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Papers are invite for publication in Volume 14 Number 02 (June 2024)

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The significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level

Lakshmi Sindhe


The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the senior secondary students (Class XI & CLASS 12). This is an empirical study which makes use of the data collected from a sample of 80 students belonging to Little Flower School, Guwahati and Gurukul Grammar Senior Secondary School, Guwahati. The sample was divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 students who are participants and non-participants in co-curricular activities respectively. A questionnaire consisting of 10 items was distributed among the students of both the groups to collect quantitative data. It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level who are participants and non-participants in such activities. Significantly different results were obtained from the study. The result of the study indicates that the students who participate in co-curricular activities show lower level of stress than the students who do not participate in co-curricular activities at all.


Influence factors on the purchase decision of electronic consumer durables

Subarna Kumar Sharma


The present paper is an attempt to study the consumer online purchase pattern with reference to various macroeconomic factors. Need to purchase and Ease in purchase is not only guided by the individual aspects, but there are other external forces, acting indirectly but affects directly on “consumer purchase Decision”, called “Macroeconomic Factors”. In this generation of digital convenience which simplifies the process of delivering goods and services in one hand, strengthens the economy by making it more competitive, now the individual who is in search of their utility satisfaction restricted by other factors before deciding their purchase. Economic condition, interest rates, tax system, inflation plays a major role. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of these above stated factors on the purchase decision of electronic consumer durables.


Changes of population scenario of Himachal Pradesh, India From 1981 to 2011 Anarul IslamChanges of population scenario of Himachal Pradesh, India From 1981 to 2011

Anarul Islam


The population of Himachal Pradesh has been increasing unabatedly since last four decades. The present paper attempts to analyze the trends in population size, density and its growth in the study area during the study period. The study is based upon secondary data. It discusses the changing scenario of population size, density and growth during the four census years (1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011). The study reveals that the population has been increasing continuously and unevenly from 1980s to 2011. The distribution of population presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts are supporting more population and vice-versa. The study brings out that population density has also been increased over the period. The density of population also presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts support more human population and vice-versa. The overall growth of population has registered 60.16% increase between 1981-2011.


Causes of soil pollution in selected part of Birbhum District, West Bengal

Mr. Prakash Singh


The causes of soil pollution are complex and far reaching. Actually it has economic impacts and this in term causes social impacts. Agriculture is the base of village economy. It has been evolved through different stages, from the past to this modern era.In traditional agriculture farmers used to depend on farm manure and cow dung as natural sources of plant nutrients. This traditional system of applying manure could only support low yields but there was no strain on the inherent of the soil. Modern agriculture largely depends on the use of high cost inputs such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides etc. The application of such inputs has undoubtedly increased the production but there is growing concern over the adverse effects of the use of chemicals on soil productivity and environment quality.Now in case of Choto Sangra, only organic manure was used for crop cultivation before forty to fifty years. So, the production of crop was less than now but now with chemical fertilizer, HYV seeds etc the production of this village has no doubt become increased. Negative effect of modern agriculture is also found that the excessive use of chemical fertilizer has reduced the fertility of field. Undergone demonstration is not practiced here. So, sometimes farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides unscientifically. Consumption of chemical pesticides had increased during 1990-91 and decreased during 1995-96 and further come down to about 1998-99 while it is necessary to add the required amount of plant food nutrients in the soil to increase crop production. Continuous removal of micronutrient due to excessive amount of chemical inputs application is depleting the soil fertility. It is however, easy to standardize the optimum levels of production factors at the experimental sites but very difficult to popularize them among the vast majority of farmers. Due to tropical climate, organic carbon status, phosphate status of this soil is low. Potash, a nutrient is adequate in the soils of Choto Sangra village. As remedial measure, organic agriculture should be practiced. It relies upon crop rotations with leguminous crops, addition of crop residues, animal manure, bio fertilizer and bio pesticides.


Status of development in different blocks of Jalpaiguri district

Priyabrata Mondal


Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by Below Poverty Line (BPL) indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.


Status of living of Rickshaw Pullers in Malda town of West Bengal

Ms.Vandana Singh


The main objective of the study is to analyze the socio-economic condition of rickshaw pullers in Malda town of West Bengal. The study is based on the primary sources of data collected through field survey 2012-13. Rickshaw pullers are those people who drive the rickshaws on the roads, lanes, bi-lanes, transporting people and commodities. These rickshaw pullers help in linkage process through its well networking system in Malda town. Rickshaw pullers are one of the poorest of the poor in the society. It is the most important source of earning for those people who are not working in the formal sectors. The reasons which forced them to pulled rickshaw are unemployment, poverty, low income, low educational status and large family size. Rickshaw pulling activity is an important occupation of the informal sector, where a million of poor not only serve the transportation needs of the society but also try to meet out their own economic and employment needs.