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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Status of living of Rickshaw Pullers in Malda town of West Bengal

Ms.Vandana Singh


The main objective of the study is to analyze the socio-economic condition of rickshaw pullers in Malda town of West Bengal. The study is based on the primary sources of data collected through field survey 2012-13. Rickshaw pullers are those people who drive the rickshaws on the roads, lanes, bi-lanes, transporting people and commodities. These rickshaw pullers help in linkage process through its well networking system in Malda town. Rickshaw pullers are one of the poorest of the poor in the society. It is the most important source of earning for those people who are not working in the formal sectors. The reasons which forced them to pulled rickshaw are unemployment, poverty, low income, low educational status and large family size. Rickshaw pulling activity is an important occupation of the informal sector, where a million of poor not only serve the transportation needs of the society but also try to meet out their own economic and employment needs.


Analyse the level of potato productivity in Hooghly district of West Bengal during the time span of 2007-08

Aparna Ghose


West Bengal ranks second in terms of potato production in India (Department of Agriculture Cooperation, Govt. of India). Hooghly district is one of the leading potato producing districts of West Bengal. The paper attempts to analyse the level of potato productivity in Hooghly district of West Bengal during the time span of 2007-08. The present study is entirely based on the secondary data which have been collected mainly from the District Statistical Handbook, 2008. Crop yield and concentration indices ranking coefficient of Singh (1976) has been used to demarcate the blocks of Hooghly district in terms of potato productivity. The paper reveals that the highest yield index of potato is found in Pursurah block (133.05) and the lowest in Khanakul- II (20.37). The highest concentration index of potato has been recorded in Pursurah (151.05) and the lowest as 22.02 in Serampur-Uttarpara block. The highest level of potato productivity has been found in Pursurah block and the lowest in Balagarh block. To minimise the disparity in potato productivity across the blocks of Hooghly district, special emphasis should be given to the efficient use of modern technological inputs and allocation of fertile alluvial tracts with better use of irrigation.


Post-Soviet Russia revolution on transition in Russia was marked by various political experiments

Madhusudhan Karmakar


This work examines the process of Refederalization and scope of Federalism in Post-Soviet Russia. Russian federal system underwent through various changes after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. It came into existence because of various treaties signed between the central government and the regions. Russian federal structure is asymmetrical in nature, marked by conflict over system of power sharing between the Center and the regions. An institutional mechanism has been created to ensure the effective implementation of federal principles. But an overarching control of President over political affairs, foreign policy and economy could prove harmful for the successful evolution of a federal state in Russia.  

The pioneering practice of food fermentation shares an integral part of cultural heritage from ancient Indian civilization

Amal kumar Deshmukh


The pioneering practice of food fermentation shares an integral part of cultural heritage from ancient Indian civilization for sustained nutrition and food preservation. More than five thousand different fermented foods are being consumed worldwide, many of which are produced by native people of certain locality using locally available plant or animal products. These are prepared either naturally or by adding starter cultures containing some specific microorganisms which can modify the substrate into edible product. Assam, the second largest state of Northeast India, is rich in both biological and cultural diversity and inhibited by a number of ethnic communities. This study documents the traditional knowledge on fermented food products of Lakhimpur District of Assam, India.


Levels of educational development in Bankura District, West Bengal

Dr. Anjumoni Boruah


literacy may be defined as the person who is  more than seven years of age read, write and understanding in any language of society . It is an essential part of human life which eradicates poverty and mental isolations. Literacy influences on society for creating friendly and peaceful environment. It is an important index of development of society. It influences on fertility, mortality, social advancement, friendly international relations, economic growth, political maturity, occupation etc. Illiteracy on the other hand is the major hindrance of development.  It retarded society from of all sides by ignorance of real understanding of society. The district Bankura is located in between 22038'N to 23038'N latitude and 86036' E to 87046' E longitude. It is located at the western part of West Bengal and eastern part of Chhotonagpur plateau. The eastern part of this district is a part of Gangetic deltaic region. According to the census 2011 more than quarter number peoples are illiterates. Here the literacy is 70.26% where the male is 80.05% and female is only 60.05%. Here many people migrates seasonally to the eastern part of some other district like Burdwan and Hooghly as a labour  to the agricultural field of paddy sowing and cutting  times of both aman and boro seasons. Here many people are very poor. In this paper I will try to show the development and problem of literacy by different statistical, cartographic methods. Literacy development index and index of deprivation have been computed for this purposes and lastly a major comparison will be made to show the temporal variation and trends of literacy.


Status of education in Western Maharashtra: a Geographical Analysis

Hira Malhotra


Literacy rate is one of the important demographic elements, which is a good measure of human progress towards modernization. Literacy has been defined as the ability to read and write with understanding. Indian literacy is characterized with sharp differences in between the rate of male and females; of rural and urban areas; and of various population subgroups. There are inter-regional variations in literacy rate among Western Maharashtra. The literacy variations are quite significant between male-female and rural-urban in this area. In this present paper, the western Maharashtra region is selected for analyzing these variations of literacy and differential of literacy. For this study, the secondary data are used which collected from socio-economic abstract of district. The collected data are analysed by using statistical and cartographic techniques.  Such type of study represents real situation of literacy in Western Maharashtra which helps to planners, scientists and research scholars.