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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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The effectiveness of arbitration in settling investment disputes in renewable energy contracts

Dr. Ghasan obaid Mohammed & Nisreen Hasan Koni


Arbitration is one of the main means in settling renewable energy contract investment disputes due to the adherence of multinational companies to it, as it is the best way for them to be able to resolve the dispute in confidentiality and speed commensurate with their commercial purpose, and because of the freedom that arbitration gives them by choosing the most appropriate procedures and laws to resolve disputes that may occur in These contracts, however, the state, on the other hand, may stand in the way of the means of arbitration because of its belief that it affects its sovereignty and judicial immunity and exposes it to danger or threat first, and because of the fear of violating the supreme rules that it sets for the environment in which it enters, i.e. the rules of public order. Second, and the best evidence of the validity of the state’s concerns about the conflict of arbitration for the public system in it is the decision that it may issue not to allow the state to expropriate the foreign investor’s ownership of the lands of the investing state and cancel such a decision in the event Imposing its issuance and obligating it to compensate as a result of its arbitrariness by issuing such decisions.


Students self-belief about their mathematics capability and achievement in mathematics

Onoshakpokaiye, E. Odiri


Self-belief in someone’s capability is an important component in learning. Someone who doubts his/her capability or ability may not succeed in accomplishing a given task. Mathematics has been regarded as a difficult subject by many students, and so they try by all means to avoid it. Many students doubt their ability or capability in learning and carrying out mathematics task because they believed that they could not succeed, and this has caused lots of problems and discouragement to the students in learning the subject. This study looked at the students’ self-belief about their capability in learning mathematics, sources that enhance students’ self-beliefs about their mathematics capability, students’ self-belief in their mathematics ability and their achievement. The study uses a correlation. One hundred and forty students of the diploma year two students of a tertiary institution were selected as a sample through random sampling. Two research questions and two hypotheses were stated and used for the study. Instruments for data collection was the questionnaire which was analyzed using the SPSS. The study revealed that i) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematics influence their Ability ii) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematics influence students’ achievement in mathematics.


Exploring EFL Teachers Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Practices of Differentiated Instruction in English Classrooms

Minwuyelet Andualem Desta, Melaku Bayu Workie & Destaw Bayabel Yemer3


The main purpose of this study was to investigate English language teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and perceived classroom practices of differentiated instruction in English classrooms at some selected general secondary schools of west Gojjam zone, Ethiopia. So as to achieve this goal, a mixed research design was employed. Forty five grade nine English language teachers of Wad, Arbegnoch, Anjenie, Gelila, and Yezeleka general secondary schools were selected as participants using comprehensive sampling technique. Interview, questionnaire, and observation were utilized to gather data. The findings indicated that the English language teachers had good conception about differentiated instruction, but there was approximately no practice. The results also revealed that teachers had an adverse attitude towards differentiated instruction. Moreover, large class size, time constraint, lack of commitment and motivation due to inadequate payment, job dissatisfaction due to unmotivated learners and so were reported as deterring factors for DI implementation in EFL classrooms at schools. Based on the findings, it is possible to conclude that EFL teachers’ had a good awareness of DI, but they have lack of commitment in practicing it in the EFL classrooms. Finally, taking note of the results, recommendations were ahead.


Assessing the Impact of Language Diversity in Interpersonal Communication in Case of Second and Third Year English Language and Literature Students of Bule Hora University

Yonas Yohannes Koyra


This study dealt with assessing the gap of interpersonal communication among students resulted from diversified language background focused on Bule Hora University second and third year English Language and Literature Students in 2020 G. C. academic year. Students in university need to have good interpersonal communication skills particularly oral communication which takes place in face-to-face interaction through words of the mouth. Ethiopia has multi languages and how it may affect oral interpersonal communication skills of students is the gap to fulfill this study. The research used descriptive research designs both qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaire, observation, and focus group discussion tools were employed to gather the data. Totally there are 44 students all of them participated in data gathering process by available sampling technique. The findings of the study indicated that interpersonal communication among Blue Hora University students of English language and literature department mainly affected by diverse language background. The participants have better understanding about interpersonal communication, but they face a great challenge to implement it with any students who have diversified language in the campus except those who use identical mother tongue incase interpersonal communication especially oral communication is highly influenced by language diversity.  Students’ preference to communicate a person as well as the language resulted in language barrier which resulted malfunction in oral communication. The study reveals that there is a communication breakdown among students who came from different language background Therefore, they mightn’t made mutual relationships among students and also there were misunderstanding and misinterpretation among themselves. In case of that they missed knowledge and techniques to solve problems together with different students; this resulted in limitation of knowledge.  Actually student students have no lack of knowledge of interpersonal communication, personal problem, and culture difference, but language diverse greatly affected their interpersonal communication particularly oral communication. 


Influence of Political Advertorials on Voter Education in the 2015 General Elections in North-Central Nigeria T

iamiyu, Kabiru Adebowale & Anthony C. Ekwueme


The objective of this study was to determine the influence of political advertorials in educating the electorate on the need to vote during elections in Nigeria. The study focused on the 2015 general election in Nigeria with particular attention to North Central Nigeria. The population of the study was 191,554, comprising the number of state civil servants in North-Central Nigeria, while multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 382 as the sample for the study, arrived at, using the Kretcie and Morgan sampling table. After a descriptive and inferential data analysis, it was found out that there was high level of use of political advertorials for voter education in 2015 elections. Most of the respondents were exposed to political advertorials on voter education in North-Central Nigeria, since more than 90% of them read the advertorials, most of the political advertorials were written to favour certain candidates and political parties; hence the voter education content was bias, among others. It was recommended, among others, that there should be more of political advertorials regularly on the pages of Nigeria newspaper, instead of limiting such publications to the election years alone, as it will lead to consistency in the messages, thereby registering on peoples’ minds political consciousness, needed for voter education.


Mathematics Learning Disability: Some Strategies to Teach Students who haveMathematics Learning Disability

Onoshakpokaiye, E. Odiri


Mathematics is a subject taught in all schools, made compulsory for all educational system and also it is the basic requirement for all students to study any course in higher institution. This subject  has been a problem to so many students for its calculation. Many of the students are afraid of the subject, because of the general notion that it is the most difficult subject. Aside these group of students, we have other students who have learning disability in mathematics. These group of students find it difficulty to learn and understand mathematics concepts, most of them are discouraged and frustrated due to their inability to learn and understand the basic mathematics concepts. Some of the mathematics teachers handling the subject are not trained in the area of handling these group of students, some are impatient, since they do not specialize in this special area of needs that will take care of students who have mathematics learning disability and so there is problem in teaching these group of students the subjects. There is need for trained teachers in this aspect to take care of the learning disability of students. The paper examines mathematics and learning disability, learning disability in mathematics and student’s performance, teaching students who have mathematics learning disability and some of the approaches that can be applied to teach students with mathematics learning disability.