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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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Economic Impact of Poultry Disease on Village Chicken production in Ethiopia

Simachew Dubale


Village chickens contribute more than 98% of the total meat and egg productions in Ethiopia. Poultry diseases are considered to be the most important factor responsible for reducing both the number and productivity of chickens and the farmers face huge economic losses throughout the year. The main objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of poultry disease, and its impact on household income, and dietary diversity. The study relied on both primary and secondary data sources of information. The primary data was collected from 152 samples both affected and none affected households. In this study, descriptive statistics, costs and returns analysis, and econometric models were used to analyze the data from households. From the total number of sample households 53.3 percentaffected by poultry disease. Only 38% and 23.46% of households affected farm households had access to government veterinary health centers for the treatment of sick poultry to curb the fatal disease for none affected and affected households respectively. The total, cost was estimated at Ethiopian Birr 122836.5 and 105612.5, respectively, for affected and non-affected farm household, and the total return was estimated at 8606.25 and 47880 Ethiopian Birr, respectively for affected and non-affected farm households. The study found that due to poultry disease outbreak an average economic loss was determined 3433.3 Ethiopian Birr for each household. On average, the country incurred an economic loss of 1.58 Billion Ethiopian Birr (US$ 37.656 million) per annum. The household’s dietary diversity, showing the score for affected 7.03 and non-affected 9.56 meaning that the affected farm households had consumed lessamount than the non-affected farm families. The multiple regression model output shows that age of households, family size, knowledge of poultry disease, training on poultry disease, and access to vaccination significantly affected the income of the household. Thus, control of diseases should be achieved through vaccination and improvement in veterinary and advisory services.  


Nostalgic Narratives on Indigenous Medicines and Medication Systems among Traditional Healers in Guji People, Southern Ethiopia

Gemeda Odo Roba


This article investigates the nostalgic narratives about accessibility, usability and sustainability of indigenous medicines and medication systems among Guji people traditional healers in Ethiopia. The methods of data production like in-depth interview, key informants interview and focus group discussions were conducted to produce data from local elders and traditional healers. According to the findings the nostalgic narratives widely recounted by local elders and traditional healers indicate that indigenous medicinal knowledge and medication systems have been highly eroded due to endangerment of medicinal knowledge, declining of medicinal values, degradation of medicinal plants and waning of healers reputation particularly following changes in usability, accessibility and sustainability of medicinal knowledge.  These changes have resulted in nostalgic narratives whereby local healers and community elders idyllically recount about gradual losses and degradations of medicinal knowledge and medication systems sustainability. The nostalgic narratives point up that there are significant changes in usability, accessibility and sustainability of indigenous medicine and medication system. Therefore, the researchers, local healers, governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and local people need to work in collaboration to preserve the indigenous medicinal knowledge for socio-economic benefit of current as well as coming generations.


Assessment of Students Reading Comprehension Status: The Instance of Grade Eight Students at MangudoPrimary School

YonasYohannes Koyra Ammanuel Berhanu Jarssa


The purpose of this study was to assess students’ reading comprehension status in Mangudo primary school with a reference to grade eight which has 211 students within five sections.It particularly treats students’ reading comprehension skills initiatives and practices for checking their reading comprehension status. It has employed a survey descriptive research design with 70 simple random sampled students. The result revealed that there isremarkable and solid progress after the intervention of consecutive reading strategies-based instructions. Almost all of the students have improved their reading comprehension skills status through reading comprehension strategies that help them to tackle the problem like lack of basic and inadequate knowledge of English which results in serious errors in reading comprehension. Some of them achieved complete realization of reading comprehension while the majority remain non-basic and not many errors.


Effect of Academic Staff Retention in case of Jig-Jiga University, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

Farah Iftin


The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing academic staff retention in case of Jigjiga University. Jijiga University in Ethiopia are operating in a highly competitive environment and one of the challenges that face is employee retention, the core academic staff. This has been occasioned by globalization which has intensified competition and the mobility of highly skilled employees yet the university depend on these staff for success and stability. Especially the objective of the study was to identify whether extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors influenced retention of academic staff. To achieve the above objective, the study was conducted using survey and explanatory research design. The total population of the academic staff in Jigjiga University covered by the study was 843. Stratified random sampling was used in the first stage to insure all subgroups ware represented. The second stage ware employed simple random sampling and a total of 80 respondents ware sampled from the study in Jigjiga University. Data was collected using questionnaire which had both closed- ended (Likert type scale 1-5) and open ended questions. Academic Program and promotion director in charge of administration of the university ware interviewed in order to get in-depth information on retention. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 descriptive statics such as mean and standard deviation. Inferential statics included correlation and multiple regressions ware used. Qualitative data was put into categories based on themes that was aligned in to research objectives and was integrated of discussion and findings. The study revealed that leadership style positively influenced academic staff retention. This study therefore, brought to the fore, the role of leadership and there leadership factors in academic staff retention. The finding also indicated that promotion did not influence academic staff retention in Jigjiga University. The study concluded that in the presence of leadership factors and training remuneration influence academic staff retention


The Role of Supply Chain Integration on the Supply Chain Performance of Business Sectors

Meaza Getnet Alemu


The main objective of this study is to evaluate the role of supply chain integration on the supply chain performance of the business sectors. The reviewer has used many studies specifically conducted on the effect of supply chain integration dimensions; internal integration, supplier integration and customer integration on which many studies are currently emphasized on. The published articles related to this topic have been searched and the best 12 were chosen on which deeper review has been made. Finally, it has been reached that internal integration; supplier integration and customer integration have all significant and positive effect on the performance of business sectors’ supply chain. Limitations have been found in that the varying studies made have found somehow deviating findings in terms of the effect of the supply chain integration dimensions on the performance of business supply chain and the reviewer has recommended that such studies on the concept need to be extensively made and even the dimensions touched by the existing studies need to incorporate the important dimensions.


Economic Determinants of Military Expenditure in Ethiopia during 2011 – 2019

Mr. Minda Yirga Beyene Dr. S. Srinivasan Dr. Venkatesh Andavar


Issues: Ethiopia’s military expenditure is increasing from time to time which detrimentally distracts the actual follow of the economy. The country needs to build a virtuous protection and henceforth, it will do reduction of expenses for growth. Ethiopia is in a prerequisite of to do stability the both. Methods: This paper objective to evaluate the economic determinants of military expenditure in Ethiopia during the period 2011 – 2019. Linear Regression analysis has been applied with military expenditure and export, GDP, gross capital formation, urban population and foreign direct investment. Findings: Ethiopia’s military expenditure has significantly influenced export of Ethiopia which is articulated in the regression analysis and the coefficient is -1.37, R-square is 0.74 and t-statistics is -3.90. GDP increased in the country which is highly significant influence in the increased military expenses and expressed in the regression analysis that coefficient is -5.68, R-square is 0.94 and t-statistics is -11.65. And also, the capital formation of Ethiopia is significantly increased the military expenditure of the country. The urban population of Ethiopia has significantly influenced the military expenses which is clearly elucidated in the regression analysis where coefficient is -9.89, R-square is 0.94 and t-statistics is -10.92 and military expense is significant influence with the FDI of Ethiopia which is clarified as coefficient is -0.40 and t-statistics is -19.60 and there are meager influences of the military expenses by FDI, so R-square is 0.83. Conclusions: Ethiopia’s military expenditure has increased significantly from 2011 to 2019. It has significant relationship between export, GDP, gross capital formation, urban population and foreign direct investment, hence, Ethiopia faces internal and external threads, so it is always surging the outlay for military due to purchase new weapons and import arm equipment. Furthermore, the government policy should focus on GDP, capital formation and FDI to development of the country.


The effectiveness of arbitration in settling investment disputes in renewable energy contracts

Ghasan obaid Mohammed & Nisreen Hasan Koni


         Arbitration is one of the main means in settling renewable energy contract investment disputes due to the adherence of multinational companies to it, as it is the best way for them to be able to resolve the dispute in confidentiality and speed commensurate with their commercial purpose, and because of the freedom that arbitration gives them by choosing the most appropriate procedures and laws to resolve disputes that may occur in These contracts, however, the state, on the other hand, may stand in the way of the means of arbitration because of its belief that it affects its sovereignty and judicial immunity and exposes it to danger or threat first, and because of the fear of violating the supreme rules that it sets for the environment in which it enters, i.e. the rules of public order. Second, and the best evidence of the validity of the state’s concerns about the conflict of arbitration for the public system in it is the decision that it may issue not to allow the state to expropriate the foreign investor’s ownership of the lands of the investing state and cancel such a decision in the event Imposing its issuance and obligating it to compensate as a result of its arbitrariness by issuing such decisions.


The impact of corporate culture on employee's commitments At Vietnamese commercial banks

Tran Minh Hieu,, Huynh Thanh Tu,, Ly Thanh Binh


This study applies the research model of Jung et al. to measure the factors of corporate culture that impact the employee’s engagement at commercial banks in Vietnam. The study used Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test method and discovery factor analysis (EFA) to test and evaluate the scale. The results show that the factors of Teamwork, Training and Development, Rewards and Recognition, and CorporateCommunication affectthe employee’s engagement at Vietnamese commercial banks. The research results will be the basis for the management of commercial banks to improve the employee's commitment. In addition, the study also proposes to enhance the employee’s engagement at commercial banks in the future.