesh, India From 1981 to 2011

Anarul Islam


The population of Himachal Pradesh has been increasing unabatedly since last four decades. The present paper attempts to analyze the trends in population size, density and its growth in the study area during the study period. The study is based upon secondary data. It discusses the changing scenario of population size, density and growth during the four census years (1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011). The study reveals that the population has been increasing continuously and unevenly from 1980s to 2011. The distribution of population presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts are supporting more population and vice-versa. The study brings out that population density has also been increased over the period. The density of population also presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts support more human population and vice-versa. The overall growth of population has registered 60.16% increase between 1981-2011.


The effectiveness of arbitration in settling investment disputes in renewable energy contracts

Dr. Ghasan obaid Mohammed & Nisreen Hasan Koni


Arbitration is one of the main means in settling renewable energy contract investment disputes due to the adherence of multinational companies to it, as it is the best way for them to be able to resolve the dispute in confidentiality and speed commensurate with their commercial purpose, and because of the freedom that arbitration gives them by choosing the most appropriate procedures and laws to resolve disputes that may occur in These contracts, however, the state, on the other hand, may stand in the way of the means of arbitration because of its belief that it affects its sovereignty and judicial immunity and exposes it to danger or threat first, and because of the fear of violating the supreme rules that it sets for the environment in which it enters, i.e. the rules of public order. Second, and the best evidence of the validity of the state’s concerns about the conflict of arbitration for the public system in it is the decision that it may issue not to allow the state to expropriate the foreign investor’s ownership of the lands of the investing state and cancel such a decision in the event Imposing its issuance and obligating it to compensate as a result of its arbitrariness by issuing such decisions.